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I 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



California Academy of Sciences 



FOURTH SERIES 



Vol. VIII 



1918 l^' Ji 






PRINTED FROM THE 
JOHN W. HENDRIE PUBLICATION ENDOWMENT 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Published by the Academy 

1918 



,^'" 



' ll\ I . 



(2 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION 

George C. Edwards, Chairman 

C. E. Grunsky Barton Warren Evermann, Editor 



> 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VIII. 
Plates 1-17. 

PAGE 

Title-page i 

Contents iii 

In Memoriam : Theodore Henry Hittell 1 

By G. W. Dickie, Leverctt Mills Loomis, and Ransom Pratt 
(Published June 17. 1918) 

In Memoriam : Carl Fuchs 27 

By Frank E. Blaisdell, Sr., R. Benzinger, and Otto von Geldern 
(Published June 17, 1918) 

Some Japanese Aphididae 35 

By E, O. Essig and S. I. Kuwana 

(Published July 9, 1918) 

Geology of the Northern End of the Tampico Embayment Area 113 

By E. T. Dumble 
(Published July 19, 1918) 

The Kelp-Flies of North America 157 

By J. M. Aldrich 

(Published September 16, 1918) 

The Garter-Snakes of Western North America 181 

By John Van Denburgh and Joseph R. Slevin 
(Published October 18, 1918) 

New Species of Hemiptera chiefly from California 271 

By Edward P. Van Duzee 
(Published October 18, 1918) 

Report of the President of the Academy for the Year 1918 309 

By C. E. Grunsky 
(Published June 16, 1919) 

Report of the Director of the Museum for the Year 1918 317 

By Barton Warren Evermann 
(Published June 16, 1919) 

Index 353 

November 17, 1920. 




ykLx^,r>^ CD^, £4/ikg2^ 



F>ROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. VIII, No. 1, pp. 1-25, pi. 1 June 17, 1918 



IN MEMORIAM: THEODORE HENRY HITTELL^ 
Born April 5, 1830— Died February 23, 1917 

The California Academy of Sciences was bereaved of one of 
its most illustrious members in the death of Mr. Theodore 
Henry Hittell, February 23, 1917. He would have been 87 
years old in two months. For nearly 30 years he had been an 
uncompromisingly loyal and assiduous member of the Acad- 
emy, and in the future history of this institution, the value of 
his personal attachment and fidelity will grow ever clearer and 
stronger. 

What a span of life was his! He was born April 5. 1830, 
and it is true to fact to say that the world has traveled farther 
since that year than during all its previous recorded history. 
In 1830 the echoes of the battle of Waterloo had hardly died 
away. Napoleon had been dead scarcely nine years. Charles 
X was King of France, but the Fates had decreed that within 
the next few months he was to give way to Louis Philippe. 
William IV this year succeeded George IV as King of England, 
and Victoria's memorable reign was to begin seven years later. 
The United States had but fairly started in the second half 
century of its experiment as a Republic. Andrew Jackson was 
President and the brewing of Nullification in South Carolina 
was raising the shadow of the coming Rebellion over States' 
Rights and Slavery. Railroads were in their infancy. The 

• Read at the regular monthly meeting of the California Academy of Sciences, 
August 15, 1917. 

June 17. 1918 



2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4tu Ser. 

first practical locomotive to run in America was delivered the 
previous year ; and the first American locomotive was made in 
the year 1830. 

Gauged by the tremendous sweep of Science since that 
period, it is fair to say that Science was then just starting on 
its real career. It will probably not be disputed that the age of 
Darwin is a sharp dividing line between ancient and modern 
science. Present methods of research and generalization are 
now so commonplace that the older limited, narrow systems 
seem to belong to the distant dark ages. And yet in the year 
1830, Charles Darwin was an undergraduate in Cambridge 
University, which he had entered in prospect of being a 
clergyman. He was now becoming fascinated with natural 
science, and his history-making voyage in the "Beagle" was to 
begin the following year. 

What was to become Hittell's beloved California, was in 
1830 but an obscure province of Mexico, known as Alta Cali- 
fornia. Its northern boundary was San Francisco Bay. The 
Missions were already withering under the threatened blow of 
Secularization. There were about 30,000 Indians here, who 
were reduced in a few years to 10,000. The white people were 
few and almost wholly Spaniards. The mode of life of the 
Spaniards was, in description, charming. It had an ease, a 
hospitality, a gaiety unequalled. There was but little industry 
beyond the raising of cattle, which were killed in immense 
numbers for their hides which were sold to the occasional sail- 
ing vessels which came to the Coast. It was not until four 
years later that Richard H. Dana was to start on that voyage 
from Boston to California, which called forth Two Years Be- 
fore the Mast, a book which W. Clark Russell has termed "the 
greatest sea-book that was ever written in any language." John 
A. Sutter did not come to California until 1839. San Fran- 
cisco was not. Verba Buena was the bay "which came up to 
Montgomery Street" and was very seldom visited by sailing 
vessels. There was a dilapidated Presidio, and several miles 
distant was the already waning Dolores Mission. The major 
portion of California was a vast desert for the greater part of 
the year. The Sierra Nevada Mountains were but little known, 
and most of the civilization was on or near the Coast. There 
was but one Custom House, which was situated at Monterey. 
The coast was bleak and repelling, though relieved in the spring 



\0L. \'III] IN MEMORIAM: THEODORE HENRY HITTELL 3 

season by a few oases of green. "On the whole coast of Cah- 
fornia, there was not a hglit house, a beacon, or a buoy, and the 
charts were made up from old and disconnected surveys by 
British, Russian and Mexican voyagers." At that time, Cali- 
fornia, except for a short season, was substantially a vast, for- 
bidding, unlovely waste. Its possibilities were not suspected. 
It awaited the magic touch of Anglo Saxon civilization. 

It was on April 5, in this year of 1830, that Theodore H. 
Hittell was born, in Marietta, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. 
As would naturally be expected of one of his strong and versa- 
tile character, his ancestors were sturdy, thrifty and solid 
people. His paternal great grandfather, Peter Hittel, was a 
Protestant, brought up in Rhenish Bavaria, and driven into 
exile by religious persecution. He, with a brother, escaped 
into Plolland, thence coming to America in 1720, and settled 
down in Upper Milford Township, in Lehigh County, Penn- 
sylvania, where he passed the remainder of his life as a farmer. 
He was successful, progressive and energetic, and was a force- 
ful, and useful member of the community. 

Peter's son, Nicholas Hittel. the grandfather of Theodore, 
remained on the farm in Upper Milford Township. He was a 
man of prodigious physical strength, and was an industrious 
and successful farmer, and, it is said, came to be regarded by 
his neighbors as a sage. He married Susanna de Vesqueau, 
or Wesco, as the family name was later called. Her father, 
Francis de Vesqueau, was a French Huguenot, and was driven 
by religious persecution from his home in Alsace, and came by 
way of Holland to Pennsylvania. He and his two sons served 
in the American Revolution, Francis being in the Second 
Battalion, Second Company of Northampton County, Penn- 
sylvania. Nicholas Hittel also served in the American Revo- 
lution in the Northampton County Militia, from 1778 to 1782. 
The family of Nicholas and Susanna consisted of eleven 
children. 

Jacob Hittel was the eighth son and the last child of Nicho- 
las. He was the father of Theodore and was as remarkable a 
man as his son. He was brought up as a farmer's boy, and at 
fifteen years of age, he could speak only in Pennsylvania Ger- 
man. He hungered for an education and began attendance at 
an English school. This was three miles and a half from his 
home, and he walked to school and back every day. whatever 



4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIESCES [Proc. 4th ShK. 

the weather or the condition of the roads. Wlien sixteen years 
old, he walked to Philadelphia, a distance of forty- seven and a 
half miles, to go to a better school. He found a good family 
where he worked each half day for his board, and went to 
school the other half day. He bought an English dictionary, 
which he studied incessantly. In carrying out his steadfast pur- 
pose, he would work and save until he had accumulated a small 
sum of money; then he would devote himself to school until 
the money was exhausted. Thus, by intense industry and un- 
remitting frugality, he acquired a good English education. 
When he was twenty years old, he decided to become a phy- 
sician, and began studying in the ofifice of Drs. Benjamin and 
James Green, at Quakerstown, Pennsylvania. The next year, 
he entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Philadel- 
phia, but at the end of two years his funds were exhausted. 
In those days, it was the custom of medical students, if they so 
desired and felt competent, to enter upon practice before final 
graduation ; and therefore, in his twentj'-third year, the young 
doctor opened an office at Segersville, Lehigh County. This 
same year he married Catherine Shertzer, of Millerstown. Her 
ancestors came from Germany, and settled in Pennsylvania, 
and were successful and influential people. Catherine Shertzer 
became the mother of Theodore Hittell. She lived to be over 
ninety years old. She was an unusual woman, of great per- 
sonal charm and intellectual gifts, and her son always spoke of 
her with a keenness of appreciation that denoted the greatest 
of affection. 

The newly married couple settled down in .Segersville, wliere, 
due to his energy and ability, supplemented by the popularity 
of his accomplished wife, Jacob Hittell gained at once a large 
practice ; so that in less than a year, he had accumulated enough 
money for his final 3'ear in the Philadelphia college. Thus, 
when about twenty-four years old, he received his medical 
diploma from what was then perhaps the most prominent in- 
stitution of its kind in the United States. 

After practicing in several small towns in that region, he re- 
moved, in 1825, to Marietta, in Lancaster County. Remaining 
there five years, he was attracted by the prospects of success 
in Ohio. Indiana and Illinois. These states were then becom- 
ing a magnet, like California in later times. The fertility of soil, 
beauty of scenery and cheapness of public lands were drawing 



Vol, \-in] I\' MEMORIAM: THEODORE IIEXRY HnTELL 5 

many pioneers to this "new West." Therefore, in 1831, Dr. 
Jacob Hittell started for Illinois with his wife and three chil- 
dren ; but because of the health of his youngest child, Theodore, 
he changed the destination, and settled in the famous Miami 
Valley, at Trenton, Ohio. From the beginning he was suc- 
cessful and his increasing practice induced him to remove to 
the more important town of Hamilton, about ten miles dis- 
tant, and a few miles north of Cincinnati. This became the 
permanent family home, and so remained for thirty-four 
years. Here Dr. Jacob Hittell's professional skill, activity in 
business investments and energy in public matters made him a 
very prominent and influential citizen. Realizing his own 
tremendous difficulties in obtaining an education, he took a 
special interest in the public school and the Female Academy 
at Hamilton, and assisted and encouraged his children in ob- 
taining a good education. 

Thus, though born in Pennsylvania, Theodore Hittell's 
conscious life began in Hamilton, Ohio, he being only a year 
old at the time of the family removal. At the earliest possible 
age he was sent to school, because it was an understood rule 
in the family that each child was to be given the best educa- 
tion attainable in the country, and should be obliged, unless 
prevented by sickness, to keep on steadily at work in acquiring 
it. The boy was "father of the man," and his studies were 
characterized by great industry and thoroughness. All his 
life, he made it a rule to carry out to a finish what he iiad 
once begun, and to do everything in the very best manner it 
was possible for him to do it. Concentration on the work in 
hand and carrying it to completeness were among the most 
marked secrets of his success in life. He early became a 
"prize pupil" in algebra, geometry and trigonometry. He was 
handy with tools and very ingenious : he also worked in his 
father's drug store, where he learned considerable about the 
technical parts of the business. At about fifteen years of age 
he was sent to a Catholic school, then to a select school to 
study Latin and Greek. Meantime he had read many books, 
and all of them he "chewed and digested." His boyhood was 
pleasant and happy, and very busy. Though absorbed in his 
work, none turned to amusement and recreation with more 
zest than he. 



6 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Scs. 

In 1845. at the age of fifteen years, he entered Oxford 
College, afterwards known as Miami University. Here he 
had the usual studies of Latin and Greek, and mathematics. 
Characteristically he applied himself devotedly to his books, 
and became especially proficient in mathematics. He joined 
a literary society, but as he had no idea of e\'er becoming a 
public speaker, his activity was confined to written addresses 
on literary subjects. He read indefatigably. especially history 
and biography. He left the college because of the students' 
"snowball rebellion" against the faculty, which rebellion vir- 
tually caused the teinporary ruin of the institution. 

From there he went to Center College, at Danville, Ken- 
tucky, where he stayed during his junior year. He was not 
satisfied with the educational advantages of the institution and 
determined to go to Yale College, where he achieved the un- 
usual distinction of gaining admittance to the senior class of 
Yale from the junior class of a small western college: due 
largely to his proficiency in mathematics and originality in 
working out theorems and problems. In 1849 he graduated 
from Yale College with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

He was now nineteen years of age. In the following year 
he began reading law in the office of Charles Fox, at Cin- 
cinnati, and was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1832. 

He had now earned and won a good education and admis- 
sion to the profession of the law. He was in his twenty-third 
year, in perfect health, with an upright and incorruptible 
character, a widely varied and valuable experience, and a 
trained and industrious mind. For several years he practiced 
law at Hamilton, Ohio, but the life became irksome to him. 
His father, and all of his ancestors, were pioneers, and the 
call of his inheritance was strong in his veins. His brother 
John had come to California in 1849, and Theodore could not 
longer resist the lure of the Golden West. On October 5, 
1855, he came from New York to San Francisco by way of 
the Isthmus of Panama. Thus, in her early history, did Cali- 
fornia feverishly dig her gold, which was her supposed only 
treasure, and send it to the East, to be rewarded by the return 
of far more priceless treasures — resolute, virile citizens. 

Upon reaching San Francisco, Mr. Hittell plunged into the 
life of one of the strangest, busiest and most romantic cities 



Vol. VIII] /.V MEUORIAM: THEODORE HE\RY HITTELL 7 

on the face of the earth. Twenty years before, Yerba Buena 
was not even a village, and had no existence. Nine years be- 
fore. Yerba Buena had started on its career and had two hun- 
dred people. Eight years previousl}\ the name was changed to 
San Francisco. The discovery of gold created a city almost 
overnight, and San Francisco now had a population of 50,000. 
Five great fires had successively destroyed it, but the build- 
ings were now more numerous and enduring than ever. In 
such a seething mass of gold seekers, adventurers and real 
pioneers there were inevitably mingled much lawlessness and 
crime. At least a hundred murders had been committed in 
the previous year without a single execution. It was not safe 
to walk the streets after dark, while by day and night incen- 
diarism and burglary were common. Allied with this indi- 
vidual crime was political corruption. Though the city had 
been partially purged by the Vigilance Committee of 1851, the 
baser elements were again in control. As usual in modern 
times, the good men did not vote and the bad men never 
failed to vote. In his History of California Hittell phrased 
the situation thus : "There probably had never been in the 
United States a deeper depth of political degredation reached 
than in San Francisco in 1854 and 1855." In spite of bad 
government and prevalent crime, nothing was able to prevent 
the town from forging ahead. The golden stream from the 
mines, the dawning realization of the immensely varied agri- 
cultural resources of the State, the first fruits of foreign com- 
merce, revealed to the sagacious eyes of the pioneers the 
splendid destiny of this city and State. These good citizens 
could not yet control the development of the civic and mate- 
rial resources ; but they were dazzled by the vision of the 
future, and hopefully consecrated their souls and energies to 
the building up of the new community. 

When he started for California from the East, Mr. Hit- 
tell intended to go to the mines. As soon as he reached San 
Francisco, and saw its activities and gauged its prospects, he 
was easily convinced by his advisers that this city should be 
the theatre of his future career. Though a thoroughly edu- 
cated lawyer, he seems at first to have avoided the practice 
of his profession, and with his literary tastes and training he 
naturally gravitated towards the newspaper business. The 



8 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4ik Sch. 

financial failures of the year before, and the speculative trans- 
actions of each busy and exciting day. resulted in an im- 
mense amount of litigation. News from the outside world 
was scant, and except for world events of sensational magni- 
tude the people depended for their news on local happenings 
and the developments of the courts. In consequence, the local 
editors of the newspapers were of unique importance, and the 
court news was greatly sought after by the public. Mr. Hit- 
tell began by reporting law news for a German paper pub- 
lished in San Francisco. His previous training now became 
of great value. The accuracy of his reports, the inclusion of 
all of the essential points of a judge's decision, the fidelity to 
facts, soon attracted the attention of the editor of the "Bul- 
letin." This paper was founded by James King of William 
in the latter part of 1855, and by its fearlessness in attacking 
criminals and dishonest men in public life, and by its decency 
and vigor, in a short time reached the distinction of being the 
leading newspaper in the city. Mr. Hittell soon became tlie 
law reporter for the Bulletin and was such at the time of the 
assassination of James King of William and the revival of 
the famous Vigilance Committee in 1856. Though not per- 
sonally a member of the Vigilance Committee, he was their 
staunch supporter, their reliable chronicler. He logically be- 
came the local editor of the Bulletin, which was a position of 
great responsibility and importance during the.se stirring 
times. He prided himself upon the accuracy of his columns, 
and no news was printed that was not true and trustworthy. 

He retained his connection with the Bulletin until 1860. 
The rising tide of disunion had brought California actively 
into the national contest. In the State were many of South- 
ern birth or with Southern sympathies, of great energy, re- 
sources and influence. Mighty and successful efforts were 
made to keep California in the Union. These were the his- 
toric days of Baker. Broderick and Starr King. For a year 
previous and during the first part of Lincoln's campaign. Mr. 
Hittell was the local editor of the San Francisco Times. He 
was very patriotic in sentiment, an ardent Union man, and 
gave valiant service for the cause of human liberty. 

During this period, on June 12. 1858. he married Mis? 
Elise Christine Wiehe. She was the daughter of Dr. Car)' 



Vol. Mil] /.V MEMORIAM: THEODORE HENRY HITTELL 9 

Wiehe, of Goedens, in the northeast corner of Germany. Dr. 
Wiehe was chief surgeon on the staff of Field Marshal 
Bliicher, and was present at the battle of Waterloo. The 
daughter left Germany on account of the events of 1848, and 
came to California on a sailing vessel by way of Cape Horn. 
It is said that siie trimmed and introduced the first Christ- 
mas tree in San Francisco. After her marriage, she took 
much interest in Science, and with Mrs. Brandegee and Miss 
Rita Haggan was among the first women members of the 
California Academy of Sciences. She was one of the found- 
ers of the San Francisco Foundling Asylum. She also 
founded the Silk Culture Society of California. She actively 
urged the establishment of manual training schools. Slie was 
one of the pioneers in advocating the organizing of a museum 
in San Francisco. She was interested in the preservation of 
the Indian picture writings found in California, and wrote 
an article on the subject for "Science" magazine. Her last 
published article was on Pasteur, in "Science." She died 
in 1900. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hittell had four children, of whom three 
are now living : Catherine Hermanna, Charles Jacob and 
Franklin Theodore. They were all born at the old home at 
726 Folsom street, in this city. 

It was in a great measure due to the solicitations of his 
wife that Mr. Hittell decided to re-enter the practice of the 
law. In 1861 he joined the San Francisco bar, and in 1862 
he formed a partnership with Elisha Cook that lasted for 
five years. He devoted himself to civil law, and only once in 
his legal career tried a criminal case. Upon one occasion he 
was asked by John B. Felton to prepare a brief, and the doc- 
ument was so clear and cogent that Mr. Felton immediately 
offered him a partnership, which was promptly accepted. 
This partnership lasted until Mr. Felton's death in 1877. 

John B. Felton was one of the ablest lawyers in the history 
of the State. He was a type of that period, one might say 
almost a product of his day and of San Francisco in the six- 
ties. He collected vast amounts in fees, but spent his income 
with princely lavishness. He had astonishing ingenuity in 
applying the principles of law, and great quickness and exact- 
ness of observation. His brilliancy at the bar, prodigality of 



IQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Spi. 

living, versatility as a public speaker, remarkable wit and ex- 
cessive generosity are among the traditions of this city and 
State. But with all this he was not a man of extraordinary 
industry in detail ; therefore to be associated with a man of 
the dogged diligence and legal resource and exactness of Mr. 
Hittell W'HS the opportunity of a lifetime. Tn turn, to have 
such a legal associate as Mr. Felton was the opportunity of 
a lifetime for Mr. Hittell. Each supplemented and was in- 
valuable to the other. Mr. Hittell wrote the briefs and 
mainly conducted the office business. He was a model of 
careful industry, and of powerful and logical statement. 
While he personally was not largely in the public eye during 
this period, he gained a reputation as a lawyer of great reli- 
ability and singular skill. 

Mr. Hittell was associated with a number of cases famous 
in the legal history of California. Conspicuous among these 
were the Lick Trust case, the Montgomery avenue case, the 
Dupont street case, the case involving the title to the lands 
near the ocean beach of San Francisco, and the famous San 
Pablo land case. In the ocean beach case he settled the title 
to the lands out among the sand dunes, and by a compromise 
between the claimants and the city of San Francisco, secured 
a deed for one thousand acres of land to the city which is 
now comprised in Golden Gate Park. The great San Pablo 
land case was technically known as Emeric against Alvarado. 
It began in 1868, and after twenty-seven years of dogged, 
persistent fighting, he won his case in 1895. The land titles 
involved were in Contra Costa county, especially in and about 
Richmond, and this noted case forever settled the earlier titles 
to every piece of property in the city of Richmond. This case 
gave him a position as a distinguished authority in the inex- 
tricably complicated question of land titles in California. Due 
to the earlier ambiguous Spanish land grants, followed by the 
equally ambiguous Mexican land grants in California, the 
titles were universally tangled, almost beyond settlement ; 
and Mr. Hittell's work went greatly beyond the adjustment 
of his particular litigation. The w'inning of this suit brought 
him much legal fame, for it alone was enough to establish his 
position as an eminent lawyer. His other noted lawsuits evi- 
denced the same shrewdness and ingenuity and unflagging 
pertinacity. 



■\"C!L. \III] /.V MEM'oRIAM: THEODORE HENRY HIT TELL [[ 

\\"hen the Constitution of California was adopted in 1879, 
Mr. Hittell became greatly interested in State politics. He 
was elected as State Senator from San Francisco and served 
during 1880-82. The legislature was flooded by bills of all 
kinds evoked by the spirit of the sand-lot agitation, and by 
the new Constitution. Because of his sane and balanced 
character, aided by his wide legal attainments, he was a mov- 
ing force in the Senate, and performed notable and valuable 
service for his State. Many an ill-considered or iniquitous 
piece of legislation went into oblivion through his shrewd 
and sagacious opposition. He re-drafted the entire Code of 
Civil Procedure to conform to the new Constitution, and his 
work was adopted in preference to that presented by the reg- 
ularly appointed commissioners. He was always a tremen- 
dous worker, and a high authority says of him that "the 
greater part of the statutes of 1880 was his work." 

After the close of his Senatorial career, he again devoted 
himself to the practice of law. Even as late as 1906, he acted 
as attorney for his old clients. 

His legal practice brought him much honor and a large 
fortune. The last twenty years of his life were devoted 
mainly to his writing. The astonishing vigor of his mind 
and body lasted to the end. By systematic temperance in liv- 
ing he possessed perfect health through his whole life. His 
principal exercise was walking. He often came down town 
from his home on Turk street above Van Ness avenue, but 
rarely took a street car. As late as his eighty-seventh year 
he occasionally walked from his home to the Clifif House, a 
distance of six and a half miles. He had no final illness. 
Five days before his death, he took to his bed because of 
physical weakness ; and the evening before his death, with a 
mind as clear as ever, he told his physician that he was feel- 
ing well. He passed away peacefully and without pain. 

"Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams." 

Though the practice of law was his chosen profession, the 
writing of books was his chief love. From the amount pro- 
duced, one might think that he lived always with a pen in his 
hand. Of law books alone, he was a voluminous author, and 



12 CALIFORMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seh. 

his written contributions to law literature were substantial 
and of high value. As a matter of record, his law books are 
given herewith : 

The Ck'il Practice Act of the State of California was pub- 
lished in 1863; later edition, 1868. 

In 1865, The Genera! Lazes of California, two volumes: a 
fourth edition, two volumes in one, in 1872. This work had 
a particularly wide reputation, one authority saying that "it 
was the most comprehensive and valuable law book ever pub- 
lished in California." 

In 1876, The Codes and Statutes of the State of Califor- 
nia, two \olumes in one. A supplement, in one \olume. was 
published in 1880. 

He was also the author of Reports of Cases Determined in 
the Supreme Court of the State of Ne^'ada. six: volumes, 
1868-74. 

.At this late date, and to the lay mind, the enumeration of 
the dry titles of old law books furnishes small indication of 
his real achievement. Such works require minute exactness, 
conciseness, clearness and a highly trained intellect. These 
qualities Mr. Hittell brought to bear in his legal writing. 
His books became indispensable parts of every attorney's of- 
fice. He was regarded as a trustworthy authority in certain 
branches of civil law, and he was frequently quoted in our 
courts and even in the Supreme Court of the United States. 

Though a prolific author of law books, Mr. Hittell's dear- 
est occupation was writing books of general literature, but 
principally of history. His legal activities accounted for a 
life filled with strenuous labor; but his tireless pen was in- 
cessantly busy, and brought forth fruits in other fields, suf- 
ficient for the career of most hard working men. 

His first published book was The jidfeutnres of lames 
Capen Adams, printed in 1860. While local editor of the 
Bulletin, he was one day attracted by an animal show which 
was holding in a basement on Clay, near Liedesdorff street. 
Among the live animals were three grizzly bears, named Sam- 
son. Ben Franklin and Lady Washington. Samson was of 
enormous size and was .said to weigh fifteen hundred pounds. 
He was captured when grown, and. though not wild, was un- 
tamed, and kept in a cage. The other two grizzlies were 



Vol. VIII] /V MEMORIAM: THEODORE HENRY HITTELL 13 

captured when cubs and had been tamed by the owner. Nfr. 
Hittell noticed that the fur was worn off the backs of the 
tame bears and was amazed to learn that they had been used 
in the mountains as pack animals and that the owner rode 
them when necessary. It did not take Mr. Hittell long to 
become very well acquainted with the owner, whose name 
was James Capen Adams, a hunter who had spent years in 
the Sierra Nevada mountains. Adams had passed through 
such curious and fascinating e.Kperiences that Mr. Hittell de- 
termined to write a book about such an unusual bear hunter. 
In consequence, for a year and a half, by tacit arrangement, 
the author visited the animal show each afternoon after the 
newspaper went to press, and listened to the hunter's tale. 
These conversations he embodied in one of the best bear 
books ever written. It was published in San Francisco and 
also in Boston in 1860, but due to the Civil War it was not 
widely distributed. The book contained 370 pages, was illus- 
trated by a number of wood cuts by Charles Nahl and had a 
brown cloth cover. 

And now comes an odd and interesting sequel. Half a 
century later, in 1909, Charles Scribner's Sons published a 
notable book called The Grizzly Bear, by William H. Wright. 
Its author was born in New Hampshire. In his preface he 
makes the following remarkable statement : 

"I have often seen in the newspapers and magazines 
replies of various persons of note to the question, 'What 
book has e.xerted the greatest influence on your life?' 
Most of these answers I notice are rather hazy, but if I 
had ever been asked to reply to this question, I should 
have been able to answer without any hesitation. And 
my answer would have been, 'The Adventures of James 
Capen Adams, Grizzly Bear Hunter of California.' " 

As a result of Wright's book, Scribner's got into communi- 
cation with Mr. Hittell. and in 1911, they issued a second 
edition of the James Capen Adams book, exactly in the original 
form, as to type, illustrations and old brown cloth cover, with 
an introduction and postscript added by the author. 

In 1872 he published a criticism of Goethe's Fanst. It con- 
tained forty-six pages and was bound in paper covers. It was 



J4 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIESCES [Proc. 4th Se«. 

a serious attempt to interpret tlie great poem which has been a 
puzzle to leading critics for over a century. The review dis- 
played much acumen. It was written with more than ordi- 
nary care, and furnishes a fascinating introduction to the 
study of one of the greatest of literary works. 

Stephen J- Field, after an eminently successful legal career 
in California, became Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. Around his picturesque experiences clustered 
many of the exciting episodes in the history of the State. The 
Sharon will case, involving Sarah Althea Hill and former 
Chief Justice Terry, culminated in the shooting of Judge 
Terry by U. S. Marshal Neagle, at Lathrop. Cal.. while 
Neagle was acting as guard over Judge Field under instruc- 
tions from the United States Department of Justice. This 
tragic event caused a great sensation throughout the United 
States, while California was for the time in a turmoil of dis- 
cussion over the event and the causes that led up to it. Judge 
Field was constantly importuned by his friends to write the 
story of his dramatic life, and at length he dictated his rem- 
iniscences to Mr. Hittell. This was in 1877. Judge Field 
decided to issue the book privately, for distribution to his 
friends only. In 1893 a second edition was printed for pri- 
vate distribution, but the book was never officially published. 
It is not generally known that Mr. Hittell wrote these remi- 
niscences, although it could easily be inferred by a careful 
reader; because on page 108. edition 1893. occurs the follow- 
ing sentence : "Here my narrative of 'Personal Experiences' 
must for the present end. I could have given you, Mr. Hit- 
tell, more interesting matter." The volume is entitled Pcr- 
soiial Reminiscences in California, and besides the dictated 
portions and an article from the Sacramento Union on the 
career of Judge Field, includes an elaliorate statement of the 
Sharon litigation and the sensational events that focused in 
the death of Judge Terry, written by George C. Gorham, a 
personal friend of Judge Field, and for many years Secretary 
of the United States Senate. It is a book of absorbing in- 
terest and is now very rare. 

It was during his law partnership with Mr. Felton. and in 
the most exacting period of his legal career, in 1871, that 
Mr. Hittell began the stupendous work of writing his History 



Vol. Vni] 7.V MEMORTAM : THEODORE HENRY HITTELL 15 

uf California. His experiences of six years as a San Fran- 
cisco editor and his delving into historical records in connec- 
tion with his law work, had revealed to him the vvealtli of 
material for an amazing story. It was practically a virgin 
field. Though up to that time there had been a number of 
books on certain picturesque phases of San Francisco and 
California, there had not yet appeared an orderly, continuous 
and comprehensive record of the great drama of the discov- 
ery, settlement and development of this State. His literary 
imagination leaped at the visioned opportunity. 

The principal material for the early history of the State 
was buried in that immense and practically undigested mass 
of documents known as the "Archives of California." These 
were in manuscript, mostly in Spanish, a very few in English, 
German and Russian. Soon after California was admitted as 
a State, the vital value of these early docutnents was seen, 
both in reference to the complex land titles and also as his- 
torical records. They consisted of letters, proclamations, 
Mexican and Spanish official orders and various memoranda. 
At length, by order of the United States Government, they 
were collected and bound. Though there was an attempt to 
segregate them into convenient classifications, it was a diffi- 
cult if not an impossible task. In consequence, documents 
germane to a given subject would be found in widely scat- 
tered volumes, which made the gathering of material much 
more complicated and vexatious. 

These "Archives of California" comprised nearly three 
hundred bound volumes of about 800 pages each and con- 
tained about 250,000 written pages. They were in the office 
of the U. S. Surveyor General in the U. S. Treasury Build- 
ing, on Commercial street. In the great fire of 1906 the 
larger portion was burned, but many of the documents can 
possibly be restored due to the Spanish system of preserva- 
tion. Some certified copies are now in Mexico or Spain, and 
some may be found in the British Museum and various li- 
braries in this country. 

For historical purposes the Arciiives were absolutely indis- 
pensable, and in them Mr. Hittell found a great part of the 
material for the early period. As a rule, the chirography was 
good, though in many instances the ink had faded. Since 



If, CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sea. 

coming to California, Mr. Hittell had learned more or less 
Spanish and he now cnltixated a further acquaintance with 
the language until he could read it with considerable ease. 
For several years he almost tlaily visited the office of the Sur- 
veyor General, and carefully copied the necessary original 
documents. At his home now are thousands of pages of 
these copies, which should prove to be of much value to the 
future student of history. 

After fourteen years of gigantic toil, in 1885 he published 
the first two volumes: and twelve years later, in 1897, the last 
two volumes. At that period there were few stenographers — 
scarcely any outside of the courts — and no typewriting ma- 
chines. Every word was written by himself in long hand. 
He had no clerk, assistant or amanuensis. His voluminous 
notes were in Spanish, German and French, as well as 
English. 

The work was hailed with high acclamations by all classes. 
Jt is a monument to the author's painstaking genius, and con- 
sidering the period in which it was written, it is a master 
work. It abounds in noble passages of ofttimes eloquent 
English. It is detailed, and yet in proper perspective. The 
early portion was drawn directly from original, official but 
unpublished sources. The later portion was even more valu- 
able and interesting, for the author was a keen, trained ob- 
server of the events written about, and often a participator in 
them. And yet his determination to be impartial was so 
strong that the reader would have difficulty in believing that 
the author was an eye-witness and often an actor in the 
scenes described. Inevitably, where current happenings are 
told, people have diverging opinions. Many persons may 
have differed from his conclusions, but there were few to 
deny that the work was a dignified, accurate account of the 
State from its earliest beginnings, and a weighty and valu- 
able contribution to history. It is a veritable mine of fact and 
reference. Since then, and especially of late years, has arisen 
the school of scientific historians, and much attention is at 
present being given to a minute study of California history, 
especially from the archives in Spain and Mexico ; and there- 
fore the writing of Pacific Coast history is now on a firm and 
satisfactorv basis. When Mr. Hittell wrote, the knowledge 



Vol. \IIIJ /.V MEMORIAM: THEODORE HENRY HITTEU. 17 

of California was fragmentary and untrustworthy. He dock- 
eted the facts, set them fortli in an intelh'gihle and vastly in- 
teresting manner, and, upon a large canvas, is indubitahly 
the pioneer of the true historians of his beloved State. 

At the time of the San Francisco fire in 1906 the plates of 
the history were in Oakland and thus escaped destruction. 
Shortly afterwards they were removed to Mountain View, 
near Palo Alto, where they met their fate in a fire. The 
books are fast becoming rare. 

As a historian and as a contemporary, Mr. Hittell was 
always an admirer of George Bancroft, whose History of the 
United States was for years the leading authority, and who 
as Secretary of the Navy under President Polk, had an active 
if not a predominant official part in the acquisition of Califor- 
nia by the United States. It was a labor of love and grati- 
tude to write a memorial address of George Bancroft and His 
Services to California, which was delivered May 12, 1891, 
before the California Historical Society. 

In 1898 was published Book I of a Brief History of Cali- 
fornia by Mr. Hittell, with an introduction by Professor 
Richard D. Faulkner, principal of the Franklin Grammar 
School of San Francisco. It contained sixty-eight printed 
pages and was devoted to the Discovery and Early Voyages. 
From Professor Faulkner's introduction, the plan was evi- 
dently to publish a complete history of the State, as a school 
text book, in twelve small volumes, which later would be pub- 
lished in a single volume. For reasons not known, the plan 
was not prosecuted further than the first volume. The style 
of this little book is charming as well as simple and instruc- 
tive, and it is a matter of regret that the series was not con- 
tinued to completion. 

Mr. Hittell wrote a comprehensive, detailed history of the 
Academy, styled a Historic Account of the California Acad- 
emy of Sciences, 1853 — 1903. As the dates indicate, the in- 
tention was to close with the proceedings of the semi-centen- 
nial meeting of May 18, 1903. It was written up to that 
time, and was in the hands of the Academy authorities for 
publication, and about a fourth part of it was in type at the 
time of the great fire, April 18, 19 and 20, 1906. The printed 
pages, the type of which had been set up. and some twenty 



18 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Scr. 

pages of tlie manuscript, were consumed. The remainder of 
the manuscript was in the Academy building on Market street 
and was fortunately saved and removed to a place of safety. 
With this partial manuscript and the proofs already in hand, 
the complete history was restored. The beginning of the re- 
construction of the Academy, immediately following the fire, 
made it apparent that the closing period of the epoch was not 
at the semi-centennial year of 1903, but more appropriately 
rather the year 1906. The author, therefore, brought it down to 
the end of 1906. Since that time it has not been possible to print 
the history, and it is now awaiting a time when the money 
shall be available for its publication. The manuscript con- 
tains 374 pages. Much of it is in Mr. Hittell's best style. 
His unusual skill in assembling and digesting details, his 
laborious patience in studying the original sources, his experi- 
ence as a historian on a larger scale, gave him especial quali- 
fications for the task. Some of the records of the Academy 
were destroyed in the great fire ; others were to be found in 
different documents and written books ; here all are combined 
in a fascinating story accurately and methodically set forth. 
Here will be found the amazingly romantic tale of James 
Lick's wonderful benefactions. Because of Mr. Hittell's per- 
sonal acquaintance with the men who made the Academy's 
history, he could write with authority. No one else can, or ever 
will, tell the story so well and so reliably. The Academy, as 
a historic institution, deserves that such an authentic record 
should be published ; and it is to be hoped that the near future 
will bring out this history in printed form. 

In his miscellaneous reading, Mr. Hittell became interested 
in Hawaii, and it was not long before his indefatigable pen 
began a History of the Hmvaiiaii Islands. He had never been 
in those enchanted isles, and at his age he shrank from un- 
dertaking an ocean voyage. But he collected practically all 
the literature extant upon the subject, and, beginning in about 
1905, he labored upon this work for seven years. The result 
is embodied in 1563 pages of closely written manuscript, with 
a Table of Contents of 172 pages. The work has not been 
published. It is the most comprehensive history of these 
islands which has vet been written. 



\oi. VIII] l\ MEMORIAM: THEODORE HEXKV HITTELL 19 

He next wrote a history of the Miami Valley, in Ohio. 
This was the home of liis boyhood, and the pioneer period 
there and the thrilling tales of the Indians had always held 
a great fascination for him. The manuscript is closely writ- 
ten, and comprises 112 pages. The copy, or second draft, was 
finished January 18, 1915. 

At the time Mr. Hittell arrived in San Francisco in 1855, 
and for the next five years, much space was occupied in the 
California newspapers by accounts of the sensational doings 
of William Walker, the filibuster. This city was the home of 
Walker and the starting place of his expeditions to Nica- 
ragua. In his History of California, the author gave many 
pages to Walker, and in his late life he wrote a Historical 
Account of Walker the Filihiistcr. It was finished in 1915. 
As it has not been published, it is in manuscript form only, 
and comprises 284 pages, besides 33 pages of Table of Con- 
tents, and 19 pages of Index. It is an accurate but vivid 
account of one of the most noted and eventful adventurers 
since the days of Captain Kidd. 

When he was 85 years old, Mr. Hittell began writing his 
autobiography. He persevered at this task to the end of his 
life. As was natural for one of his great age, his recollec- 
tions dwelt with especial fondness upon the days of his youth 
and young manhood. The Reniiuisccnces were written for 
his immediate family, and therefore he took especial pains to 
revive the memory of his ancestors in America, both on his 
father's and his mother's side. The verification of dates and 
the confirmation of family traditions consumed much time ; 
and in consequence the work proceeded slowly. According 
to his universal custom, he wrote everything himself in long 
hand ; his first draft was carefully copied, corrected and in- 
dexed ; so that his entire manuscript was written twice. His 
methodical manner of working enabled him to cover much 
ground, so that by the end of 1916 he had produced in cor- 
rected form 270 legal cap pages of writing. Considerably 
more had been written as a first draft. His last entry was 
dated nineteen days before his death. Nevertheless, he had 
progressed no further than the end of his college education. 
It is an irreplaceable loss that he did not write of his life in 
California, where his real career was lived. He saw so much 



20 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 

that was dramatic, he was a part of so much history, that he 
could have produced a picture of incomparable value and in- 
terest. As far as it was written, the Reminiscences contain 
many delig-htful passages, particularly those descriptive of the 
home life in Ohio, three-quarters of a century ago, a period 
now forever past. 

In addition to papers delivered before the Academy of Sci- 
ences, which will be mentioned later. Mr. Hittell published or 
delivered the following, which are given here as a matter of 
record : 

Theodore D. Jitdah. The Engineer of the Central Pacific 
Railroad. 30 pp. Delivered at Stanford University. Febru- 
ary 21, 1896. 

The Discovery of Humboldt Bay. 40 pp. Read before the 
Society of California Pioneers. April 9, 1889. 

Hozv Yoscniite Was Discovered. 35 pp. Read before the 
Society of California Pioneers, January 8, 1890. 

The Place in History of the California Pioneers. 8 type- 
written pp. 

The Big Bonanza. Published in "Land of Sunshine," Sep- 
tember and October, 1899. 

Geographical Peculiarities of California. Published in 
"Land of Sunshine." 

Observations on the Nezv Constitution. Published in 
"Overland Monthly," January, 1883. 

Oh the Tip Top of the United States. Publislied in "Sun- 
set Magazine," February, 1903. This was a description of 
his climbing to the summit of Mount Whitney, June 23, 
1902, when he was over seventy-two years old. 

Considering the career and the character of James Lick, 
his benefactions were an unparalleled deed of philanthropy. 
With the disposition of Lick's property, Mr. Hittell was 
closely associated. His partner, Mr. Felton. and himself, 
were Lick's attorneys through the long period of legal com- 
plications, and Mr. Hittell became not only Lick's reliable 
legal counsel but his trusted personal adviser. When Lick 
was preparing his Trust Deed which disposed <<f all of his vast 
property, Mr. Hittell suggested that he make the California 
Academy of Sciences and the Society of California Pioneers 
his residuary legatees. Mr. Lick thought the proceeding un- 



Vol.. VIII] IN MEMORIAM: THEODORE HENRY HITTELL 21 

necessary, remarking that he was now giving away all of his 
property, and there was nothing left. Mr. Hittell observed 
that it usually required considerable time to settle up an es- 
tate, and that there might be something left over after all 
the specific gifts were paid. James Lick followed this advice, 
and his Trust Deed, after naming the specific gifts, divided the 
residue into equal proportion between the California Academy 
of Sciences and the Society of California Pioneers. On Sep- 
tember 28, 1875. the Academy accepted the Lick deed, and 
October 2, 1876, the death of James Lick was announced. 
As predicted, when the estate was settled, there was a residue, 
which, owing to the tremendous rise in the value of real es- 
tate and the careful management of the trustees, amounted to 
over $1,100,000, of which half was received by the Academy. 
This institution is thus indebted to Mr. Hittell for his influ- 
ence and his suggestion for a vast fortune, which made pos- 
sible many years of active and efficient service in the cause 
of Science. 

In September, 1906, a special committee was appointed by 
the Council of the Academy to represent the Academy at the 
anniversary exercises of the California School of Mechanical 
Arts, to take steps for the future proper observance of Sep- 
tember 21st as the day on which James Lick executed his do- 
nation. At a meeting held October 1, 1906, Mr. Hittell, rep- 
resenting the committee, presented and read a report. It in- 
cluded such an eloquent recognition of Mr. Lick's philan- 
thropy that it seems appropriate here to quote the following 
paragraph : 

"The more his [Mr. Lick's] bequests are studied and 
the greater the insight gained of the objects and pur- 
poses contemplated by him, the more is the mind im- 
pressed with the real greatness of the man. Of all the 
many cases in which men have devoted great wealth to 
public purposes, there was not one, considering all the 
circumstances, that could compare in the genuine spirit 
of benevolence and beneficence and the wisdom of its dis- 
tribution with that of this grand old Californian. In 
this last act of his long and laborious life, in which he 
gave the results of his life's toil, and, as it were, his life 



22 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se«. 

itself for the benefit of his fellow man, he seemed to 
have risen above the frailties of human nature and stood 
forth as a model for respect and admiration." 

The Academy of Sciences is indebted to Mr. Hittell for an- 
other important benefit, which grew out of a voluntary service 
he was faithfully performing. It has been noted that at the 
time of the great fire of 1906 his History of the Academy had 
been completed to the year 1903. Although the greater part 
of the books of record of the Academy were saved on that 
historical morning, those of the Board of Trustees were de- 
stroyed. These contained, among other things, the accounts 
of expenditure for the construction of the building on Market 
street. The only available if not the sole evidence of these 
accounts was the copies which had been taken for the object 
of writing the Academy history; and they were used for this 
purpose in the negotiations and settlements with the insurance 
companies, thus proving of great value. 

It was on September 5, 1887, that Mr. Hittell became a 
member of the California Academy of Sciences. On Janu- 
ary 5, 1903, he became a life member. He identified himself 
with its interests and seldom missed either a regular or 
special meeting when it was in his power to attend. In ad- 
dition to the regularity of his attendance, he wrote and pre- 
sented the following papers : 

Sutro's Nczv Water Poiver. 4 pp. Read October 15, 1888. 

Memorial on the Death of Professor John LeCoute. 4 pp. 
Read June 1. 1891. 

The Acorn and the Oak. 19 pp. Read February 4, 1889. 

Change of Lcz'el in the San Francisco Peninsula. 5 pp. 
Read December 16, 1888. 

Oysters in San Francisco Bay. 15 pp. Read November 6, 
1893. 

Remarks on the Alameda Shell-Mound and Indian Medi- 
cine Tube. 14 pp. Read October 15, 1894. 

The Last of the Yosemites. 34 pp. Read April 9, 1890. 

Pioneers in Death Valley. 25 pp. Read November 3, 
1902. 

Historic Sketch of the California Academy of Sciences. 
Read at the Semi-Centennial Anniversary, May 18, 1903. 



Vol. \in] IM MEMORI.tM: THEODORE HE\'RY HITTELL 23 

Dr. George CItisinore. 11 typewritten pages. Dated March 
5, 1906. 

Memorial in Reineinbraiicc of General Lucius Hanvood 
Foote. 6 typewritten pages. Dated July 7, 1913. 

He also wrote memorials on Dr. H. W. Harkness and Mr. 
William Alvnrd, which were printed hy the Academy. 

He was elected a member of the board of trustees of the 
Academy on January 4, 1909, and served until his resigna- 
tion on January 18, 1915. Thus, from the time he was 
nearly seventy-nine years of age until he was nearly eighty- 
five, he was active as a trustee, and the records will show that 
in that entire period of service he attended every meeting of 
the board but one, or possibly two. 

In the Academy campaign of 1904 for the State Constitu- 
tional Amendment exempting the Academy from taxation, he 
took an active part. To every newspaper in California that 
opposed the amendment he wrote letters of argument and ex- 
planation, and indubitably his cogent statements had a sen- 
sible effect upon tlie attitude of the press. 

When the time came for pressing the plan to move the 
Academy of Sciences to Golden Gate Park, it vv'as Mr. Hit- 
tell who drew up the amendment to the city charter, which 
was unanimously accepted in toto by the Board of Super- 
visors, and passed by a very large majority of the vote of the 
people in 1910. 

And thus, in all ways, he gave evidence of his acute, per- 
sonal interest in the Academy. He was as loyal to this in- 
stitution as a true patriot is to the country of his allegiance. 

Besides being a life member of the Academy, he was an 
honorary member of the Society of California Pioneers. He 
belonged to no other organizations. 

Theodore Hittell was a man of much versatility of talent. 
Among the principal assets to which he owed his various 
achievements were perfect health and the abilitv for long- 
sustained, arduous work. He was rarely if ever ill during 
his long life. He carried on for extended periods the equiva- 
lent of the work of two men, as this record of his life has 
demonstrated. Though it is probable that the definition of 
genius as being a capacity for taking infinite pains will not 
explain the astounding manifestations of real genius, it is 



24 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

unquestionably true that this ability can lift talent above its 
normal level and make it super-efficient in its results. Mr. 
Hittell pos.sessed great patience, and an immense capacity for 
taking pains. Possibly these were the dominant notes in his 
character. 

It was this genius for details that made him a painter of 
considerable skill. His early love of drawing was born at 
his mother's knee. Later he attracted a good deal of local 
attention for his pen and ink drawings. He soon flowered 
into oil painting, which became one of the principal amuse- 
ments of his early life. In those days painting in oil was 
complicated by the necessity of grinding his own colors ; but 
he became almost infatuated with oil painting, and some of 
his productions are still in existence. At Yale College he 
gained a reputation as a cartoonist and his sketches were well 
known and very popular. 

Like most writers, he also wrote poetry. In his earlier life 
he translated a number of poems from the German. In the 
issue of September, 1903, Sunset Magazine published his 
poem entitled A Blackfoot Burial. The same magazine, in 
June-July, 1906, printed his Phoenix Rcdivivus, written to 
celebrate the arising of San Francisco after the fire and 
earthquake of that year. In April, 1907, the same magazine 
printed his poem, Reconstruction, devoted to the same subject. 

He was familiar with a number of modern languages, and 
could read with ease German, Spanish, French, and also to 
some extent Italian and Portuguese. He never attempted to 
speak in any foreign language but Gemian. 

Mr. Hittell was a true Democrat of the sturdy and out- 
spoken American type. When in college he did not join a 
Greek letter society because he thought these organizations 
were undemocratic. His hatred of despotism was never hid- 
den under a bushel, but constantly burst forth in his writings 
and conversation. 

He was a man of unswerving integrity of character, verac- 
ity of speech and sense of justice. He was tenacious, some- 
times obstinate, in his attachment to his convictions ; and 
where a question of right was concerned, he was immovable. 
When he was a young student he fell under the spell of 
Thomas Carlvle. Onlv a few weeks before his death he said 



Vol. \III] /.V ME.UORIAM: THEODORE HEXRY HITTELL 25 

to the writer of these lines: "Wliatcver I may have of in- 
tegrity of character, I owe to Carlyle. I became acquainted 
with liis writings early in my life, and he has had the great- 
est influence over me of any man who ever wrote." Mr. Hit- 
tell was also sensibly molded by Carlyle's gospel of work ; 
few men ever carried out so conscientiously the doctrine of 
unremitting, strenuous toil. Thus may we account for 
achievements in a single lifetime seldom exceeded in extent 
and excellence combined. He enjoyed his life to the full, and 
he had the proud consciousness of success in almost every- 
thing he undertook. 

In his latest years, outside of his interest in the Academy, 
he was a spectator rather than a participant in public activi- 
ties. In consequence, his opinions were not modified through 
actual friction with events, and he did not, from the stand- 
point of the present, keep up with the startling changes in 
modern methods and beliefs. To the unthinking or unim- 
aginative, he was of the old school, of a past era, of ancient 
viewpoints. So, too, may we all, as the years draw to the 
end. be regarded by the rising generation as old-fashioned in 
principle and as unprogressive ; and so, too, may we, in return, 
look upon the latest generation as too radical, unchristian, or 
even immoral. It is the way of all time. The new crowds 
out the old, and is in turn crowded out by the still newer. 
Each may be right in the light of his own time: for one day 
difYereth from another in glory and in the shadows which it 
casts. 

G. VV. Dickie, 
Lf.verett Mills Loomis. 
Ran.som Pr.\tt, 

Conuiiittcc. 




CARL FUCHS 



PROCEEDINGS 

or THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. VIII, No. 2, pp. 27-34, pi. 2 June 17. 1918 



II 

INMEMORIAM: CARL FUCHS 
Born November 24, 1839— Died June 13, 1914 



Carl Fuchs, well known as an entomologist, founder of the 
Brooklyn Entomological Society and the Pacific Coast Ento- 
mological Society, died on June 11, 1914, at his home in Ala- 
meda, California, at the good age of 74 years, 6 months and 
17 days. He was a native of Hanan. Frankfurt-am-Main, 
Germany, where he was born on November 24. 1839. His 
remains were cremated in Oakland, California, at 2:30 p. m., 
June 13, 1914. 

Mr. Fuchs attended grammar school in his native town 
until his fourteenth year, and from his very boyhood he had 
a great lo\e for, and interest in, beetles and butterflies. 

In 1853 he started to learn the trade of engraver and 
his apprenticeship lasted six years, still following in his spare 
time his hobby for insects. 

It was in 1859 that he went as a first-class worker in his 
profession to Paris, France, where he remained for five years, 
and then he went to Madrid, Spain, for another year. 

The year 1865 found him in the United States, and after 
one year with Tiffany's in New York, he opened his own busi- 
ness in the same city with two assistants and soon enjoyed 
a great reputation as an engraver and chaser. His work was 
always of the highest order. 

June 17. 1918 



28 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Psoc. 4ih Stii. 

He inarried Miss Marie Debold of New York City in 
1867. One daughter was born to tliein. but she died at the 
age of nine years. 

In 1872 Mr. Fuchs founded the Brooklyn Entomological 
Society with Professor Schaupp and others, and in the early 
years of that society he was connected with the publication of 
the first volume of a Bulletin that was important and of the 
greatest value to the society. From Mr. Fuchs's own account, 
it was evident that the pathway of the Bulletin was not of the 
easiest. But Mr. Leng states that it was the man's enthu- 
siasm and business capacity that supplied much of its suc- 
cessful inception and vigorous growth, for they who worked 
together in that undertaking were "pushed forward by the 
buoyant nature of Mr. Fuchs." 

In 1875 ]\Ir. Fuchs returned to Germany for a visit to 
Frankfurt-am-Main, where he remained one year. He took 
his collection with him and made many friends among the 
entomologists. There he made the acquaintance of Professor 
Dr. von Hyden and of Professors Geminger and Harold, con- 
nected with the Lenkenburg Museum in Vienna. Another 
year he spent in Paris, France, where he was a daily visitor 
of Mr. Salle's and many collectors of fame, who enjoyed see- 
ing a collection made in the United States of America. Mr. 
Fuchs was very liberal in distributing his duplicates and 
always ready to exchange. 

In 1876 he first became acquainted with Mr. Charles Leng, 
who states that at that time Mr. Fuchs was in his prime, 
massive in figure, heavily bearded, strong and alert, German 
in his speech by preference, and well known locally for his 
large collection of Coleoptera, especially in the families Scara- 
bjeidse and Lucanidse. 

Mr. Fuchs already had a beautiful collection, but he was 
\-ery an.xious to enlarge it, and was looking for new hunting- 
grounds; so, in 1884, he made up his mind to go to Java. 

He sold his home and business, but an earthquake occurring 
in Java at that time caused him to change his plans and he 
came to California. 

He left New York on May 20, 1884, by way of Panama, 
with a fine recommendation to the captain of the ship in 
regard to his hobby. The captain let him off at many points 



Vol. VIII] IN MEMORIAM: CARL FUCHS 29 

to collect, at one place taking him twenty miles in- 
land. He had the captain and passengers so interested that 
everybody wanted to help him, and he obtained many inter- 
esting specimens. At Panama he had a four-day stop, which 
he employed in looking over the ruins of the Panama canal. 
He had with him a Mr. Slavin, a former engineer of the 
works, who showed him about. Mr. Fuchs was somewhat 
interested in the canal, as his brother had lost 75,000 francs 
in the unfortunate enterprise. This trip also resultd in his 
finding more insects. 

After arriving in San Francisco, his first call was at the 
California Academy of Sciences, at that time located at Cali- 
fornia and Dupont streets. From that time on he kept in 
close connection with that institution. He was the only per- 
son who was allowed by the late Dr. Behr to handle his but- 
terflies. He became a member of the Academy in 1890. 

On August 7, 1901, Mr. Fuchs issued a call for the organ- 
ization of an entomological society, as follows : 

"With the view of organizing a Club of Entomologists on 
the Pacific Coast, for the purpose of promoting interest in 
entomological research, a meeting will be held at the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences on Thursday, August 15, at 2 
o'clock. You are urgently invited to attend." 

That memorable meeting was attended by the following 
persons: Dr. H. H. Behr, W. G. W. Harford, Beverly 
Letcher, Prof. Wm. Ashmead, Carl Fuchs, Dr. E. C. Van 
Dyke, Professor H. C. Fall, F. W. Nunenmacher, and Dr. 
F. E. Blaisdell. 

The meeting resulted in the founding of the California En- 
tomological Club. At the fifth regular meeting of the club 
it was voted to change the name to the Pacific Coast Ento- 
mological Society, by which name it has been known ever 
since. 

Mr. Fuchs was elected the first president of the society, a 
position which he filled until the 26th regular meeting, held 
November 27, 1907, when he requested to be relieved. He 
was succeeded by Dr. Edwin C. Van Dyke. The society 
prospered and grew under Mr. Fuchs's able leadership. 

In 1908 he made a trip to the East for scientific purposes, 
but he visited only New York, Brooklyn and ^^'ashington. It 



30 CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seb. 

was at this time that Charles W. Leng saw liim at the Im- 
perial Hotel, on Fulton street, Brooklyn. Mr. Leng, in his 
"Recollections of Mr. Fuchs," says: "The great German, 
with his bushy hair and beard grizzled with age, put his arms 
about my neck and embraced the one who was a boy when he 
left New York. .\11 who were present at that meeting will 
recall the boyish enthusiasm that made the old man so re- 
markable. Years had brought no noticeable slackening of the 
pace, no hesitation in action, speech or thought. Except for 
the gray hair, it was the same Fuchs who had been a leader 
among the founders of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 
Tears; it is true, came to his eyes, as we recalled the names of 
those who had passed away, but they did not stay long, for 
his thoughts were not in the past but looking forward to the 
years to come, and to the things that he hoped to accomplish. 
He was a man of unusual vitality and personal magnetism, to 
whom hope and content were given in the fullest measure." 

Mr. R. P. Dow says in regard to his visit to New York : 
"It was then that I met him. He had never seen a moving 
picture. We took him twice a day to the 'movies.' Coney 
Island was the place for them. All the afternoon and evening 
we mingled movies and beetle collecting under the arc lights. 
After all the years, many of the commonest insects were 
strange to Fuchs. So we took everything. At each capture 
Carl Fuchs would dip anew into a box of a particularly sa- 
vory snuff, of a kind known only to himself. It had a de- 
licious aroma, even if it did force a sneeze to all amateurs." 
/Apparently those with him besides Mr. Dow were Chas. 
Schaeffer, Geo. P. Englehardt, Jacob Doll and Geo. Franck. 

To us who were associated with Fuchs in recent years 
remains the duty to add our reminiscences to those alreadv 
given. We all agree that he was the most kind, lovable and 
hospitable of men. We loved him not only for these traits, 
but also for his activity, energy and punctuality in business. 
He was noted everywhere for his enthusiasm in all matters 
appertaining to his favorite study. Mr. Fuchs was most 
happy when he was aiding some amateur, or his vounger 
colleagues, by giving them material or advice. 

By the earthquake and fire of 1906 he lost nearly all of 
his collection. This calamity nearly broke liis heart: but. 



Vol. VIII] /.V MEMORIAM: CARL FUCHS 31 

with the kind assistance of his friends, he started a new one 
at once with all of his old-time energy. 

Only those who were about him during that fearful calamity 
will ever realize the agony that he must have suffered when 
driven from his home on Kearny street — well do we remem- 
ber the number, 212 — leaving behind his collection containing 
a generic series which he took with him. hoping against hope 
that the remainder would be safe: and later the despair, when 
he realized that his life's work was in ashes. After a period 
of depression, his old-time energy revived and at the time of 
his death he had amassed another large collection. 

His neatness and exactness in the preparation of entomo- 
logical material was unique and characteristic of him. It 
gained for him the appointment of assistant curator in the en- 
tomological department of the California Academy of Sci- 
ences, where he worked up to the time of his last illness. 
After the San Francisco disaster, and while the Academy was 
unsettled, he received the appointment of preparator and as- 
sistant in the entomological department of the University of 
California, where he was known by the students as Professor 
Fuchs. When the California Academv of Sciences was aeain 
ready for his services he returned to it. 

His widow, Marie Fuchs, who was a typical and devoted 
helpmate, could even e.xcel her husband in the care and 
mounting of the coleopterous Pselaphida?. 

In the death of Mr. Fuchs, one of the last of a group of 
the older entomologists has passed away : to this group be- 
longed Frederick Blanchard, Samuel H. Scudder, Henry 
Ulke, and Philip Uhler. The younger entomologists of the 
Pacific Coast, many of whom were his intimate friends, have 
ever been stimulated and enthused by his earnestness and 
example. 

He was a member of the California Academy of Sciences, 
and also of the Deutsche Entomologische Gesellschaft of Ber- 
lin. In his earlier years he contributed short articles and 
notes to the Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 
In 1882 he published a synopsis of the Lucanidje of the 
United States. Short papers were read by him before the 
Pacific Coast Entomological Society while president, which 



32 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seb. 

liave not appeared in print, but are filed in the archives of tlie 
society and it is hoped they may eventually be published. 

At the fifty-third regular meeting of the latter society. Doc- 
tors Van Dyke and Blaisdell were appointed as a committee 
to draw up a set of resolutions, which were to be placed in 
the records of the society and copies of which were to be sent 
to his family. At the fifty-fourth meeting the following was 
presented by that committee : 

"Whereas, in the fullness of time death has taken from 
us our most venerable member, Mr. Carl Fuchs. the organ- 
izer and a charter member of our society; and 

"Whereas. Mr. Fuchs was held by us in the highest esteem 
for his devotion to entomology, as well as for his lovable per- 
sonality and happy temperament ; and 

"Whereas, his personal enthusiasm has been ever a source 
of stimulus to develop entomology on the Pacific Coast and 
to aid his colleagues with advice and material, we shall mourn 
his loss; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, that we publish a short sketch of his life in the 
Proceedings of the Society ; and be it further 

"Resolved, that we convey to his family our sympathy for 
its loss and our tribute to his industr}' and example ; that we 
imitate his persistency in collecting and in the preparation of 
specimens." 

(Signed") F. E. Blaisdell. 

E. C. Van- Dyke. 

In the field, Mr. Fuchs was for years a keen collector, es- 
peciall}' of the minute forms. Xo friend or stranger could 
refuse his enthusiastic request to gather insects for him. In 
this manner he kept up a constant influx of specimens. He 
was always on the qui vive to exchange for species not in his 
collection, and he was ever a source of supply of good things 
to correspondents far away. He was always happiest when 
showing his treasures, and with a characteristic twinkle in 
his eyes he would point out some very rare species. 

Waiters on Coleoptera kept in touch with him, as the 
writings of such men as Dr. Geo. Horn, Colonel Thos. L. 
Casey, Professor H. C. Fall, Mr. Chas. I.eng, Dr. W'alther 
Horn, and manv others will show. 



\oL. \ IIIJ IN MEMORIAM: CAKL I-UCHS 33 

His first appearance in nomenclature was in connection 
with a Staphylinid named by G. Kraatz. He discovered that 
interesting httle coleopteron which Dr. Geo. Horn called 
^gialitcs fiichsii. Professor J. J. Rivers dedicated Cychnts 
fnchsiana to him. Erendel remembered him in the Psela- 
phidre, and named Bracliyccpsis fiiclisii and Arikcrus (Fiisti- 
gcr) fiichsii after him. 

Mr. Fuchs supplied Colonel Casey with mucii material, as 
a perusal of that author's writings will show. He received 
credit for many forms described as new by Casey. In his 
revision of the Lathridiidas of Boreal America, Professor Fall 
dedicated to him a genus, Fnchsiana. It was founded upon 
an unique blind Lathridiid collected while sifting earth and 
vegetable mould from about tlie roots of redwood trees near 
Mill Valley, Marin county, California. This genus is by far 
the most extraordinary of our North American Corticariini. 

Mr. Fuchs was a most skillful preparator of insects ; in 
fact, his work was unique and without equal for the care he 
bestowed upon both large and small specimens, which made 
the study of his material a joy to the taxonomist. 

Mr. Fuchs also contributed much material and moral sup- 
port to the author of the "Monographic Revision of the Eleo- 
diini of the United States." in appreciation of which Dr. 
Blaisdell named FJcodcs fiichsii. 

So the last tribute to our friend and colleague is about to 
terminate. We have missed Mr. Fuchs when we have been 
assembled together to carry on entomological work ; we have 
missed his kindly face and smile. Specimens of his handi- 
work are still with all of us and we prize them more than 
ever, now that he is gone. Yet we should in thankfulness re- 
member that he had attained a goodly age, and that he was 
himself in spirit and personality to the last. We must rever- 
ence his patient and courageous meeting of the end of his 
labors. During our last moments of conversation he would 
pause and, with his chin resting in his hand, he would gaze 
through his study window into space with a serious and sad- 
dened look ; but quickly the kindly smile returned and it did 
brighten our hearts, for he knew, and we knew, that the part- 
ing of the ways was at hand. We saw that there was no fear 



34 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

in him to meet the last duty of time. Mr. Fuchs. our friend. 
is gone. We look in the direction in which he went, although 
the tears blind our eyes. The love we bore him and our 
memories of him are perpetual. 

Frank E. Blaisdell, Sr., 
R. Benzinger, 
Otto von Geldern. 

Couunitlce. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 
Vol. VIII, No. 3, pp. 35-112, text figures 1-40 July 9, 1918 



III 

SOME JAPANESE APHIDID^^ 

BY 
E. O. ESSIG AND S. I. IvUWANA" 

TABLE OF CONTEXTS 

PAGE 

Introduction 36 

Abbreviations Used in Figures 37 

Host Index to the Species Listed 38 

Notes and Descriptions 44 



' After the submission of this paper to the California Academy of Sciences and be- 
fore it could be published Prof. S. Matsumura's work entitled ".\ List of the .\phidida: 
of Japan, with Descriptions of New Species and Genera" appeared in the Journal of 
the College of Agriculture, Tohoku Imperial University, Vol. VII. pt. 6. pp. 351-414, 
Sapporo. July. 1917. In this paper several of the species which were previously de- 
scribed by the authors are named so that some changes are necessary. In all such 
cases the descriptions are included as originally written. Some uncertainty naturally 
exists as to other species, but extensive study and more specimens would be necessary 
for absolute certainty. It is remarkable that so few of our new species were described 
by Prof. Matsumura. This indicates the great number of Japanese species remaining 
to be worked up. 

E. O. EssiG. 
Berkeley. Cal., 
Nov. 6. 1917. 

- The arrangement of the authors' names is alphabetic. 

July 9. 1918 



36 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Introduction 

The following paper on "Some Japanese Aphididse" has been 
prepared jointly by the authors as a small beginning to the 
study of this very interesting family in Japan. To the junior 
author belongs the part of collecting and preserving the ma- 
terial, taking full notes on color, localities, host plants, and 
dates of collection, as well as the packing and shipping of the 
material. The senior author is responsible for mounting the 
specimens on slides, determining the species, writing up the 
descriptions of new species, and making the drawings. It is 
to be regretted that distance and lack of time prevented sending 
the final manuscript to Dr. Kuwana for revision and correction. 
As the specimens were placed loosely in small vials of alcohol 
and were subjected to a long journey, many were entirely 
ruined, while others lost the legs, antennse. wings, or other 
body parts. Every original lot. of which there were some 107, 
was given a collection number and accompanied with full field 
notes. All of the material was collected at or in the vicinity of 
Tokyo during the year 1913. and was received in several send- 
ings during the latter part of that year and the first part of 
1914. Because of the press of other duties, however, it was 
impossible to do anything with it until this late date. The 
Japanese, English and scientific names of the host plants are 
given wherever possible, the scientific names being revised ac- 
cording to the latest editions of the "Index Kewensis" by 
Hooker and Jackson and the "Encyclopedia of Horticulture" 
by Bailey. 

Because the material represents such a very small part of the 
Japanese Aphid fauna, no attempt has been made to work out 
a scheme of classification and keys, but rather to give simply 
the notes and descriptions as clearly and briefly as possible. 
Drawings have been made to illustrate the more important 
characters and to supplement the descriptions. They are fully 
labeled so as to avoid lengthy explanations. The use of the 
camera lucida has made it possible to enlarge all to a common 
scale and they are so reproduced in the plates. Transferring 
the drawings by tracing paper has rectified the objects to their 
actual position on the slides. 

In describing a new' species it was thought best to set aside, 
wherever possible, a single representative individual as the type. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUlVAh'A—SOME JAPANESE APHWWjE 2>7 

The winged viviparous female was selected in all such cases. 
Many of these types are not perfect but are fairly so. The 
other specimens of a lot from which a type was selected are 
designated as paratypes. Where no type could be decided upon 
the descriptions have been made, as is the usual custom, from a 
number of individuals, all of which are designated as cotypes. 
Types bear a red name label and the paratypes and cotypes 
yellow name labels. The types, representatives of all the co- 
types and many of the paratypes, as well as other determined 
material received from Japan and discussed in this paper, have 
been presented to the California Academy of Sciences, Golden 
Gate Park, San Francisco, California, where they are housed in 
a substantial fireproof museum building accessible to all scien- 
tific workers. Duplicate material has also been presented to 
the Imperial University at Tokyo for the use of Japanese 
workers. The remainder of the material is in Professor Essie's 
collection. 



Abbreviations Used in Figures 

A — apterous viviparous female 

A ant. — antenna of apterous viviparous female 

A ant. iii — article III of antennas of apterous viviparous 
female 

A ant. iv — article IV of antennje of apterous viviparous 
female 

A ant. V — article V of antennas of apterous viviparous female 

Aant. vi— " VI " 

A cauda — cauda of the apterous viviparous female 

Acorn. — cornicle of " " " 

A head — head of the 

A hind t. — hind tarsi of the apterous viviparous female 

A an. pi. — anal plate " " 

A pyg- — pygidium of the apterous viviparous female 

W — winged viviparous female (abbreviations following this 
letter refer to the same parts as those of the apterous vivi- 
parous female already given above) 

W wax pi. — wax plates of the winged viviparous female 

Pro. tub. — prothoracic tubercle 



38 CALIFORXIA ACADEUY OF SCIENCES [Pboc. 4th Ser. 

Host Index to the Species Listed 
English, Japanese and Scientific names 

Acer pictum Thunb. (Enko Kaede) 

Chaitophorus japonica, new species 
Aegle sepiaria DC. See Poncints trifoliata Raf. 
Aliiits incaiia glauca Ait. (Yama hannoki) 

Euceraphis japonica, new species 
Angelica polymorpha Maxim. (Shirane senkiu) 

Siphocorync japonica. new species 

Apple 

Aphis japonica, new species 
" ponii DeGeer 

soinci, new species 
Artemisia vulgaris indica Maxim. (Yomogi) 

Macrosiphum ahsinthii (Linn.)? 
Asteromoca indica Bl. (Yomena). See Boltonia indica Benth. 
Astragalus sinicus Linn. (Genge) 

Aphis nicdicaginis Koch 
Boltonia indica Benth. (Yomena) 

Macrosiphum rudbeckicc (Fitch) 

Rhopalosiphum, species 
Brassica canipcstris hum. (\atane-na) Mustard 

Rhopalosiphum pcrsica (Sulzer) 
Brassica chincnsis Linn. (Aburana Pak-choi) Cabbage 

Aphis brassiccc Linn. 
Castanca sativa Mill. (Kuri) 

Myzocallis kuricola (Mats.) 
Castanca vulgaris japonica A. DC. See C. satiz'a Mill. 
Castanopsis cuspidata Schot. (Shii) 

Eutrichosiphum passanice (Okajima) 

Nipponaphis cuspidata, new species 

Pterochlorus tropicalis Van der Goot 
Celtis sinensis Pers. (Enoki) 

Chromaphis cclticolens, new species 
Chccnoniclcs japonica Lindl. (Bake) Japonica or Japanese 
quince 

Aphis ponii DeGeer 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDID^ 39 

Cherry 

Aphis spill osiila, new species 

Aphis, species 
Chrysanthemum (Kiku) 

Aphis gossypii Glover 

Macrosiphiiin nishigaharcc, new species 
Cirsium japonicum DC. (Noazami). See Cnicits japoiiiciis 

Maxim. 
Citrus trifoliafa Linn. (Karalachi). See Poiicints trifoliata 

Raf. 
Ckrodciidron trichotouiiiiii Thunb. (Kusagi) 

Aphis gossypii Glover 
Ciiiciis japoiiiciis Maxim. (Noazami) 

Macrosiphiiin riidbcckicc (Fitch) 

Macrosiphiiin, species 

Myziis, species 
Cratcegiis ciinraliis S. & Z. 

Prociphiltis cratccgi Tnllgren 
Cucuinis satii'iishmn. (Kiuri) Cucumber 

Aphis gossypii Glover 
Cvdonia japonica Pers. (Bake). See Chcciioniclcs japonica 

Lindl. 
Deutzia scabra Thunb. (Utsugi) 

Aphis iiicdicagiiiis Koch 
Distyliiun raccinosum S. & Z. (Isu) 

Nipponaphis distylii Pergande 
Euscaphis japonica Dipp. (Gonzui) 

Rhopalosiphiiiii indicum Van der Goot 
Hibiscus syriacus Linn. (Mukuge) Shrubby Althea or rose of 
Sharon 

Aphis mcdicaginis Koch 
Hordcnm sativinu vidgare (Omugi). See H. vidgare Linn. 
Hordciini vidgarc Linn. 

Aphis az'ciKC Fab. 
Illiciinn anisatum Linn. (Skikimi) 

Toxoptcra anraiitii Fonsc. 
Ipoiiioca hcdcracca Jacq. (Asagao) 

Rhopalosiphinn iiiagiiolicc. new species 
Iris saiiguinca Donn (Ayame) 

Phorodon, species 



40 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Iris sibirica orientalis Thunb. ( Ayame) . See /. sanguinea Donn 
Lactuca dcnticulata Maxim. (?) (Nigana) (L. dentata 
Makino?) 

Rhopalosiphiim lacUicce (Kalt.) 
Larix Icptolcpis Murr. (Kara-Mastu) 

Lachuns, species 
Lcspedeca bicolor Turc. (Hagi) 

Macrosiphum hagi, new species 

Rhopalosiphum lespcdezcc, new species 
Ligustrum ibota Sieb. (Ibota) 

Macrosiphum ibotum, new species 
Magnolia coiispicua Salisb. (Hakumokuren). See M. denudata 

Desr. 
Magnolia denudata Desr. (Hakumokuren) 

Rhopalosiphum inagnolice, new species 
Magnolia hypolcuca S. & Z. (Honoki) 

Myzocallis, species 
Magnolia kobus Thunb. (Kobushi) 

Calaphis magnolia, new species 
Mespihis cuneatus S. & Z. (Sanzashi). See Crafcegus cuneatus 

S. &Z. 
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Hasu) East Indian lotus 

Rhopalosiphum nymph(Pce (Linn.) 

Orange 

Aphis citricola Van der Goot 
" gossypii Glover 
" somei, new species 
Rhopalosiphum magnolicc, new sjiecies 
Osmanthus aguifolium B. & H. (Hiiragi) 

Prociphilus osmantha. new species 
Pasania cuspidata Oerst. (Shii). See Casfanopsis cnspidata 
Schot. 

Peach (Momo) 
Myztis, species 
Rhopalosiphum nymphcece (hinn.) 

Pear ■ '. 

Ano^cia piri (Mats.) , ', 



Vol. \-in] ESSIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHWIDM 41 

Pear, Japanese or Chinese 
Aphis pomi DeGeer 

" siphonella, new species 
" somei, new species 
Prociphilus pyri (Fitch) 
Rhopalosiphum nymphcEce (Linn.) 
Toxoptera piricola Mats. 
Pctasites japonicHsF. Schmidt (Fitki) 

Aphis gossypii Glover 
Pharbitis hedcracea Jacq. (Asagao). See Ipomoea hederacea 

Jacq. 
Pinus densiflora S. & Z. (Aka-matsu) Japanese red pine 

Lachmis pinidcnsiHorce, new species 
Platycodon grandiflonmi DC. (Kikyo) Chinese or Japanese 
bellflower, Balloon flower. 
Macrosiphum rtidbeckice (Fitch) 

Plum 

Rhopalosiphiun nymphcEoe (Linn.) 
Podocarpus chiiicnsis Wall. (Maki). See P. macrophylla maki 

Sieb. 
Podocarpus macrophylla maki Sieb. (Maki) 

Phyllaphis, species ? 
Ponciriis trifoliata Raf. (Karalcahi) Trifoliate orange 

Rhopalosiphum magnolice, new species 
Poterium officinale A. Gray (Waremokau) 

Aphis mcdicaginis Koch 

Potato 

Aphis gossypii Glover 
Prunus mume S. & Z. (Ume) Japanese apricot 

Rhopalosiphum nymphace (Linn.) 
Quercus dcntata Thunb. (Kashiwa) 

Myzocallis macrotuberculata, new species 

Pterochlorus tropicalis Van der Goot 
Quercus serrata Thunb. (Kunugi) 

Myzocallis, species 

capitata, new species 
" kuricola (Mats.) 

Pterochlorus tropicalis Van der Goot 

Trichosiphum kinvanai Pergande 



42 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Ramincuhis Icniatits Tlumb. (Hi Ki-no-Kasa) 

Prociphilus populicoiuhtplifolius (Cowen)? 
Rhus javanica Linn. (Nurude) 

Aphis sotiici, new species 
Rhus scmialata Murr. (Nurude). See R. javanica Linn. 

Rice 

Macrosiphtiiii granariuin (Kirby) 
Rosa miiltiflora Thunb. 

Macrosiphuiii roscc (Linn.) 
Runtc.x crispits Linn. (Gishi-gishi) 

Aphis rum ids Linn. 
Ritmc.v japonicitsMehn. (Gishi-gishi). See 7?. crisptis L\un. 
Sagittaria sagittcefolia Linn. (Kuwai). Old world arrowhead 

Rhopalosiphmn nymphcecc (Linn.) 
Sali.r, species (Yanagi) 

Siphocoryuc bicaiidata, new species 
Salix muUincrvis F. & Sav. (Koriyanagi) 

Chaitophonis salijapotncus, new species 
Samhucus raccmosa Linn. Elder 

Rhopalosiphuni iiiagiiolicr. new species 
Sanguisorba officinalis Linn. (W'aremokau). See Potcriiim 

officinale A. Gray 
Smilax china Linn. (Sarutori-ibara). See 5". zvalteri Pursh. 
Smilax walteri Pursh. (Sarutori-ibara) 

Aphis gossypii Glover? 
Solanum mclongcna Linn. (Nasu) 

Aphis gossypii Glover 
Sonchtis oleraceus 1^'nm. (Nogeshi). Sow thistle 

Rhopalosiphuni lactnccc (Kalt.) 
Staphylca bumalda DC. (^Nlitsuba Utsugi) 

Rhopalosiphuni indicuni Van der Goot 

Strawberry 

Aphis, species 
Thalictruin minus Linn. (Aki-Kara-matsu) 

Aphis thalictrii, new species 
Tsuga sicboldi Carr. (Tsuga) 

Lachnus, species 



Vol. VllI] ESSIG & KUIV.'INA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDWJE 

Viburnum tomentosum Thunb. (Yabudomari) 

Aphis somci, new species 
Vicia faba equina Pers. (Soramame) 

Aphis mcdicaginis Koch 

Wheat 

Aphis avena Fab. 
Zclkovo acuiuiiiofa Planch. (Keyaki) 

Aphis uicdicagiuis Koch 



43 



NOMENCLATURE OF WING VENATION 

C 




Figure 1. — Nomenclature of wing venation used in the text: C, costal; 
Cu, cubitus; M, media; R, radius; Rs, radial sector; Sc, subcostal; 
St, stigma or pterostigma. This form is the system usually used by 
European writers and by many others. (Original.) 



44 CALIFORSIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 

NOTES AND DESCRIPTIONS 
Macrosiphum absinthii (Linnsus) 

One winged viviparous female and several apterous nymphs 
of what appears to be this species were taken on Yomogi, 
Artemisia vulgaris iiidica Maxim., at Nikko, June 19, 1913. 
Collection number 89. In comparison with determined speci- 
mens received from Prof. Theobald, England, there are not 
quite so many sensoria on article III of the antennas and the 
cornicles are somewhat differently shaped, but in other respects 
they agree very well. 

M. yomogicola Mats, may prove to be this species. 

Macrosiphum granarium (Kirby) 

A good series of this species was taken on rice plants, Nishi- 
gahara, Tokyo, Sept. 11, 1913. Collection number 103. 

Macrosiphum hagi, new species 
Figure 2 

Winged viviparoits female (Type) — One nearly perfect 
specimen. Length 1.2 mm., width 0.7 mm. Prevailing color 
dusky to dark green. Antennae with few, short, knobbed hairs 
and black throughout excepting I, II and the extreme base of 
III; length of articles: I, 0.12 mm.; II, 0.05 mm.; Ill, 0.6 
mm. ; IV, 0.5 mm. ; V, 0.43 mm. ; VI, 1.02 mm. (base 0.2 mm., 
filament 0.82 mm.) ; total, 2.72 mm. Sensoria of III circular, 
of nearly the same size, in a row, and confined to the basal 
fifth. There are 12 on this article of each antenna; the normal 
number occurs on V and VI. Rostrum reaching to the 3rd 
coxs. Prothorax yellowish green, meso- and metathorax 
lemon-3'ellow ; coxae, trochanters and bases of the femora and 
tibiae pale, the remainder of the legs being black. Wings with 
dark veins ; primaries 3.2 mm. in length. Cornicles faintly im- 
bricated, pale with black tips, 0.5 mm. long. Cauda pale green, 
0.25 mm. long. 

Apterous viviparous females (Paratypes) — Three good 
specimens. Average length 1.1 mm., width 0.7 mm. General 
color green. Antennae black, except I, II and most of III, 
which are pale green, imbricated and with few short thick or 
knobbed hairs; lengths of articles: I, 0.1 mm.; II. 0.05 mm.; 



Vol. Vlil] ESSIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDM 



45 




L- — ■ \V cc 




W hind t. 




\\ head 
t>pe 

Figure 2. — Macrosipluim hagi, new species 



EOE del. 



Ill, 0.6 mm. ; IV, 0.45 mm. ; V, 0.42 mm. ; VI, 1 mm. (base 
0.2 mm., filament 0.8 mm.); total 2.62 mm. Article III of 
each specimen with a single large sensorium near the base ; 
sensoria on other articles normal. Rostrum extending to the 
base of the abdomen. Cornicles dusky with black tips, faintly 
imbricated, 0.5 mm. long. Cauda pale green, 0.23 mm. long. 

Nymphs — pale green throughout. 

Host plant — Hagi, Lespedeza bicolor Turc. 

Locality — Tokyo. 

Date of collection — May 14, 1913. 

Collection number — 32. 

Note — This may possibly be M. hagicola Mats., but the de- 
scriptions differ considerably. 



46 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. "tiH Sex. 

Macrosiphum ibotum, new species 
Figure 3 

Winged viviparous female (Type") — Selected from 12 
individuals in good condition. Length 2 mm., width (of a 
paratype) 0.9 mm. General color pale green. Antennre black 
throughout excepting I and II which are dusky, with few hairs, 
and imbricated; lengths of the articles: I, 0.12 mm.; II. 0.09 
mm.; III. 0.71 mm.; IV, 0.58 mm.; V. 0.51 mm.; VI, 1.67 
mm. (base 0.17 mm., filament 1.5 mm.) ; total 3.68 mm. Sen- 
soria of article III circular, about the same size, almost in a row 
and 16 in number. Paratypes show a variation in number from 
13 to 16. Sensoria on other articles normal. Rostrum reaching 
nearly to the 3rd coxae. Prothorax yellowish, the remainder 
of the thorax dark. Legs yellow, with the distal ends of the 
femora and tibiae and all of the tarsi black. Front wings 3 mm. 
long. Cornicles dark, imbricated throughout, 0.42 mm. long 
(of a paratype 0.52 mm. long). Cauda dark, 0.23 mm. long. 

Apterous viviparous females (Paratypes) — Seven indi- 
viduals in good condition. Average length 1.8 mm., width 1 
mm. Prevailing color pale green. Antennae dark, except I. II 
and the base of III ; imbricated, with a few short hairs ; lengths 
of articles : I, 0.15 mm. ; II. 0.07 mm. ; III. 0.77 mm. ; IV, 0.61 
mm. ; V. 0.51 mm. ; VI, 1.45 mm. (base 0.15 mm., filament 1.30 
mm.) ; total 3.56 mm. Sensoria small, circular, normal on V 
and VI ; varying from none to 3 on III, and confined to the 
base. Rostrum pale, reaching nearly to the third coxae. Ab- 
domen pale, with darker green spots on the dorsum. Cornicles 
black, finely imbricated throughout, 0.53 mm. long. Cauda 
pale, 0.32 mm. long. 

Nymphs — Paler in color than the adults with the wing- 
pads dusky. 

Host plant — On the undersides of the leaves of Ibota, 
Ligustrum ibota Sieb. 

Locality — Nakano, Tokyo. 

Date of collection — May 25, 1913. 

Collection number — 59. 



Vol. VIII] ESXIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDA- 



47 




CI . 1 ■ , T i l i^ i r - r_f i-rJ- ;,> . 
:r>i.~.0...»-0.qO.O.'>.Qn ^O 





1 1 iLLi n i xomx 



rS^CSEI^ 



^(5^:15^:^^^ 



-,, W ant. Ill pararsne 



T"crTTn-7--srr^:*X^ 




C5!g3Xj3iG7?ni^£sraxi 



A ant. 



«mm- r. 1,1 I. Kf^ rtrriir rtT 



>xa 




■""^E^gJaro 



A corn 




r,i. v; v ,;rv T:^7: ;;, ': ;'' ' /.ii7y . »/ ,' n " V .' ''';', '/'7?i 



W caud J 



' A head _^ 

A hind t. ^r'-^^I EOE del 
Figure 3. — Mocrosifhum ibotiim, new species 



VV hind t,"> 
type- 



48 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Macrosiphum nipponicum, new species 
Figure 4 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — Selected from 5 in- 
dividuals. Length 1.7 mm., width 0.09 mm. Prevailing color 
bright shiny crimson-lake. Antennas dusky, with I and II 
black, III-VI with black apices, few short hairs or knobbed 
spines, imbricated; lengths of articles: I, 0.10 mm.: II, 0.07 
mm. ; III, 0.62 mm. ; IV, 0.48 mm. : V, 0.50 mm. : VI, 0.97 mm. 
(base 0.17 mm., filament 0.80 mm.) ; total 2.74 mm. Sensoria 
circular. On III there are 8 (left) and 7 (right) in a row. 
Paratypes show a variation of from 7 to 9 which are usually 
confined to the basal two-thirds of the article. Rostrum reach- 
ing about to the 2nd coxae. Coxre and trochanters pale-brown, 
femora brown, with their apical halves black, tibire amber with 
both ends black, tarsi all black. Front wings 3.7 mm. long. 
Abdomen bright crimson-lake with black markings on the 
dorsum. Cornicles black, imbricated at the tips, 0.48 mm. 
long (of a paratype 0.55 mm. long). Cauda dusky or black 
(of a paratype) 0.23 mm. long. 

Apterous viviparous fem.\les (Paratypes) — Six indi- 
viduals. Length 1.8 mm., width 1.2 mm. Prevailing color 
bright crimson-lake. Head dusky. Antennae imbricated ; 
articles I, II, V and VI black: III and IV pale with black 
apices; lengths of articles : I. 0.15 mm. ; II, 0.09 mm. ; III, 0.65 
mm.; IV, 0.49 mm.; V. 0.41 mm.; VI, 0.85 mm. (base 0.16 
mm., filament 0.69 mm.) ; total 2.68 mm. From 1 to 3 large 
circular sensoria near the base of III. Rostrum reaching 
nearly to the 3rd co.xas. Prothorax dusky, the rest of the thorax 
bright shiny crimson-lake. Abdomen same color with black 
markings on the dorsum. Cornicles black, imbricated at the 
tips, 0.63 mm. long. Cauda dark, 0.24 mm. long. 

Host plant — Not given. 

Locality — Kurayamizaka, Nishigahara, Tokyo. 
Date of collection — May, 1913. 
Collection number — 24. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHlDWm. 



49 




M 

£ 



50 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. +th Ser. 

Macrosiphum nishigaharae, new species 

Figure 5 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — From four imperfect 
specimens. Length 1.75 mm., width 0.8 mm. Prevailing color 
shiny dark purple-lake to black. Antennce with fairly long 
knobbed hairs, imbricated towards the tips ; black, except basal 
half of III which is pale brown ; lengths of the articles : I, 0.1 1 
mm. : II, 0.08 mm. : III, 0.6 mm. ; IV, 0.38 mm. : V, 0.35 mm. ; 
VI, 0.73 mm. (base 0.13 mm., filament 0.6 mm.) ; total 2.25 
mm. Sensoria on III circular, of different sizes and scattered, 
26 (left) and 28 (right). On the paratypes the number varies 
from 29 to 32. On IV 8 (left). On the paratypes from 3 to 9. 
The usual number on V and VI. Rostrum dark, extending to 
the 3rd coxae. Thorax shiny black, with small lateral prothor- 
acic tubercles. Legs black with the base of the femora and 
middle of the tibiae pale. Front wings 2.6 mm. long. Abdomen 
dark shin}' purple or black. Cornicles short, black, somewhat 
constricted beyond the middle, basal third imbricated, remain- 
der reticulate, 0.26 mm. long. Cauda black, slightly longer 
than the cornicles or 0.29 mm. 

Apterous viviparous females (Paratypes) — Selected 
from ten specimens. Average length 1.6 mm., width 0.8 mm. 
Prevailing color from shiny carmine to dark purple-lake or 
black. Antennae black except the basal two-thirds of III, with 
numerous knobbed hairs: lengths of articles: I, 0.08 mm. : II, 
0.08 mm. ; III, 0.58 mm. : IV, 0.41 mm. : V, 0.31 mm. : VI, 0.61 
mm. (base 0.12 mm., filament 0.49 mm.) : total 2.07 mm. The 
sensoria on III are circular, of different sizes, confined in a row 
to the middle region or along the entire length of the article 
and varying in number from 12 to 21, the majority having 16. 
Rostrum reaching slightly beyond the 3rd co.xae. Prothoracic 
lateral tubercles small but distinct. Cornicles black, short, 
slightly constricted before the end, basal one-third imbricated, 
tiie remainder reticulate, 0.27 mm. long. Cauda black, 0.35 
mm. long. 

Host pl.\nt — Kiku, Chrysanthemum, species. 
Locality — Nishigahara, Tokyo. 
Date of collection — May 9, 1913. 
Collection number — 10. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDWM 



51 




type ^^^-^^^^^5C 

VV head ^' '''"'' '■ 

EOE del. 

Figure 5. — Macrosiphum nishigaharcc, new species 



Macrosiphum rosae (Linn.) 

The alcoholic specimens do not show the typical black mark- 
ings on the legs of all, but check up well in all other respects. 
Taken on Rosa mnltiftora Thunb., Tokyo. May 14, 1913. Col- 
lection number 34. A slide of specimens labeled M. roscefonnis 
Das, taken at Lahore, India, Jan. 7, 1914, by Mr. Das appears 
to be small individuals of this species. 



52 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. •Ith Ser. 

Macrosiphum rudbeckiae (Fitch) 
Figures 6 and 7 

Five collections of this species were made as follows: 

1. On Yomena, Boltonia indica Benth. (listed as Asteromcea 
iiidica Bl.). Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 12, 1913. Collection 
number 25. 

2. On Noazami, Cnicus japoiiicus Maxim, (listed as Cirsium 
japonicum DC), Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 12, 1913. Col- 
lection number 26. 

3. Host plant not given. Nishigahara, Tokyo, June 3, 1913. 
Collection number 72>. 

4. On Kikyo (Japanese or Chinese Bellflower, Balloon 
Flower), Platycodon grandiflorum DC, Tokyo, June 5, 
1913. Collection number 75. These specimens were 
smaller than normal. 

5. On Boltonia indica Benth., Nishigahara, Tokyo, Aug. 4, 
1913. Collection number 102. 

In comparing this species with the descriptions and drawings 
of the European, M. solidaginis (Fab.), it is found they are 
certainly very close if not the same thing. It also appears to 
be what Matsumura has determined as M. citrysantliemi Del 
Guercio. 



Macrosiphum, species 

Apterous viviparous examples only of this species were 
taken. The color is given as cobalt-lemon. The antennae are 
very long, dusky or black with from 5 to 6 sensoria near the 
base of article III. The basal third of the cornicles is yellow, 
the remainder black. The length is about twice that of the 
Cauda, which is pale. The length of the body is 2.5 mm., the 
width 1.5 mm. Collected on Noazami, Cnicus japonicus 
Maxim, (listed as Cirsium japonicum DC), Nishigahara, 
Tokyo, June 5, 1913. Collection number 72. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUWANA-SOME JAPANESE APHIDWM 



53 




54 




CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4m Se». 



^O QO ^"r." O O .Op Jj 



A ant. 



Cg5!I3Tj;;^l3a-uau, u.AJu gxgg^ ^ ^^ 




EOE del. 



Figure 7. — Macrosifliuni rudbeckiw (Fitch). Apterous viviparous female. 

Macrosiphum, species 

This is a large bright yellow species represented only by 
apterous viviparous females. The antennae are black with 
from 1 to 4 sensoria near the base of III. Cornicles black, 
slightly constricted near their tips, 0.2 mm. long. Cauda yel- 
low, 0.12 mm. long. Length of body 2.2 mm., width 1.3 mm. 
On Noazami, Cnicits japoiiicus Maxim, (listed as Cirsiiiin 
japonicum DC). Tokyo. Aug. 4, 1913. Collection nutnber 100. 



Myzus, species 

A few apterous viviparous females of a green species were 
taken on Momo (peach tree), Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 15, 
1913. Collection number 43. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KVWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDM 55 

Myzus, species 

Only apterous females were taken. They are very pale 
transparent-yellow, 1.1 mm. long and with many knobbed hairs 
on the body. The cornicles are pale and 0.5 mm. long. On 
Noazami, Cnicus japonicus Maxim, (listed as Cirshmi japoni- 
ctini DC), Nishigahara, Tokyo, June 5, 1913. Collection 
number 74. 

Phorodon, species 

A pale green species represented by a few apterous vivi- 
parous females. Taken on Ayame, Iris sauguhica Donn (listed 
as /. sibirica orientalis Thunb.), Komagome, Tokyo, May 11, 
1913. Collection number 23. 



Rhopalosiphum indicum Van der Goot 
Figure 8 

1916— Rec. Ind. Mus., vol. 12, pt. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-3, fig. 1. 
Feb. (Orig. desc.) 

The apterous viviparous females agree so well with the de- 
scription of the above that we have no hesitancy in so desig- 
nating them. As no description of the winged viviparous 
female has ever been published the following has been pre- 
pared : 

Winged viviparous female— Length 3.2 mm., width 1.5 
mm. Prevailing color orange. Antennae black, with articles 
I, II and base of III dusky-yellow; lengths of articles: 1,0.19 
mm. ; II, 0.09 mm. ; III, 1.04 mm. ; IV, 0.82 mm. : V, 0.54 mm. : 
VI, 0.71 mm. (base 0.15 mm., filament 0.56 mm.) ; total 3.39 
mm. The sensoria on article III are circular, of various sizes, 
scattered along the full length, and varying in number on dif- 
ferent individuals from 50 to 70. Article IV normally has 
none, but may have from 1 to 3 ; V and VI have the usual num- 
ber. Rostrum yellow, reaching to the 2nd coxae. Veins of the 
front wings narrowly bordered with dusky brown, length 6 
mm. Coxae, trochanters and bases of the femora lemon-yellow, 
the remainder of the legs black. Cornicles black, widest near 
the middle and narrow at both ends, the apical end being 



56 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 




Cauda 







W ant. [iriS23S:^S5525Sa£S^^ 




F-OE deL 



Figure S.—RI'ofalosil'hum indicum Van der Goot 



Vol. \-Iin ESSIG & KUIVANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDJE S7 

smallest and reticulate for a short distance as shown in the ac- 
companying drawing. Cauda dusky orange, 0.4 mm. long. 

This material, which comprises a good series, was taken in 
two lots as follows : 

1. On Gonzui, Euscaphis japo)uca Dipp., Somei, Tokyo, May 
7, 1913. Collection number 1. 

2. On Mitsuba Utsugi, Stapltylea bumalda DC, Nikko, June 
9, 1913. Collection number 81. These specimens average 
larger in size than those of the first lot and were the ones 
from which the measurements were taken. 



Rhopcdosiphum lactucse (Kalt. ) 

Two lots of apterous viviparous females which check up very 
well with this species were taken as follows : 

1. On Nigana, Lactuca denticiilata Maxim.? (listed as L. 
dentata Makino), Tokyo, May 17, 1913. Collection num- 
ber 37. 

2. On Nogeshi (sow thistle), Soiichus oleracciis Linn., Na- 
kano, Tokyo, May 26, 1913. Collection number 62. 



Rhopalosiphum lespedezae, new species 
Figure 9 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — Selected from four 
imperfect individuals. Length 1.28 mm., width 0.68 mm. Pre- 
vailing color green. Head brownish or dusky. Antennae dusky 
or black throughout, imbricated, with a few short clubbed or 
thick hairs ; lengths of articles : I, 0. 1 1 mm. ; II, 0.09 mm. ; III, 
0.53 mm.; IV, 0.51 mm.; V, 0.43 mm.; VI, 0.74 mm. (base 
0.14 mm., filament 0.6 mm.) ; total 2.41 mm. The sensoria 
vary somewhat in size, there being 12 on article III of the left 
antenna and the usual number on V and VI. Paratypes show 
a variation in number from 11 to 15 on III and from to 4 on 
IV. Those which do occur on IV are mostly small. Rostrum 
reaching to the 3rd coxje. Apical portion of the femora and 
tibiae and all of the tarsi black, the remainder of the legs pale. 
Primary wings 2.66 mm. long, with the base of the radial sec- 



58 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Psoc. 4th See. 





W ant. HI paratiipe W ant. i\ 



1 T . . 

A ant. 

rfT-vr*T'~brn7T:f:mTrTr33xrrx33^^ 



OxriXCJStCJiisrEa 




/~\ .A ant. iii 



rs 



EOE del. 



Figure 9.—Rhopalosiphnm Icspedecte, new species 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUIV.4N.4—SOME JAPANESE APHWIDM 59 

tor and all of the cubitus and media veins distinctly clouded as 
shown in the illustration. Abdomen green with dusky trans- 
verse markings on the dorsum, and several pairs of lateral 
tubercles. Cornicles black, somewhat constricted near the base 
and largest beyond the middle, with a small mouth : imbri- 
cated at the basal constrictions and near the tips ; length 
0.51 mm. Cauda green and slightly shorter than the 
cornicles. 

Apterous viviparous fem.\les (Paratypes) — Some thirty 
good specimens. Average length 1.7 mm., width 1.2 mm. Pre- 
vailing color green. Head brownish green or pale brown. 
Antennae dark to black throughout and imbricated : lengths of 
articles: I, 0.14 mm.; II, 0.07 mm.; Ill, 0.67 mm.; IV, 0.41 
mm. ; VI, 0.9 mm. (base 0.17 mm., filament 0.73 mm.) ; total 
2.6 mm. Article III has from 8 to 15 (majority with 10) 
large and small sensoria throughout the length or confined to 
the basal two-thirds. Rostrum extending to, or nearly to, the 
3rd coxse. Thorax and abdomen green, the red eyes of the 
unborn young showing through the latter and giving the ap- 
pearance of red spots on the dorsum ; sides of the abdomen 
with several pairs of lateral tubercles. Cornicles black, faintly 
imbricated and constricted, 0.78 mm. long. Cauda paler than 
the abdomen and with a dusky tip, 0.5 mm. long. 

Host plant — Hagi, Lcspedeza bicolor Turc. 
Locality — Komagome, Tokyo. 
Date of collection — May 8, 1913. 
Collection number — 5. 



Rhopalosiphum magnoliae, new species 

Figures 10 and 11 

Winged viviparous females (Cotypes) — A large number 
of winged specimens were received, but so many had missing 
appendages, chiefly antennae, that no type was selected ; hence 
all are designated as cotypes. Average length 2.2 mm., width 
1.05 mm. Prevailing color green. Head pale to bright red. 
Antennae black throughout, imbricated, with few short hairs ; 
lengths of articles : I, 0.15 mm. ; II, 0.10 mm. ; III, 0.92 mm. ; 
IV, 0.71 mm.; V, 0.59 mm.; VI, 1.02 mm. (base 0.24 mm., 
filament 0.78 mm.) ; total 3.49 mm. Sensoria on III scattered 



60 



CALIFORXIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ses. 







Vol. VIII) ESSIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHWIDJE 

cotypes 



61 




'^=«2a:Ti!i;^m:==.«. 



^'"•'I'" I II !■ i ,11 



A ant. 




A hind t. 



Figure 11. — Rhopalosiphuiit magnoUce, new species 



or almost in a row, varying from 14 to 24 in number. Ros- 
trum dark, extending nearly to the 2nd coxae. Prothorax pale 
reddish, remainder of thorax brownish-green. Coxae, trochan- 
ters and bases of the femora pale green ; all other parts of the 
legs black. Veins of the wings pale brown ; length of the front 
wings 4.6 mm. Abdomen green. Cornicles pale green with 
dusky or black tips, faintly imbricated near bases and tips, 
0.56 mm. long. 



Cauda dusky, 0.4 mm. long. 



Apterous viviparous females (Cotypes) — A large num- 
ber of individuals. Average length 1.8 mm., width 1 mm. 
Prevailing color green with the head and thorax reddish 
brown or amber. Antennae dark or black throughout, imbri- 
cated, with few short hairs; lengths of articles: I, 0.16 mm.; 
II, 0.08 mm. ; III, 0.99 mm. ; IV, 0.71 mm. ; V, 0.6 nmi. ; VI, 
1.21 mm. (base 0.22 mm., filament 0.99 mm.) ; total 3.75 mm. 



62 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

There are from 1 to 3 small sensoria near the base of III. 
Cornicles same as in winged forms, 0.63 mm. long. Cauda 
dusky, 0.36 mm. long. 

Nymphs — Pale green with dusky legs and antennae. 
Host pl.\nts. Localities, etc. — The species has been taken 
on a number of occasions as follows : 

1. On Habumokuren, Magnolia couspicuo Salisb.. Nishiga- 
hara. Tokyo, May 12, 1913. Collection number 30. 

2. On Karalachi (trifoliate orange), Poncinis trifoliata Raf. 
(listed as Aegle sepiaria DC. or Citrus trifoliata Linn.), 
Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 15, 1913. Collection number 
42. 

3. On orange, Shizzuoka-Ken. May 18. 1913. Collection 
number 50. 

4. On Karalachi and on Asagao, Ipomcca hederacea Jacq. 
listed as Pharbitis hederacea Jacq.), Tokyo, May 22, 1913. 
Collection number 51. 



Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae fLinn.) 
Figure 12 

This species is apparently quite common in the vicinity of 
Tokyo, having been taken on a number of host plants as fol- 
lows : 

1. On L^me (Japanese apricot). Prunus nnime S. & Z.. 
Komagome, Tokyo, May 9, 1913. Collection number 8. 

2. On Ume. Nishigahara, Tokyo. May 11. 1913. Collection 
number 17. 

3. On plum. Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 11, 1913. Collection 
number 18. 

4. On Japanese pear, Nishigahara, Tok3'0, May 11, 1913. 
Collection number 19. 

5. On peach, Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 11, 1913. Collection 
number 21. 

6. On Kuwai (old world arrowroot), Sagittaria sagittcefoUa 
Linn., and on Hasu (East Indian lotus), Neluinbo nucifera 
Gaertn., Tokyo, June 23, 1913. Collection number 91. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUirANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDID^ 



63 







g 



8 

■a. 



I 



3 



64 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Rhopalosiphum persicae (Sulzer) 

This species was taken on Natane-na (mustard), Brassica 
caiiif^estris Linn., Shiga-Ken, May 23, 1913. Collection num- 
ber 55. 

Rhopalosiphum, species 

Only two immature apterous females of this species were 
received and they are in very poor condition. The color is 
lemon-yellow with pale and dusky antennje, dark brown cor- 
nicles and lemon-yellow cauda. Occurs on Yomena, Boltonia 
iiidica Benth. (listed as Asteromcea indica Bl.), Somei, Tokyo, 
May 10. 1913. Collection number 12. 

Siphocoryne bicaudata, new species 
Figure 13 

Winged VIVIPAROUS females (Cotypes) — Three specimens, 
one without antennae, the other two in fair condition. Length 
1.25 mm., width 0.7 mm. Color not given, apparently black 
and green. Antennae dusky to black throughout, imbricated 
and with few hairs ; lengths of articles : L 0.05 mm. ; H, 0.04 
mm. ; III, 0.3 mm. ; IV, 0.15 mm. ; V, 0.1 1 mm. ; VI, 0.25 mm. 
(base 0.11 mm., filament 0.14 mm.) ; total 0.9 mm. Sensoria 
circular, of nearly the same size and occurring on the two 
specimens as follows: III, 17,20: 23,24; IV. 5,3: 6,4; V, 1,1 : 
2.2. Apical portions of the femora and tibiae and all of the 
tarsi black, the remainder of the legs pale. Front wings 3 mm. 
long. Abdomen just above the cauda with a distinct short 
black horn about 0.04 mm. long. Cornicles black, imbricated, 
swollen just beyond the middle, curved slightly outward and 
0.2 mm. long. Cauda dark and 0.17 mm. long. 

Apterous viviparous females (Cotypes) — Ten good 
specimens with full color notes. Length 1.8 mm., width 1 mm. 
Prevailing color green. Body surface variolous as is charac- 
teristic of this genus. Antennas short, pale at base and dark 
at tip, imbricated and with few hairs ; lengths of the articles : 
I, 0.06 mm. ; II, 0.04 mm. ; III, 0.22 mm. ; IV, 0.10 mm. ; V, 
0.08 mm.; VI, 0.2 mm. (base 0.09 mm., filament 0.11 mm.); 
total 0.7 mm. The sensorium near tip of V is noticeably large. 
Rostrum reaching to the 2nd coxae. Abdomen terminating in 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KVIVANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDJE 55 

Cotypcs 




W Pig. A. pyg. 

Figure 13. — Siphocoryne bicaudain, new species 



EOE del. 



a very long, reflexed horn extending back over the full lengtli 
of the Cauda, with two spines near the tip. Cornicles pale 
green with tips dusky, somewhat recurved, imbricated through- 
out and 0.3 mm. long. Cauda dusky to black, 0.13 mm. long. 

Host plant — Yanagi (willow), Salix, species. 
Locality — Tokyo. 
Date of collection — May 13, 1913. 
Collection number — 53. 

Note — This species is close to Nipposiphum salicicola Mats., 
but differs in having sensoria on articles IV and V of the an- 
tennae of the winged forms. 



66 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Siphocoryne japonica, new species 

Figure 14 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — From two indi- 
viduals in good condition. Length 1.2 mm., width 0.7 mm. 
Prevailing color blackish and green. Head dark. Antennre 
black throughout, imbricated, with very few hairs ; lengths of 
articles: I, 0.07 mm.; II, 0.05 mm.: Ill, 0.45 mm.: IV, 0.18 
mm.: V, 0.13 mm.; VI, 0.30 mm. (base 0.12 mm., filament 
0.18 mm.) ; total 1.18 mm. Sensor ia of various sizes and 
numerous, distributed as follows: III (left) 43, (right) 49; 
IV (left) 8, (right) 8; V (left) 3, (right) 2. There is the 
usual number on VI. Paratype has the following number : III 
27.32: IV 5,5; V 2,2. Rostrum reaching to the base of the 
abdomen. Thorax black. Legs pale with the apices of the 
tibiffi and all of the tarsi black. Front wings 3mm. long, veins 
brownish. Abdomen dark green with dusky or black markings 
on the dorsum. The abdominal posterior horn indistinct or 
rudimentary, dark with two apical spines. Cornicles black, 
somewhat recurved, imbricated, slightly swollen towards the 
ends, 0.28 mm. long. Cauda dusky, 0.15 mm. long. 

Apterous viviparous females (Paratypes) — Two mature 
specimens in good condition. Length 1.7 mm., width 0.9 mm. 
Prevailing color dusky purplish. Bodies slender, the surface 
variolous. Antennje short, pale with the apical portions dusky: 
lengths of the articles: I, 0.06 mm.; II, 0.05 mm.; Ill, 0.24 
mm.: IV, 0.09 mm.; V, 0.09 mm.; VI. 0.21 mm. (base 0.09 
mm., filament 0.12 mm.) ; total 0.74 mm. The sensoria nor- 
mal. Abdominal horn short or rudimentary with two terminal 
hairs. Cornicles imbricated, somewhat swollen beyond the 
middle, recurved, pale, with the tips or apical halves dusky, 0.3 
mm. long. Cauda dark, 0.12 mm. long. 

Nymphs — Somewhat pale rosy in color, with dusky an- 
tennae, legs and cornicles. 

Host plant — Shirane seniku. Angelica polymorpha Maxim. 

Locality — Nikko. 

Date of collection — June 10, 1913. 

Collection number — 85. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUWANA—SOUE JAPANESE APHWIDJE 



67 




W ant. type 



CP= 



A ant. 



^^m32ia9™»°°°'~"°°" 



W corn, type 





EOE deJ. 



VV pyg. 
A pyg. A pyg. type 

Figure 14. — Siphocorync japonica, new species 



Remarks — This species is very close to Siphocovyne bicau- 
data, but has a very much smaller abdominal horn in winged 
and apterous forms and many more sensoria (about twice as 
many) on the antennae of the winged forms. 



Aphis avenae Fab. 
Two lots taken as follows : 

1. Winged and apterous viviparous females on Omugi, Hor- 
deum vulgare Linn, (listed as H. sativum vulgare), Nishi- 
gahara, Tokyo, May 28, 1913. 

2. Apterous viviparous females on wheat, Nishigahara, 
Tokyo, May 28, 1913. Collection number 66. 



68 CALIFOR>lIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Aphis brassicae Linn. 

A good series of this species was collected on Aburana (Pak- 
choi cabbage), Brassica cliinensis Linn., Fuknoka, June 7, 
1913. Collected by M. Mori. Collection number 77. 



Aphis citricola Van der Goot 

1912— Alittel. Nat. Mus. 29, 2 Bieh. Jahrb. Hamb. Wissen. 
Aust 29, pp. 273-273, fig. 1. (Original description). 

A very interesting species which agrees so well with the one 
described by Van der Goot from Chile, where it was collected 
on orange, that it is regarded as specifically identical until 
proven otherwise. There are minor variations in color. Good 
series were taken as follows : 

1. On orange, Shidzuoka-Ken. May 19, 1913. Collection 
number 48. 

2. On young shoot of citrus tree, Tokyo, Aug. 1, 1913. Col- 
lection number 97. 



Aphis gossypii Glover 
Figure 15 

This species is apparently abundant from the number of 
times it was collected as will be seen from the following 
records : 

1. On Kusagi, Clerodeyidron trichotomum Thunb., Somei, 
Tokyo, May 7, 1913. Collection number 2. 

2. On unknown plant, Somei, Tokyo, May 10, 1913. Col- 
lection number 13. 

3. On Petasites japonicus F. Schmidt (listed as P. japonica 
Mig.), Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 17, 1913. Collection 
number 44. 

4. On orange, Shidzuoka-Ken, May 19, 1913. Collection 
number 49. 

5. On Kiku, Chrysaiithcinum, species, Nishigahara, Tokyo, 
May 22, 1913. Collection number 52. These are very 
small specimens. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHWIDM 



69 




EOE del. 

Figure \S.— Aphis gossypii Glover. Cornicles greatly enlarged 



6. On Nasu, Solaiiuin mcloiigoia Linn., and on Kiuri (cu- 
cumber), CtictiiJiis sath'us Linn., Tokyo. June 20, 1913. 
Collection number 90. Occasionally very injurious to these 
hosts. On some of the winged females there are one or 
two sensoria on article IV of the antennje, which is not at 
all normal. 

7. On Kiuri (cucumber), Cucumis sativus Linn., Nishiga- 
hara, Tokyo, June 28, 1913. Collection number 92. These 
are mostly typical, but cornicles are long and some have 
one or two sensoria on antennal article IV. 

8. On potato, Nishigahara, Tokyo, June 28, 1913. Collec- 
tion number 93. 



70 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



10. 



On Sarutori-ibara, Siiiilax zvalteri Pursh. (listed as S. 
china Linn.), Nishigahara, Tokyo, Aug. 4, 1913. Collec- 
tion number 99. These liave much more hair on the an- 
tennje than normal with article III longer and the cornicles 
larger. It is very likely a new species. 

On orange, Okiku. Sgidzuoka-Ken, Oct. 5, 1913. Collec- 
tion number 107. 



Aphis japonica, new species 
Figure 16 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — Selected from five 
individuals. Length 1.4 mm., width (of paratype) 0.5 mm. 
Prevailing color dark green to black. Head black. Antennae 
black throughout, imbricated and with few hairs ; lengths of 
the articles: I, 0.06 mm.; II, 0.06 mm.; Ill, 0.33 mm.; IV, 
0.185 mm.; V, 0.13 mm. ; VI, 0.445 mm. (base 0.07 mm., fila- 




W corn. 
W hind t. 

W Cauda <^ 



EOE del. 



Figure 16. — Al<hls japonica, new species 



Vol.. VIII] ESSIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDM 7\ 

ment 0.375 mm.) ; total 1.21 mm. Sensoria of various sizes 
and distributed over III and IV in large numbers as follows: 
(left) III, 23; IV, 8; V, the usual normal one which is very 
large. The paratypes show the following variations: III, 
21-28; IV, 9-12; V, 1-3. Rostrum reaching to the 2nd coxa. 
Thorax shiny black. Coxse, tarsi and apical ends of the femora 
and tibiae black, the remainder of the legs pale brownish. 
Wing veins dusky; length of the front wings 2.1 mm. Abdo- 
men yellowish or dark green with dark markings on the sides 
and dorsum. Cornicles dusky, faintly imbricated, somewhat 
constricted beyond the middle, slightly recurved and 0.26 mm. 
long. Cauda dark and 0.06 mm. long. 

Apterous viviparou.s females (Paratypes) — A large num- 
ber of specimens. Length 1.27 mm., width 0.7 mm. Prevail- 
ing color dark green. Head dark green. Antennae dark except 
III and the base of IV which are pale ; lengths of the articles : 
I. 0.07 mm. ; II, 0.05 mm. ; III, 0.17 mm. ; IV, 0.14 mm. ; V, 
0.095 mm. ; VI, 0.30 mm. (base 0.07 mm., filament 0.23 mm.) ; 
total 0.825 mm. Thorax and abdomen dark-green. The lat- 
ter with a pair of tubercles just behind the cornicles. Cornicles 
black, imbricated, almost straight, 0.33 mm. long. Cauda 
black, wide at base and 0.09 mm. long. 

Nymphs — pale green. 

Host plant — apple. 

Date of collection — May 7, 1913. 

Collection number — 4. 



Aphis medicaginis Koch 

Figure 17 

Recorded from a number of host plants as follows : 

1. On Soramame, Vicia faba equina Pers., Nishigahara, 
Tokyo, May 8, 1913. Collection number 6. 

2. On Utsugi, Dcntzia scabra Thunb., Somei, Tokyo, May 
10, 1913. Collection number 14. 

3. On unknown plant, Somei, Tokyo, May 10, 1913. Collec- 
tion number 15. 



72 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ses. 





7r-v[j):2IZ lZIil ; .a 8 a p!^^ 



A corn. 



\V hind t 



A Cauda 



A liind t. 




F.OF, del. 



Figure 17. — Aphis ntedicagtnis Koch 



4. On Soramame, I'icia faba equina Pers., Tokyo, May 14, 
1913. Collection number 33. 

5. On ]\Iukuge (shrubby althea or rose of Sharon), Hibis- 
cus syriacus Linn., and on Keyaki, Zelkova acuminata 
Planch., Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 15, 1913. Collection 
number 38. 

6. On Genge, Astragalus sinicus Linn., Shiga-Ken, May 23, 
1913. Collection number 56. 

7. On Waremokau, Poterium officinale A. Gray (listed as 
Sanguisorba officiualisl^mn.), Nikko, June 10, 1913. Col- 
lection number 87. Only apterous viviparous females 
present. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KVWANA—SOME JAPAXESE APHIDIDX 73 

Aphis pomi DeGeer 
Collected in two lots as follows : 

1. On Bake (Japan quince or Japonica), Cliceiiomeles japon- 
ica Lindl., (listed as Cydonia japonica Pers.), Nakano, 
Tokyo, May 25, 1913. Collection number 60. 

2. On apple and Japanese pear, Tokyo, June 2. 1913. Col- 
lection number 69. 



Aphis rumicis Linn. 

The material taken checks up with this species very well. It 
was collected as follows : 

1. On Gishi-gishi, Rumex crispus Linn, (listed as R. japoni- 
cus Meisn.), Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 14, 1913. Collec- 
tion number 35. One imperfect winged individual and 
apterous females in this lot. 

2. On Gishi-gishi, Tokyo, May 26, 1913. Collection num- 
ber 61. 

Aphis siphonella, new species 
Figure 18 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — Selected from six 
specimens. Length 1.2 mm., width 0.6 mm. Head dark. An- 
tennae black throughout, imbricated and with few hairs : 
lengths of articles : L 0.05 mm. ; H, 0.05 mm. : III, 0.26 mm. ; 
IV, 0.23 mm.; V, 0.26 mm.; VI, 0.42 mm. (base 0.12 mm., 
filament 0.30 mm.) ; total 1.27 mm. Sensoria numerous on 
III, a ferw on IV, and normal on V and VI. On the left an- 
tenna (right member missing) there are on III, 20; on IV. 4. 
The single normal one on V is quite a distance from the tip. 
On the paratypes the number varies as follows: III, 7-20; IV, 
0-1. Rostrum (paratype) reaching to the 2nd coxae. Pro- 
thorax dark green, the remainder of the thorax black ; distinct 
lateral prothoracic tubercles evident on some of the paratypes 
as are also several pairs of marginal abdominal tubercles. 
Coxae, tarsi and the apices of the femora and tibice black, the 



74 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 





^^^V/ ant. t>Pe 



:5S323323&IDW ant iii iv 



Whlndt.'^^ 
type 



A hind t~^^^~-^ EOE del. 



Figure 18. — Aphis siphoHclla, new species 



remainder of the legs pale. Primarj' wings 2.7 mm. long. 
Cornicles very short, black, 0.025 mm. long; the cauda dark, 
0.16 mm. long. 

Apterous viviparous females (Paratypes) — Ten speci- 
mens. Length 1.4 mm., width 1 mm. Prevailing color dark 
brown, the body being slightly covered with a white pulver- 
ulence. Antennae with articles I and II dusky ; III, IV and 
most of V pale, and the tip of V and all of VI black : lengths 
of the articles : I, 0.07 mm. ; II, 0.05 mm. ; III, 0.24 mm. ; IV, 
0.22 mm. ; V, 0.24 mm. ; VI, 0.39 mm. (base 0.12 mm., filament 
0.27 mm.) ; total 1.21 mm. There is a pair of short but dis- 
tinct lateral prothoracic tubercles. Abdomen dark brown 
with black markings on the dorsum and with four or more 



Vol. Vni] ESSIG &■ KUtVA.\:4—S0ME JAPANESE APHIDID.^ 75 

pairs of lateral tubercles. Cornicles black, imbricated and very 
short, 0.05 mm. long. Cauda black, 0.25 mm. long. 

Nymphs — pale with dark wing pads. 
HcsT PLANT — Japanese pear. 
Locality — Omori, Tokyo. 
D.\TE OF COLLECTION — May 12, 1913. 

Collection number — 29. 

Remarks — Named from its very short cornicles. 



Aphis somei, new species 

Figure 19 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — From a large series. 
Length 1.6 mm., width 0.7 mm. Prevailing color dark olive 
green and black. Antennje black throughout, imbricated, well 
clothed with conspicuous and quite long hairs ; lengths of the 
articles: L 0.06 mm.; H, 0.06 mm.; IH, 0.31 mm.; IV, 0.25 
mm.; V, 0.27 mm.; VI, 0.43 mm. (base 0.12 mm., filament 
0.31 mm.); total L38 mm. Sensoria on III (right) 8; IV 
(right) 2; (left) 3. On the paratypes the number varies as 
follows: III, 8-14; IV. 1-5; V and VI have the normal ones. 
Rostrum reaching nearly to the 3rd coxae. Thorax shiny black 
with large blunt prothoracic tubercles on the sides. Front 
wings i2 mm. long. Abdomen dark green with black trans- 
verse markings on the dorsum. Cornicles very short, black, 
imbricated, slightly swollen at the base or middle with flaring 
mouth, length 0.12 mm. Cauda dark, 0.14 mm. long. 

Apterous viviparous fem.\les (Paratypes) — A large 
series of specimens. Average length 1.9 mm., width 1.3 mm. 
Prevailing color brown or purplish, often slightly covered with 
whitish powder. Antennae dark with the bases of III, IV and 
sometimes V pale ; lengths of the articles : I, 0.09 mm. ; II, 
0.07 mm. ; III, 0.38 mm. ; IV, 0.26 mm. ; V, 0.25 mm. ; VI, 0.42 
mm. (base 0.13 mm., filament 0.29 mm.) ; total 1.47 mm. 
Lateral prothoracic tubercles present and at least one pair of 
tubercles on the abdomen. Cornicles short, usually widest at 
base with flaring mouth, imbricated, 1.51 mm. long. Cauda 
greenish to dark, wide at base, pointed, 0.09 mm. long. 



76 



CALIFORKIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4ih Ser. 





, M A com. 
VV Cauda Si/ A cauda. 

{^=Z^V hind t. f^^^^A hind t. 

Figure 19. — Aphis somci, new species 



Host plants, localities, etc. — This species was taken as 
follows : 

1. On Xurude. Rhus javanica Linn, (listed as R. semialata 
Murr. ), Xishigahara, Tokyo, May 7, 1913. Collection 
number 3. 

2. On Yabudomari, Viburnum tomentosum Thunb., Somei, 
Tokyo, May 9, 1913. Collection number 11. 

3. On apple, Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 11, 1913. Collection 
number 20. 

4. On orange, Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 31, 1913. Collec- 
tion number 68. 

5. On Japanese pear, Tokyo. June 2, 1913. Collection num- 
ber 70. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG &■ KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDJE JJ 

Aphis spinosula, new species 
Figure 20 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — From four indi- 
viduals in rather poor condition. Lengtli 1.1 mm., width 0.45 
mm. Prevailing colors green and black. Head shiny black. 
Antennae black except the base of III which is slightly pale : 
lengths of articles : I, 0.04 mm. ; II, 0.05 mm. ; III, 0.34 mm. ; 
IV, 0.17 mm.; V, 0.13 mm.; VI, 0.44 mm. (base 0.10 mm., 
filament 0.34 mm.); total 1.17 mm. Sensoria numerous; 25 
on III (right), 6 on IV, 2 on V. Paratypes have from 25-27 
on III, 9-11 on IV and 1-3 on V. Rostrum extending to the 
3rd coxae. Thorax shiny black. Legs pale green with the 
distal ends of the femora and tibiae and the entire tarsi black. 




W ant. type ^"7 

W ant. iii iv 



'^^^g^'^^CZ^Sa^g^aEZw?^ 





vA 



<e=c 



mf:m^:A Wcorn. 

3^ W Cauda 

(f=^W hind t. 
^P^ EOE del. 



Figure 20. — Aphis spinosula, new species 



78 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Front wings 2.7 mm. long. Abdomen pale-green with indis- 
tinct rough wart-like marginal tubercles. Cornicles dusky, 
straight, widest at the base, slightly flaring at the mouth, im- 
bricated with several spine-like hairs and 0.18 mm. long. 
Cauda pale green, short, bluntly pointed, 0.07 mm. long. 

Apterous viviparou.s females (Paratypes) — A good ser- 
ies of specimens. Length 1.5 mm., width 1.1 mm. Prevailing 
colors pale and dark green. Antennae dark with the base of 
III pale, imbricated; lengths of articles: I, 0.05 mm. ; II, 0.06 
mm.: Ill, 0.19 mm.: IV, 0.14 mm.; V, 0.12 mm.; VI, 0.32 
mm. (base 0.09 mm., filament 0.23 mm.) ; total 0.88 mm. Pro- 
thoracic tubercles in the form of large rough basal projections. 
Abdomen pale-green, with short, wart-like marginal tubercles. 
Cornicles black, imbricated, same shape as in the winged form, 
and with several spines as shown in the accompanying draw- 
ing; length 0.25 mm. Cauda dark, widest at base, pointed, 
0.13 mm. long. 

Nymphs — pale-green with dusky antennae and cornicles. 

Host plant — Cherry. 

Locality — Nishigahara, Tokyo. 

Date of collection — May 10, 1913. 

Collection number — 16. 

Remarks — Named from the spines of the cornicles. 



Aphis thalictrii, new species 
Figure 21 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — Selected from two 
good specimens. Length 1.2 mm. Only side view shown so 
no measurement of width possible. Prevailing colors yellow 
and black. Head black. Antennae black throughout, imbri- 
cated, with article III exceptionally long; lengths of articles: 
I, 0.06 mm. ; II, 0.05 mm. ; III, 0.58 mm. ; IV, 0.13 mm. : V, 
0.13 mm.; VI, 0.25 mm. (base 0.10 mm., filament 0.15 mm.) ; 
total 1.2 mm. Article III with many sensoria ; 56 on left mem- 
ber and 64 on right; the paratype shows 44 and 52; remaining 
articles with the usual number. Rostrum reaching nearly to 
the 2nd coxae. Prothorax dusky yellow, remaining thoracic 



Vol. VIII] ESSIC & KVWANA—SOUE JAPANESE APHWIDJE 



79 




W ant type 






W hind t 



type 



A corn. (S 



A Cauda 



A hind t. 



Figure 21. — Aphis thalictrii, new species 




EOE del. 



segments black. Legs pale with the tips of the femora, the 
tibiffi and tlie entire tarsi black. Front wings 2 mm. long. 
Abdomen lemon-yellow with dusky dorsal markings. Cor- 
nicles pale-yellow, finely imbricated, widest at base, 0.07 mm. 
long. Cauda pale-yellow, 0.12 mm. long. 

Apterous viviparous fem.\les (Paratypes) — Three or 
four good specimens. Length 1.1 mm., width 0.65 mm. Pre- 
vailing color pale lemon-yellow. Antennae pale throughout 
and finely imbricated ; lengths of articles : L 0.03 mm. ; II, 0.04 
mm. : III, 0.41 mm. ; IV, 0.10 mm. ; V, 0.12 mm. ; VI, 0.25 mm. 
(base 0.10 mm., filament 0.15 mm.) ; total 0.95 mm. Article 
III very long as will be seen from the above. Rostrum reach- 
ing to the 2nd co.xse. Cornicles pale, short, finely imbricated, 
widest at the base and gradually tapering towards the mouth, 
0.08 mm. long. Cauda pale, noticeably long, being 0.21 mm. 



80 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4ih Ser. 

Nymphs — Pale-yellow. 

Host plant — Aki-Karamatsu, Tlialictriiiii iniiuis "Lmn. 

Locality — Nishigahara, Tokyo. 

Date of collection — August 4, 1913. 

Collection number — 101. 



Aphis, species 

But two winged viviparous females with antenrice missing 
were received. The color is given as bright yellow with dark 
head, antennse, thorax, cornicles and portions of the legs. Cor- 
nicles and Cauda are short, the latter broad. This species was 
taken from pseudogalls made on the upper surface near the 
midribs of cherry leaves, Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 19, 1913. 
Collection number 46. 

Aphis, species 

This species is represented by a few apterous viviparous 
females, described as green in color with pale green cornicles 
having black tips. It was collected on strawberry, probably at 
Nishigahara, Tokyo ( ? locality omitted). May 13, 1913. Col- 
lection number 31. 

Toxoptera aurantii Fonsc.^ 

This species was collected on Skikimi, Illiciuin aiiisattiin 
Linn., at Nishigahara. Tokyo, May 17, 1913. Collection num- 
ber 45. 

Toxoptera piricola Mats. 
Figure 22 

Winged viviparous female — From two good specimens. 
Length L6 mm., width 0.65 mm. Prevailing colors black and 
dark green. Head black. Antennae black with articles I. 11 
and the extreme base of HI dusky or pale, imbricated, with few 
hairs and many sensoria ; lengths of the articles : L 0.05 mm. ; 
n, 0.0 7 mm. ; III, 0.41 mm. ; IV, 0.27 mm. : V, 0.21 mm. ; VI, 

' T auraHti(r Koch is a synonym of this species. See W. P. Phillips and J. J. 
Davis. Tech. Ser. no. 25, pt. 1, Bur. Ent. U. S. Dept. .^gric, p. 8, May 4, 1912. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUH'AXA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDM 



81 




W ant. i-v 




A ant. 



Acorn. {^^^M^E^ teMfflSSfiS) W com. 

3^i — " 

TXt_, W Cauda 



A Cauda J — ' 

A hind t. ^^5=--^ 




W hind t. 



type 



EOE del. 



woA on host 
Figure 22.— To.voptera f'i'icola Mats. 

0.56 mm. (base 0.10 mm., filament 0.46 mm.) ; total 1.57 mm. 
Sensoria circular of various sizes and distributed as follows: 
III (left) 29, (right) 26; IV (left) 14, (right) 15; V (left) 
5, (right) 6. One individual shows the following: III (left) 
32, (right) 24; IV (left) 16, (right) 16; V (left) 4, (right) 
5 (some of these are difficult to make out). Rostrum reaching 



82 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se«. 

nearly to the 3rd coxse. Thorax black. Primary wings 3 mm. 
long. Legs pale with the distal ends of the femora and tibije 
and all of the tarsi black. Abdomen green with dark lateral 
and dorsal spots and with four pairs of marginal tubercles 
visible. Cornicles black, faintly imbricated, slightly widest at 
the base but almost cylindrical, somewhat incurved, 0.3 mm. 
long. Cauda black, 0.15 mm. long. 

Apterous viviparous females — Fifteen good specimens. 
Average length 1.35 mm., width 0.85 mm. Prevailing color 
green. Antennae dark except I, II and the base of III which 
are pale; lengths of articles: I, 0.05 mm.; II, 0.07 mm.; Ill, 
0.32 mm. ; IV, 0.23 mm. ; V, 0.21 mm. ; VI, 0.5 mm. (base 0.1 
mm., filament 0.4 mm.) ; total 1.38 mm. Rostrum reaching 
midway between the 2nd and 3rd coxae. Cornicles pale dusky 
with darker tips, faintly imbricated, 0.33 mm. long. Cauda 
color of body, 0.17 mm. long. 

Host plant — Forms pseudogalls on the edges of the leaves 
of the Japanese pear. 

Locality — Omori, Tokyo. 

Date of collection — May 12, 1913. 

Collection number — 28. 



Chaitophorus japonica, new species 
Figure 23 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — Selected from three 
good specimens. Length 1.4 mm., width (of paratype) 0.6 
mm. across the thorax. Prevailing color shiny black. Body 
covered with long hairs. Head black. Antennas dark with all 
of III and the bases of IV and V pale, with numerous conspicu- 
ous long hairs along the upper margin ; lengths of articles : I, 
0.05 mm. ; II, 0.04 mm. ; III, 0.43 mm. ; IV, 0.19 mm. ; V, 0.19 
mm. ; VI, 0.33 mm. (base 0.10 mm., filament 0.23 mm.) ; total 
1.23 mm. Sensoria large, circular and distributed along the 
full length of III, there being 10 on the left member (right 
missing). Paratypes show a variation of 8, 6, 14 on III; the 
other articles have the usual number. Rostrum extending 
slightly beyond the 2nd coxae. Front wings 2.4 mm. long. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUIVANA—SOME JAPANESE APHWIDAi 



83 




EOE del. 



Figure 23. — Chaitoplwnis jufonica, new species 



Tarsi and apices of the tibije and femora black, tlie remainder 
of the leg-s pale. Abdomen dark with yellow patches around 
the cornicles. Cornicles dark, imbricated, widest at the base, 
0.1 mm. long. Cauda dark, inconspicuous. 

Apterous viviparous females (Paratypes) — Two rather 
poor specimens. Length 1.3 mm., width 0.9 mm. Prevailing 
color shiny black. Body covered with long hairs. Antenna; 
about the same color as in the winged form and as hairy; 
lengths of articles: I, 0.10 mm.; II, 0.05 mm.; Ill, 0.4 mm.: 
IV, 0.25 mm.; V, 0.24 mm.; VI, 0.33 mm. (base 0.12 mm., 
filament 0.21 mm.) ; total 1.37 mm. Cornicles dark, imbri- 
cated, somewhat constricted near the middle. 0.13 mm. long 
and 0.16 mm. diameter at base. 

Host plant — Enko-Kaede. Acer pichim Tlntnb. 
Locality — Nikko. 
Date of collection — June 9, 1913. 
Collection number — 86. 



84 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 



Chaitophorus salijaponica, new species 

Figure 24 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — From three good 
specimens. Length 1.2 mm., width 0.5 mm. Prevaihng color 
dark-green to blackish. Head shiny black. Antenn?e dusky, 
slightly darker at the tips of the articles, imbricated and with 
few long hairs on front margin ; lengths of the articles : I, 0.05 
mm. ; II, 0.04 mm. ; III, 0.25 mm. ; IV, 0.13 mm. ; V, 0.14 mm. ; 
VI, 0.32 mm. (base 0.11 mm., filament 0.21 mm.) ; total 0.91 
mm. Sensoria circular and distributed as follows: III (left) 
8, (right) 11; IV (left) 1, (right) 3; V (left) 2, (right) 1. 
Paratypes show the following: III, 8-10; IV, 2-4; V, 1-4. 
Rostrum reaching nearly to the 2nd coxa?. Thorax shiny black. 
Front wings narrow, 2 mm. long. Legs dusky with black 
tarsi. Abdomen dark green with darker dorsal and lateral 



W com. 



W Cauda JCS^ 



W hind t.t$^^5" 
type 





EOEdeL 



Figure 24. — Chaitophorus salijaponicus, new species 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG Sr KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDWM 85 

markings. Cornicles imbricated or faintly reticulate, short, 
wide at the base. 0.05 mm. long and 0.07 mm. diameter at the 
base. Cauda distinctly knobbed, small, 0.05 mm. long. 

Apterous viviparous females (Paratypes) — Three or 
four good specimens. Length averages 1 mm., width 0.6 mm. 
Prevailing color dark. Body covered with long hairs. An- 
tennae pale with the apical half dusky to black, imbricated, with 
few long hairs; lengths of the articles: I, 0.04 mm.: II, 0.05 
mm.; Ill, 0.20 mm.; IV, 0.11 mm.; V, 0.12 mm.; VI, 0.28 
mm. (base 0.08 mm., filament 0.20 mm.) ; total 0.8 mm. Ros- 
trum extending slightly beyond the 2nd coxae. Cornicles short, 
finely imbricated or reticulate. 0.06 mm. long and 0.09 mm. 
diameter at the base. Cauda dark, knobbed, 0.06 mm. long. 

Nymphs — Dark with pale thorax. 

Host plant — Koriyanagi, Salix multincrvis F. & Sav. 

Locality — Nishigahara, Tokyo. 

Date OF collection — May 14, 1913. 

Collection number — 36. 

Note — Close to C. salicicolus Mats., but differs in antennal 
structure, especially the relative lengths of base and spur of 
article VI. 

Calaphis magnoliae, new species 
Figure 25 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — Selected from seven- 
teen good specimens. Length 1.4 mm., width 0.5 mm. This 
beautiful species is pale straw-yellow with black markings on 
the body and wings. The hairs on the head and thorax are 
quite long, somewhat shorter on the abdomen. Antennae aris- 
ing from inconspicuous frontal tubercles, very long, pale or 
transparently white with conspicuous black areas near the mid- 
dle and apex of article III and with the extreme bases and 
apices of IV and V black, and all of VI black or dusky except 
the base; lengths of the articles: I, 0.09 mm.; II, 0.05 mm.; 
Ill, 0.81 mm.; IV, 0.58 mm.; V, 0.52 mm.; VI, 1.14 mm. 
(base 0.18 mm., filament 0.96 mm.) ; total 3.19 mm. Sen- 
soria on III circular or oval, arranged in a row and mostly 



86 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 




W ant. Ill 



f^Wcorn.[]^ 



type 





W Cauda W an. plate 



EOE del. 



Figure 25. — Calapliis inagnolice, new species 



confined to the dark area near the middle with 3 or 4 
in the pale basal region; there are 10 on each member. 
On the paratypes the number varies from 10 to 14 with 
a majority having 11 or 12. The usual number occurs 
on V and VI. Rostrum short, extending slightly be- 
yond the first coxae. Legs pale with the extreme apex 
of the femora dusky above; the bases of the tibiae conspic- 
uously black with the adjacent region pale yellow, and the 
apical half and the tarsi dusky. Front wings conspicuously 
marked with black as shown in the accompanying drawing; 
long and narrow, measuring in length 2.5 mm. ; stigma very 
pale with black tip, the radial sector vein wanting. Hind wings 
pale throughout. Abdomen apparently with five pairs of in- 
conspicuous tubercles which are very difficult to distinguish as 
they are small and concolorous with the body. Cornicles pale, 
slightly constricted in the middle and widest at the base, 0.06 



Vol. Vni] ESSIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHWIDM 87 

mm. long (paratype 0.08 mm. long). Cauda pale and dis- 
tinctly knobbed. Anal plate pale with small median constric- 
tion or incision. 

Nymphs — Pale-yellow and covered with numerous long 
capitate hairs or spines. 

Host plant — On the leaves of Kobushi, Magnolia kohns 
Thunb. 

Locality — Akabane, near Tokyo. 

Date of collection — August 1, 1913. 

Collection number — 96. 



Euceraphis japonica, new species 
Figure 26 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — A single fine speci- 
men and several nearly mature nymphs. Length 2.1 mm., 
width 0.7 mm. Prevailing color dark reddish brown with 
black dorsal markings. Body thickly beset with rather long 
fine hairs. Antennae dark throughout with many long fine 
hairs; lengths of articles: L 0.11 mm. ; II, 0.12 mm. ; III, 1.10 
mm. ; IV, 0.6mm. ; V, 0.46mm. ; VI, 0.35mm. (base 0.20mm., 
filament 0.15 mm.) : total 2.74 mm. All of article III except 
the extreme ends thickly covered with many transversely oval 
sensoria as shown in the accompanying drawing. There are 
the usual number on V and VI. Rostrum (of nymph) reach- 
ing nearly to the 2nd coxae. Front wings narrow, 4.2 mm. 
long. Tarsi, apices of the tibiae and the femora black, the re- 
mainder of the legs pale brown. Abdomen dark reddish brown 
with black dorsal markings. Cornicles black, shorter than 
wide, those on the type indistinguishable because of the opaque 
body. On a nearly mature nymph they are 0.03 mm. long and 
0.04 mm. in diameter at the base. Cauda black and rounded. 
Anal plate black, with a very small middle constriction. 



Apterous viviparous female (Paratype) — A single good 
specimen. Length 2.3 mm., width 1 mm. Color about the 
same as in the winged form. Body hairy. Antennae dark, 
hairy; lengths of the articles: I, 0.13 mm.; II, 0.09 mm.; Ill, 



88 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 




EOE del. 



Wpyg- 



Figure 26— Eiiceraphis japonica, new species. Wing much reduced from 
scale. 



0.75 mm.: IV, 0.34 mm.; V, 0.29 mm.; VI, 0.31 mm. (base 
0.17 mm., filament 0.14 mm.) ; total 1.91 mm. Rostrum reach- 
ing to the 2nd coxae. Cornicles black, short, 0.04 mm. long 
and 0.08 mm. diameter at the base. Cauda black, rounded or 
nearly truncate. 



Nymphs — Only a little lighter in color than the adults. 
Host plant — Yama hannoki, Aliius indica glauca Ait. 
Locality — Nikko. 

Date OF collection — June 11, 1913. 
Collection number — 84. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUM:4.\'A~S0MB JAPANESE APHIDIDJE 



89 



Myzocallis capitata, new species 

Figure 27 

Winged viviparous females (Cotypes) — There are four- 
teen specimens of winged females but none perfect enough to 
be designated as type. Length 1.8 mm., width 0.5 mm. Prevail- 
ing color pale yellowish green. Body covered with large and 
small spines. Head whitish with a number of long stiff spines 
arising from short tubercles. Antennas pale green with 
the apices of III, IV and V and the middle and tip of VI 
black: articles I and II each with one, and III with 4 
to 6 large, curved, knobbed, black spines which are very 
conspicuous; lengths of articles: I, 0.05 mm.; II, 0.05 
mm.; Ill, 0.50 mm.; IV, 0.30 mm.; V. 0.27 mm. ; VI, 
0.43 mm. (base 0.16 mm., filament 0.27 mm.) ; total 1.6 mm. 
Sensoria on III, large, circular, in a row, confined to the basal 
half and from two to six in number, the majority having four. 

cot>pes 




EOE del. 



Figure 27. — Mycocallis ni/'i/ii/a. new species 



90 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Rostrum reaching to the 2nd coxae. Prothorax with two pairs 
of large dorsal finger-like tubercles and one pair of large 
lateral ones, all supporting a number of spines; mesothorax 
with inany small tubercles supporting each a spine, those on the 
metathorax, if present, very obscure. Front wings 2.6 mm. 
long with venation and markings as shown in the accompany- 
ing drawing. Legs pale green with the tips of the tarsi dusky 
or black. Abdomen with three pairs of large finger-like tuber- 
cles on the dorsum near the base, two pairs of small ones just 
behind these and three or four pairs of large somewhat trun- 
cate ones along the sides. All of these tubercles are pale dusky 
and each has a number of spines. Cornicles pale, widest at base, 
somewhat constricted in the middle and 0.1 mm. long. Cauda 
green, distinctly knobbed, with quite a long stipe, 0.1 mm. in 
length. Anal plate pale and deeply constricted in the middle. 

Nymphs — Pale-yellow and green with the bodies covered 
with long capitate hairs. 

Host plant — On the underside of the leaves of Kunugi, 
Quercus serrata Thunb. 

Locality — Tokyo. 

Date of collection — May 26, 1913. 

Collection number — 63. 

Remarks — Named from the conspicuous knobbed or capi- 
tate hairs on the antennae. 



Myzocallis macrotuberculata, new species 
Figure 28 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — Selected from thir- 
teen good specimens. Length L5 mm., width 0.6 mm. Pre- 
vailing color green with dark abdominal tubercles. Head with 
a number of long stout spines arising from small, somewhat 
dusky tubercles. Antennae pale-green with the apical portions 
of HI-VI dusky or black, with many long hairs ; lengths of the 
articles: L 0.07 mm.; H. 0.05 mm.; HL 0.42 mm.; IV, 0.30 
mm. ; V, 0.21 mm. ; VI, 0.25 mm. (base 0.13 mm., filament 0.12 
mm.) ; total 1.30 mm. Sensoria on III circular, in a row the 
full length of the article, 9 on left member and 8 on the right. 
Paratypes show a variation of from 7 to 11, the majority hav- 



Vol. VHI] ESSIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDM. 



91 




ro. tub. 



VV corn. 



W hind t. 



W an. plate 



EOE del. 



Figure 28. — MyzocalUs niacrotubernilatu, new species 



ing 8. Rostrum reaching to base of abdomen ; prothora.x with 
three pairs of large, dusky finger-like tubercles, two pairs on 
the dorsum and a lateral pair with several small smooth hemi- 
spherical projections at the top, which appear not imlike ocelli, 
the lateral pair of tubercles largest. On the mesothorax are 
two pairs of tubercles, the first pair small and the hind pair 
large, finger-like and located near the base of the wings. There 
appears to be a pair of small tubercles on the metathorax but 
they are not plain on the mounted specimens. From the large 
tubercles arise several spines and from the small ones but a 
single one. Coxae and trochanters green, the remainder of the 
legs dusky. Wings rather slender, the veins of both pairs with 
clouded borders. The front wings have venation as shown in 
the illustration and are 2.5 mm. long. Abdomen pale green 
with dark tubercles as follows : three pair of large black finger- 
like ones on the middle base of the dorsum, the first pair the 



92 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

smallest and the last pair largest; five pairs of large truncate, 
mostly faintly bilobed yellow or pale dusky ones, on the sides, 
many of which are as large as the cornicles. From each of 
these tubercles arise a number of hairs or spines. Cornicles 
pale green, widest at the base, somewhat constricted near the 
middle: the length. 0.10 mm., greater than the width. Cauda 
knobbed with only a slight basal constriction, pale green, 0.10 
mm. long. Anal plate distinctly bilobed. 

Nymphs — Pale green, the bodies tliickly beset with long 
hairs which are not knobbed at the tips. 

Host plant — On the underside of the leaves of Kashiwa, 
Quercus dentata Thunb. 

Locality — Tokyo? (not given). 

Date of collection — May 19. 1913. 

Collection number — 4-7. 

Remarks — The species is named from the large tubercles on 
the dorsum. 

Myzocallis kuricola (Mats.) 

(Nippocallis kuricola Mats.) 

Figure 29 

Winged viviparous female — Thirty-two good specimens. 
Length 1.2 mm., width 0.55 mm. Prevailing color pale green, 
the body covered with a whitish powder. Head pale green to 
amber with several pairs of small tubercles from each of which 
arises a single long straight spine. Antennae pale, furnished 
with a few long hairs, with the articles L H and the extreme 
base of HI and the apices of HLVI dusky or brownish : lengths 
of the articles : L 0.05 mm. ; H, 0.06 mm. : HL 0.39 mm. ; IV, 
0.18 mm. : V, 0.17 mm. ; VI, 0.18 mm. (base 0.09 mm., filament 
0.09 mm.) ; total L03 mm. Sensoria large, circular and in a 
row. On III there are 6 on each member, the paratypes show- 
ing a variation of from 5 to 8 : articles V and VI have the usual 
ones. Rostrum reaching to the second coxse. Tubercles on 
the thorax small, with single spines arising from each. Legs 
pale green with the distal ends of the tibiae and the tarsi 
faintly dusky. The veins of the wings are heavily clouded, the 
borders being specially wide in the front wings as shown in the 



Vol. \-in] ESSIG & KUH'AXA—SOME JAPAXESE APHIDIDJE 



93 




eL----jSa^gu-Q,-a.aIfl_g^ 



W corn 







W ant. iii 



EOE del. 



W an. ^late 



Figure 29.— Mycocallis kuricola (Mats.) 



drawing; radial sector vein so very faint as to appear entirely 
absent ; length of the front wings 2 mm. Abdomen pale green 
with three or four pairs of large black tubercles on the sides in 
front of the cornicles (the number is difficult to make out on 
the mounted specimens on hand) ; these tubercles bearing 
several spines. Cornicles dusky, widest at the base, somewhat 
constricted before the mouth which is slightly flared, 0.08 mm. 
long and 0.10 mm. in diameter at base. The paratypes also 
show that the diameter of the base is usually as great or slightly 
greater than the length. Cauda distinctly knobbed, dusky, 0.06 
mm. long. Anal plate normal. 

NyxMphs — Pale green, the bodies covered with long hairs 
some of which have small knobs at the ends. 

Host plants, localities, etc.— The material was collected 
in two lots as follows : 

1. On Kiiri, Castanea sativa Mill, (listed as C. vulgaris 

japonica A. DC), and on Kunugi, Quercus serrata Thunb., 

Nishigahara, Tokyo, June 5, 1913. Collection number 76. 



94 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

2. On Kuri, Castanca sativa Mill., Nishigahara, Tokyo, Oct. 
2, 1913. Collection number 106. In this lot were a large 
number of specimens which were apparently mature, but 
their wing pads, while almost perfect in structural details, 
were very small and rudimentary as if the development 
had been suddenly and permanently retarded. 



Myzocallis, species 

Of the five winged viviparous females of this very interesting 
species not a single one possessed a complete antenna necessary 
to complete determination. The species is pale green, small, 
about the size of My::ocol!is qucrcus (Kalt.) which it resembles 
in wing venation. The four or five pairs of abdominal tubercles 
are concolorous with the abdomen ; there are four very long 
spines on the front of the head and five or si.x shorter knobbed 
spines on the inside margins of antennal articles I-III ; basal half 
of III with three sensoria. A single apterous viviparous female 
shows the filament of the antennal article VI to be about twice 
as long as the base. The body is covered with long knobbed 
spines. 

Host plant — Taken on the undersides of the leaves of 
Kunugi, Quercus serrata Thunb. 
Locality — Nishigahara, Tokyo. 
Date OF collection — May 15, 1913. 
Collection number — 41. 



Myzocallis, species* 

A single winged viviparous female with parts of both an- 
tenna missing. The color is pale green with the antennre pale, 
the legs green with the tips of the tibiae and the entire tarsi 
dusky. The antennae of a nearly matured winged nymph has 
the base of VI 0.10 mm. and the filament 0.4 mm. long; 
article III, though partly missing, has 1 1 sensoria on the full 
length. Wings pale with a noticeably short radial sector. 

* The species on bamboo described as Takecallis bambusir Mats, appears to be 
the species described as Myzocallis arundicolens (Clarke). It is common at Berkeley, 
CaL 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHWIDM 



95 



Cornicles pale dusky, with wide mouth, 0.06 mm. long and 
about tiie same basal diameter. Taken on Honoki, Magnolia 
hypolcuca S. & Z., Nikko, June 9, 1913. Collection num- 
ber 83, 

Chromaphis celticolens, new species 

Figure 30 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — Selected from 7 
good specimens. Length 1.6 mm., width (paratype) 0.65 mm. 
Prevailing color yellow ; antennx pale with dusky area near 
the middle of III and black on the tips of III-VI. These black 
areas, when examined closely under high magnification, have 
pale irregular areas mosaic-like or not unlike conventional 




W Cauda 
W an. plate 



EOE del. 



W an. plate 

Figure 30. — MysocaJlis celticolens, new species 



96 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 

flowers; lengths of the articles: I, 0.10 mm.; II. 0.07 mm.; 
Ill, 0.62 mm. ; IV, 0.30 mm. ; V, 0.29 mm. ; VI, 0.25 mm. 
(base 0.21 mm., spur 0.04 mm.) ; total 1.63 mm. Sensoria on 
III transversely oval and occurring in a row near the middle 
or slightly toward the base from the middle, the number being 
7 on the right and 8 on the left member. Paratypes have from 
5 to 8, a majority having 6. Articles V and VI have the usual 
number. Rostrum extending to the 2nd coxa. Thorax dark- 
yellow or amber. Legs pale with the apices of the femora and 
the tarsi dusky. Wings having venation and markings as 
shown in the accompanying illustration, length of the primary 
wings 2.9 mm. Abdomen j'ellow or greenish with dusky 
dorsal spots. Cornicles pale dusky, little more than pores, 
about 0.025 mm. diameter at the mouth. Cauda pale, faintly 
knobbed, 0.09 mm. long. Ana! plate deeply constricted at the 
middle. 

Apterous vivip.\rous fem.\le (Paratype) — A single speci- 
men which may not be fully mature. Length 1.85 mm., width 
0.7 mm. Prevailing color yellow? (no color notes). Antennae 
with dusky markings on the tips of articles III-VI : lengths of 
the articles: I, 0.05 mm.; II, 0.06 mm.; III. 0.28 mm.; IV, 
0.15 mm.; V, 0.15 mm.; VI. 0.14 mm. (base 0.13 mm., spur 
0.04 mm.) ; total 0.83 mm. The body is clothed with a few 
simple hairs. 

Nymphs — Somewhat paler than the adults. 

Host pl.\nt — Enoki, Celtis siiio/sis Pers. (listed as Cctis). 

Locality — Tokyo. 

Date of collection — Aug. 1, 1913. 

Collection number — 98. 



Phyllaphis, species ? 

What appears to be a species of this genus was represented 
by a few apterous females. The color is dark reddish purple, 
the body being covered with white powder. The cornicles are 
short, dark and wider than long. The cauda is conical with a 
constriction near the middle, giving the apical part a knobbed 
appearance, and with a conical base. The anal plate is bilobed. 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUWANA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDX 97 

Taken on Maki, Podocarpus inacrophylla inoki Sieb. (listed as 
P. chiucnsis Wall), Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 24, 1913. Col- 
lection number 57. 



Trichosiphum kuwanai Pergande 

Only apterous viviparous females were taken on Kunugi, 
Quercus serrata Thunb., Nishigahara, Tokyo, May 15, 1913. 
Collection number 40. 



Eutrichosiphum, new genus 

Type: Trichosiphum pasanice Okajima 

This new genus has been erected to embrace the type named 
above, which differs from the other members of the genus 
Trichosiphum in having but 5-articled antennas. 

Eutrichosiphum pasaniae (Okajima) 

Figure 31 

A number of winged and apterous viviparous females were 
in this lot. All of the winged females have five articles as 
given by Okajima in his original description of the species''. 
Inasmuch as the apterous form has not been described, the 
following brief notes may be of interest : 

Apterous viviparous females — Length 1.3 mm., width 
0.8 mm. Prevailing color shiny black. Body entirely cov- 
ered with rather long stiff' hairs. Antennae pale dusky with 
tips darker and with few long hairs ; lengths of the articles : 
I, 0.05 mm.; II, 0.05 mm.: Ill, 0.25 mm.; IV, 0.11 mm.; V, 
0.24 mm. (base 0.09 mm., filament 0.15 mm.) ; total 0.7 mm. 
As will be seen the antennje are 5-articled as in the winged 
form. Rostrum long, reaching beyond the base of the abdo- 
men. Legs short, dusky, hairy. Cornicles black, somewhat 
swollen in the middle with both ends small, recurved, 0.35 mm. 
long, their entire surface closely beset with very short, scale-like 

" Bui. Col. Agric, Tokyo Imp. Univ., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 23-26, pis. iv and v, Sept. 
1908. 



98 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



VV an 




corn. 



EOE del. 



Figure 31. — Eutrichosiphum ptisaiiicr (Okajima) 



hairs and with many long hairs. Cauda and anal plate dark, 
hairy and broadly rounded. 

Host pl.\nt — Shii, Castanopsis cnspidata Schot. (listed as 
Pasania cnspidata Oerst.). 

Locality — Nishigahara, Tokyo. 
Date of collection — Sept. 14, 1913. 
Collection number — 104. 



Vol. N'III] ESSIG & KUU'ANA—SOME JAPASESE ArHWWAi 



99 



Lachnus pinidensiflorae, new species 
Figure 32 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — Selected from four 
individuals. Length 2 mm., width 0.7 mm. Prevailing color 
dark -brown to black. Body hairy; head black. Antennae 
dusky throughout with the apical portions of III-VI black, 
covered with long hairs; lengths of articles: I, 0.07 mm.; II, 




EOE del., 



Figure 32. — Larlunis fi"idcnsiflor(r, new species. Wing reduced from 
scale. 



lOQ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [pROC. 4th Ser. 

0.09 mm.; Ill, 0.46 mm.; IV, 0.21 mm.; V, 0.22 mm.; VI, 
0.15 mm. (base 0.12 mm., spur 0.03 mm.); total 1.20 mm. 
Sensoria large and circular, distributed on the left member as 
follows: III, 7 in a row; IV, 2; V. 2; VI with the usual 
mimber. Paratypes have on III, 10-12; IV, 0-3; V, 0-3. 
Rostrum long, reaching to the middle of the abdomen. Tho- 
rax black. CoxjE, trochanters and tarsi black, femora pale 
with black tips, tibiae pale in middle with both ends black. 
\\'ings narrow, venation as shown in drawing ; length of 
front wings 4.3 mm. The alcoholic specimens have the 
wings stained a deep-wine color. Abdomen dark reddish- 
brown with black markings. Cornicles black, hairy, wide at 
base and with slightly flaring mouth, 0.09 mm. long and 0.19 
mm. diameter at the base. Cauda black. 

Apterous viviparous fem.\les (Paratypes) — Four ma- 
ture and several immature specimens. Length 3.5 mm., widtli 
2 mm. Prevailing color dark reddish brown with silvery 
markings on the dorsum due to white wax. Body hairy. 
Antenn;e dusky with tlie apices of III-VI black: all articles 
hairy; lengths of articles: I, 0.09 mm.; II, 0.10 mm.; Ill, 
0.43 mm.; IV, 0.17 mm.; V, 0.18 mm.; VI, 0.13 mm. (base 
0.10 mm., spur 0.03 mm.); total 1.10 mm. Sensoria large 
and distributed as follows: III, none; IV, 0-1; VI, 1-2; 
VI normal. Abdomen with many small black spots, especially 
at the bases of the numerous hairs. Cornicles black, hairy, 
very wide at base and small at the mouth which is slightly 
flared ; length 0.2 mm., diameter at the base 0.57 mm. 

Host pl.\xt — Ahu-matsu (Japanese red pine), Piints 
deusiflora S. & Z. 
Locality — Nikko. 

Date of collection — June 10, 1913. 
Collection number — 80. 



Lachnus, species 

Only apterous forms of this species were taken. The length 
averages 3.8 mm., the width 2.3 mm. Prevailing color black 
with reddish-brown markings on the back. Antennae black 
and pale brown, about one-third as long as the body ; the 
large circular sensoria distributed as follows: III, none; IV, 



Vol. \'III] ESSJC & KlJlVA>i A—SOME JAPANESE APHIDIDAi Kjl 

0-1; V, 2-3; VI, 1-3 (not counting the usual ones in the 
process). Cornicles black. On Kara-matsu, Larix leptolepis 
j\Iurr., Nikko, June 9, 1913. Collection number 78. (The 
color notes were given under number 82 ?). 

Lachnus, species 

Represented only by apterous specimens. Length 5 mm., 
width 3 mm. Prevailing color shiny black with white dorsal 
markings. Antennae pale-brown and black, hairy, half as 
long as the body, with the large circular sensoria distributed 
as follows: III, none; IV, 1-3; V, 2-3; VI with the usual 
ones. Cornicles black, hairy and very wide at base. On 
Tsuga, Tsttga sicboldi Cam, Nikko, June 12, 1913. Collec- 
tion number 79. 

Pterochlorus tropicalis Van der Coot 
(Pterochlorus japonicus Mats.) 
Figures 33 and 34 

Winged viviparous fem.\le — Selected from nine good 
specimens. Length 2.8 mm., width 1 mm. Prevailing 
color shiny black throughout. Body very hairy. Antennas 
black, covered with short hairs ; lengths of the articles : 
(another specimen) I, 0.13 mm.; II. 0.10 mm.; Ill, 0.78 
mm.; IV, 0.34 mm.; V, 0.34 mm.; VI, 0.20 mm. (base 0.13 
mm., spur 0.07 mm.) ; total 1.89 mm. The sensoria are 
circular and distributed in a row as follows: (selected speci- 
men) III (right) 11, (left) 8; IV (right) 3. (left) 3; V 
(right) 1, (left) 2; VI with usual number; others have the 
following: III 13-20, IV 5-9, V 2-4. Rostrum long, reach- 
ing beyond the middle of the abdomen. Wings infuscate 
with light areas in the front pair as shown in the accom- 
panying drawing. Hind wings with a white line just below 
radius vein; a decided network of small lines on the front 
wings. Length of front wings 4.5 mm. Cornicles wide at 
base, hairy, black, length (one example) 0.25 mm., diam- 
eter at the base 0.58 mm. Cauda black, rounded and very 
hairy. 

Apterous viviparous females — Five good specimens. 
Length 4.2 mm., width 2.5 mm. Prevailing color shiny 



102 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OP SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Se«. 




Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUlVAWi—SOME JAPANESE AFHIDID.^ 



103 




EOE del 



Figure 34. — Pterochlonts /ro/'iVo/ii Van d. Goot. Apterous viviparous female 

black. Body hairy. Antennas black, hairy; lengths of ar- 
ticles: I, 0.13 mm.; II, 0.15 mm.; Ill, 1.10 mm.; IV, 0.36 
mm.; V, 0.32 mm.; VI, 0.24 mm. (base 0.15 mm., spur 
0.09 mm.) ; total 2.30 mm. Sensoria large, circular and ar- 
ranged as follows: III, 1-15; IV, 2-5 ; V, 1-2; VI with u,sual 
number. Cornicles black, hairy, 0.36 mm. long and 0.74 mm. 
wide at the base. Cauda black, hairy and rounded. 

Host plants — On Kunugi, Qiiercus scrrata Thunb., 
Kashiwa, Quercus dentata Thunb. and Shii, Castanopsis ciis- 
pidata Schot. (listed as Pasania cnspidata Oerst.). 

Locality — Tokyo. 

Date of collection — May 15, 1913. 

Collection number — 39. 



104 



CAUVORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[PrOC. tTH Se«. 



Remarks — This species is so close to Pterochlorus tropi- 
calis Van der Goot® that it is without hesitancy so determined 
here. The sensoria show a slight variation in number, there 
being in the Japanese species many more on article III of 
both the winged and apterous forms and more than the usual 
1 on V of both forms. In Van der Goot's description the 
cornicles are described as "nearly reduced pores," while on 
tlie species from Japan tliey are not only distinct but might 
well be considered large. 

i ' Prociphilus crataegi Tullgren 

i ' Figure 35 

The winged viviparous females were collected on Sanzashi, 
Cratcrgus cuiicatus S. & Z. (listed as Mcspihis cnneata S. & 




^,^^y^^^m=^smmi!rn^j^^^^^ 





00 





W head 
>vax pi. 



\\' wax pi. 

Figure 35. — Prncifhilus cratagi Tullgren 



EOE del. 



' Rec. Ind. Mus., vol. 12, pt. 1, no. 1, pp. 3-4. fig. 2. Feb. 1916. (Orig. desc). 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KUH'.4\'A—S0ME JAPAXESE APHIDIDAi 



105 



Z.), Tokyo ? (locality not given), June 10, 1913. Collection 
number 88. This material was checked up with specimens 
received from P. Van der Goot (through John J. Davis), taken 
in Holland, and from Prof. F. V. Theobald, England. 



Prociphilus osmanthae, new species 

Figure 36 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — Selected from nine 
good specimens. Length 3.3 mm., width 1.6 mm. Prevailing 
colors black and dark olive-green. Head dark. Antennae 
black with the bases of HI-VI pale ; lengths of articles : I, 0.07 

type 




^^^^^^msESB^^SM^ 



\V ant. 




EOE del. 

Figure 36. — Prociphilus osmantlur, new species. Wing greatly reduced 
from scale 



J06 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

mm.; II, 0.10 mm.; Ill, 0.64 mm.; IV, 0.265 mm.; V, 0.265 
mm.; VI, 0.30 mm. (base 0.25 mm., spur 0.05 mm.); total 
1.64 mm. Sensoria transversely narrow and distributed as 
follows on the left member: III, 29; IV, 10; V, 9; VI with 
the usual number. Paratypes show the following variation : 
III, 27-31 ; IV, 9-12; V, 8-12. Rostrum reaching to the base of 
the abdomen. Wax plates of the mesothorax oval and lo- 
cated just back of the middle. Legs black with the bases of 
tlie femora pale. Wings infuscate along the costal margin 
and at base; veins narrowly border with darker; length of 
the front wings 6 mm. Abdomen dark, with the ventral sur- 
face olive-green. Mounted specimens appear pale. 

Nymphs — Dark with abdomen transparently brownish, 
thorax pale-green, the wing pads dusky. In other respects 
much like the adults. 

Host pl.\nt — Hiiragi, Osniaiiilnis aguifolium B. & H. 

Localities, dates, etc. — Taken as follows: 

1. Yamaguchi-Ken, May 24, 1913. Collection number 58. 

2. Tokyo, May 29, 1913. Collection number 67. 
Rem.\rks — This species is close to P. cratcegi Tull., but it 

has many more sensoria on the antennae and infuscated wings 
are characteristic. No apterous females were collected. 



Prociphilus pyri (Fitch) 
Figure 37 

The winged and apterous females of this species were 
taken from pseudogalls formed on the edges of the leaves of 
the Japanese pear and opening beneath, Nishigahara, Tokyo, 
"May 8, 1913. Collection number 7. 



Prociphilus populiconduplifolius (Co wen) ? 

The apterous females taken agree very well with deter- 
mined material from the United States. Collected on Hi Ki- 
no-Kasa, Ranunculus teruahis Thunb., Nishigahara, Tokyo, 
May 13, 1913. Collection number 54. 



Vol. \UU ESSIG & KUIVANA—SOME JAPANESE APHWIDM 



107 




108 C/1UF0RNIA ACADEMY OF SdES'CES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Anoecia piri (Mats.) 
(Nippolachnus piri Mats.) 
Figure 38 

Winged viviparous female— Selected from twelve good 
specimens. Length 2.8 mm., width 1.35 mm. Prevailing 
color dark yellowish brown with black and white (wax) 
markings on the dorsum. Head dark yellowish brown. An- 
tennae short, hairy, black with articles I, II and all but the 
tip of III pale-brown ; lengths of the articles : I, 0.07 mm. ; 
II, 0.08 mm. ; III, 0.35 mm. ; IV, 0.13 mm. ; V, 0.16 mm. ; VI. 
0.16 mm. (base 0.11 mm., spur 0.05 mm.); total 0.95 mm. 
Sensoria circular or nearly so, very large, a few only small; 
distributed as follows; III (left) 10, (right) 11; IV (left) 4. 
(right) 1; V (left) 2, (right) 2; VI with 1 very large and 
from 3 to 4 small secondary ones. Other specimens show the 
following variations; III, 7-9; IV, 1-4; V, 2. Rostrum 
reaching to, or nearly to, the 3rd coxse. Prothorax dark, 
other segments yellowish-brown. Wings long and narrow. 
Front wings 4.4 mm. long, with venation as shown in the 
drawing. Hind wings with two media. Legs black with the 




EOE del 

Figure 38. — Ancecia piri (Mats). Wing reduced from common scale 



\-0L. \in] ESSfG & KVIVAXA—SOME JAPANESE APHIDIU/E 109 

bases of tlie femora and tibiae pale. Abdomen yellowish 
brown with black markings and two prominent white wax 
bands on the dorsum. Cornicles black, hairy, very wide at the 
base, length 0.20 mm., width or diameter at the base 0.35 mm., 
diameter at the mouth 0.12 mm. Cauda, yellow with black 
margin; rounded and faintly constricted at base, hairy. Anal 
plate pale at base with black margin ; rounded and hairy. 

Host plant — Along the midribs on the undersides of the 
leaves of pear. 

Locality — Nishigahara, Tokyo. 
Date of collection — Oct. 2, 1913. 
Collection number — 105. 



Nipponaphis distylii Pergande 
Figure 39 

This very interesting species was received in considerable 
numbers, among which were several apterous females; the 
latter oval in shape, 0.8 mm. long, with 5-articled (sometimes 
appearing as 4) antennae. The winged forms were taken from 
the leaf galls of Isu, Distylium raccinosum S. & Z., Tokyo, 
June 2, 1913. Collection number 71. The apterous females 
were taken from oval galls on the same plant at the same 
time and given the collection number 71a. The specific name 
given by Mr. Pergande^ was disfychii, derived from Disty- 
chium, the supposed host plant. This is clearly an error in 
spelling, as the host plant is Distylium. The specific name 
has therefore been corrected to distylii. 

The genus Nipponaphis is, indeed, very close to Cerataphis, 
and except for the horns on the apterous forms of the latter 
could hardly be considered as separate. The absence of cor- 
nicles is usually given as a characteristic of Cerataphis, but all 
of the author's specimens of a large series of the type species, 
C. latanice (Boisd.), have cornicles as large as those found in 
Nipponaphis. The peculiar aleyrodid-like form of the ap- 
terous female is lacking in A'^. distylii Perg. 

' Entomological News, vol. 17. p. 205, June, 1906. 



110 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Psoc. 4th Sei. 





W ant. ^s/ 




W corn. detail W ant. 

Figure 39. — Xi/'/'ona/^liis disfylii Pergande 



Nipponaphis cuspidatae, new species 
Figure 40 

Winged viviparous female (Type) — Selected from thir- 
teen specimens. Length 1.35 mm., width 0.9 mm. Prevailing 
colors from black to dark-purple. Head very dark. Antennae, 
short, 5-articled, as shown in the drawing ; lengths of articles : 
I, 0.04 mm.; II, 0.05 mm.; Ill, 0.46 mm.; IV, 0.19 mm.; V, 
0.15 mm. (base 0.13 mm., spur 0.02 mm.) ; total 0.89 mm. 
Sensoria narrow ring-like, nearly equidistant from each other 
and numerous on all articles except the first two. Rostrum 



Vol. VIII] ESSIG & KVWANA—SOME JAPANESE AI'HIDID/E 



111 




^^^t^iMmmmmmmM^ 



VV ant. 
detail 



W hind t. 




EOE del. 



Figure 4U. — Xipl'Oiui/'Iiis cnsfidatce, new species 

reaching just beyond tlie 3rd coxae. Thorax dark-purple and 
shiny black. Front wings as shown in the drawing, with the 
costal border and base infuscate and 3.1 mm. long. The hind 
wings are also somewhat infuscate, especially along the veins. 
There are 2 media veins. Legs dusky throughout, the tarsi 
with four large knobbed digitules. Abdomen very dark purple. 
Cornicles indistinct, little more than pores. Cauda hairy, blunt 
at tip, 0.11 mm. long and 0.15 mm. wide at base. z\nal plate 
hairy and distinctly bilobed. 



1 1 2 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Se«. 

Apterous viviparous females (Paratypes) — Several 
specimens. Length 1.7 mm., width 1.3 mm. Prevailing color 
dark-purple ; body slightly covered with white powder ; nearly 
hemispherical in shape with the sides perpendicular and the 
surface somewhat depressed on the dorsum. In general appear- 
ance these females somewhat resemble the nymphs of certain 
aleyrodids, but are usually more robust. The epidermis, when 
cleared, shows a mosaic-like structure. All of the appendages 
are very small. Antenna minute, indistinctly 3-articled and 
held close to the body. Legs small and appear attached to the 
sides of the body. The cornicles, if present, are not visible on 
any of the specimens although many were thoroughly cleared 
(in clearing in KOH the bodies literally went to pieces so that 
only fragments could be studied). Cauda broadly rounded. 
Anal plate indistinctly bilobed. 

Nymphs — Dark purple and covered with white powdery 
wax (color notes do not specify whether these are the nymphs 
of one form or of both winged and apterous forms). 

Host plant — Shii, Castaiiopsis cuspidata Schot. (listed as 
Pasania cuspidata Oerst.). The apterous females are clustered 
along the twigs in a more or less fixed position as specimens 
remained on the twigs after the long trip across the Pacific. 

Locality — Nishigahara, Tokyo. 

Date of collection — May 12, 1913. 

Collection number — 27. 

Remarks — This species is certainly close to Ccrataphis, 
where it would have been placed except for the fact that it does 
not have the characteristic horns of that genus. 



PROCEEDINGS 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. VIII, No. 4, pp. 113-156, pi. 3-6 July 19, 1918 



IV 

GEOLOGY OF THE NORTHERN END OF THE 
TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 



BY 

E. T. DUMBLE 

Consulting Geologist, Southern Pacific Company 



Introduction 

The attention of the writer was first directed to the eastern 
coast of Mexico as an oil field in 1890, during which year Mr. 
Josiah Owen, then of Eagle Pass, Texas, and later an asso- 
ciate for many years in coal and oil investigations for the 
Southern Pacific Company, made a reconnaissance trip through 
the region between Tampico and Tuxpam, and sent samples of 
heavy oil and asphalt for examination, together with a general 
statement as to the oil conditions, which he considered highly 
favorable. 

In 1899 the matter was brought to the attention of Mr. C. P. 
Huntington as well worth investigation by the Southern Pacific 
Company, but it was thought at that time to be too far removed 
from other interests of the Company. 

In 1908 the subject was again placed before the management, 
and an examination was ordered. Prof. \\. F. Cummins, who 
-was well acquainted with the geology of the coastal oil fields of 

July 19. 1918 



114 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pboc. 4th Seb. 

Texas, and who had had a year's experience in connection with 
artesian water investigations in nortlieastern Mexico, was 
placed in charge of the work, which began with an effort to 
connect the known geological section of the Texas side of the 
Rio Grande with the formations of the Mexican oil fields. The 
results of this work, as given in a paper entitled "Tertiary 
Deposits of Northeastern Mexico"' show that the Gulf Coast 
Tertiary deposits which carry the Texas oil are not represented 
in the Tampico-Tuxpam oil fields, but that the oil formations 
there are a continuation of the Cretaceous.- 

During the years which have followed, the geologists of the 
Southern Pacific Company have continued work in this area 
under the direction of the writer and much information has 
been accumulated regarding the stratigraphy and some good 
collections of fossils have been made, the most of which were 
placed in the hands of Dr. R. E. Dickerson, Curator, Depart- 
ment of Invertebrate Paleontology, California Academy of 
Sciences, for identification. 

It is proposed in this paper to give briefly the results of our 
work and, based on Dr. Dickerson's and Dr. W. S. W. Kew's 
determinations of the fossils, to show as nearly as possible the 
ages of the formations encountered. Descriptions of the col- 
lections have been made by Dickerson and Kew in a separate 
paper^ 

The Area 

The region under consideration is a narrow belt of country 
on the eastern coast of Mexico, beginning just north of the 
twentieth parallel and extending to the twenty-fourth. From 
Nautla to Tampico it comprises the entire coastal strip lying 
between the Cordilleras, or Sierra Madre Oriental, and the 
waters of the Gulf of ^Mexico. North of Tampico it is bounded 
on the west by the Cordilleras and on the east by the Tamauli- 
pas range, thus forming the valley through which runs the 
railway between Tampico and Monterey. 

This area is the northern portion of what has been called the 
Tampico Embayment.* It is economically important because 

' Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 4th Series, Vol. V, No. 6. 

' Dumble, "The Occurrences of Petroleum in Eastern Mexico as Contrasted with 
those in Texas and Louisiana." Trans. A. I. M. E. August, 1915. 

'A Medial Tertiary Fauna from Northeastern Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1917, 
Vol. VII, No. 5. 

* Some Events in the Eogene History of the Present Coastal Plain of the Gulf of 
Mexico in Texas and Mexico. Journal of Geology, \'ol. XXIII, No. 6, p. 481 et seq. 



Vol. VIII] DVMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 115 

of the vast quantity of petroleum that has been developed in it 
during recent years. It is geologically important not only on 
account of the oil, but also because it furnishes the key to cer- 
tain heretofore unsolved problems regarding the relationship 
of adjacent land areas to continental growth. 

This area, some 300 miles in length, will not average 50 
miles in width. Its greatest breadth, which is less than 100 
miles, is found along the course of the Panuco River and its 
tributaries, whence it narrows both to the north and to the 
south. 

Physiography 

Topographically, the area as a whole is a plain sloping gently 
gulf ward. Along its western border are low ranges and ridges, 
rarely exceeding 300 meters in height, caused by the strong 
folding and faulting of the Cretaceous rocks together with 
some of those of earlier Tertiary age which form its basement. 
To the east of these its undulating surface is broken by hills 
of erosion and by peaks of intrusive basaltic rocks. North of 
the Panuco River these interruptions are less numerous than 
they are to the southward. The most prominent remnantal 
elevations are found in a series of peaks, mesas and ranges be- 
ginning at Chicontepec and stretching northeastward to the 
Otontopec range which ends near Tantima. This forms the 
divide between the drainage of the Panuco and that of the 
Tuxpam River. 

Between these two ri\ers are two intermediate coastal basins 
which have been carved out and are drained by the Cucharas 
and the Tancochin and a like service is performed bv the 
Cazones and Tecolutla for the area between Tuxpam and 
Nautla. 

The principal drainage system north of the Panuco is the 
Soto la Marina and between it and the Conchos River, along 
which we found exposures of typical Gulf Coast Tertiaries, lie 
the mountain masses of the Sierra de San Carlos and the 
Sierra Cruillas of the Tamaulipas range. These mountains 
e.xtend westward to within 15 miles of the railroad south of 
Linares, greatly narrowing the valley at that point. 

Much of the surface is covered by the dense vegetable 
growth of the semi-tropics and for the most part the so-called 



116 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [P»oc. 4th Sei. 

roads are only trails. Good exposures of the rock materials 
are, therefore, scarce except along drainage channels and cer- 
tain hillsides, making it difficult to trace the continuations of 
any of the formations over any considerable area. If we add 
to this the fact that fossiliferous horizons are comparatively 
few and frequently discontinuous, the difficulty of accurate 
correlation of the beds of separated areas will be readily appar- 
ent. It is for this reason, doubtless, that some confusion has 
arisen. 

Publications 

The publications bearing directly on the geology of this 
area are not very numerous. 

Among the earlier papers relating to the eastern coast of 
Mexico, those by Deshayes, Heilprin and Sapper give only the 
results of their observations on the Pliocene of Yucatan. 

The first definite statement regarding the geology of this 
particular district is that of Bose in his itinerary of the trip 
from San Luis Potosi to Tampico, published in the Guide 
Book for the excursions of the International Congress of 
Geologists in 1906. 

Bose regards that part of the massive limestones with rudis- 
tes near Tamasopa and Micos, and which is last seen between 
El Abra and Taninul, as Meso-Cretaceous and equivalent to the 
Cenomanian or Vraconian. These include the limestones now 
called Tamasopa. The shales and marls with limestone bands 
which overlie these and are well exposed between Valles and 
El Abra he classes as Neo-Cretaceous, although no fossils 
were found in them. The yellow to gray argillaceous shales in 
the plain east of Taninul he says probably belong to the Ter- 
tiary, although he found no fossils, and states that they re- 
semble the Pliocene of Tuxpam and Papantla. 

This was followed and added to by Villarello in his Report 
on the Oil Regions of Mexico^ which gives clear and satisfac- 
tory descriptions of the various geological formations of the 
region, although later discoveries may necessitate a different 
reference as to the age of some of the deposits there described. 

Villarello refers the massive grayish limestones along the 
front of the Sierra Madre Oriental to the Meso-Cretaceous, 

•Bull. 26, Inst. Geol. Mex. 1908. 



Vol. VIII] DUMBLE—GEOLOCy TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 117 

and the overlying shales and sandstones, which extend from 
near Victoria to the zone embraced between Valles and Taninul, 
to the Neo-Cretaceous. He describes these beds in the vicinity 
of Valles as shales, marls and occasional slates with intercalated 
limestones and sandstones with calcareous cement and says 
they are unconformable with the massive limestone. With 
these he also includes the interbedded limestones and sand- 
stones occurring south and southwest of Tantoyuca. 

The yellow nummulitic rocks of the San Jose de las Rusias 
range he refers to the Eogene, but considers all of the yellow 
argillaceous shales, marls, and calcareous beds south of the 
Tamaulipas range as Neogene and equivalent to the beds at 
Tuxpam and Papantla. He suggests the name Papantla for 
these beds. He includes in these Neogene beds the argillaceous 
shales east of Las Palmas and Tamuin which form the greater 
part of the Mendez of Jeffreys. 

The Neogene to the south of the Panuco River, as described 
by Villarello, comprises yellowish fossiliferous calcareous 
rocks, such as are found outcropping in the neighborhood of 
Papantla, Coazintla and elsewhere, overlain by sandstones, 
bluish gray shales and slaty marls and reddish clays. These 
Neogene deposits rest upon interbedded limestones and sand- 
stones similar to those near Tantoyuca and are overlain in 
places by Quaternary sediments. 

These Neogene beds are broken and in places overlain by 
basaltic rocks and tuffs. 

In 1910 Engerrand and Urbina of the Mexican Geological 
Commission made a preliminary survey of the Yucatan penin- 
sula. They record Miocene fossils from Tizimin*, but regard 
all others as Pliocene or Pleistocene. 

Bose, in Bulletin 20 of the Mexican Geological Commission, 
reports on the geology of Chiapas and Tabasco. No Cre- 
taceous was observed later than the rudistes limestone (Tama- 
sopa?). Extensive deposits of shales, clays, sandstones and 
limestones were found carrying a fauna composed almost alto- 
gether of nummulites and orbitoides. These he refers to the 
Eocene. Overlying them, he finds a series of dark shales, clays, 
and limestones which he describes under the name of the Semi- 
jovel division. He states that this division may embrace beds 
of both Oligocene and Miocene age, but that the greater part 

•Bui. Mex. Geol. Soc, Vol. VI., p. 119. 



118 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pboc. 4th Se«. 

of the fossils appear to belong to the Miocene. Near Macus- 
pana and elsewhere in Tabasco he found beds containing fossils 
which he referred to the Marine-Pliocene. 

Engerrand describes the fossils from Zuluzum near Palenque 
in Chiapas, which he regards as Miocene. 

The beds occurring on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (outside 
a small exposure of the rudistes limestone) carry an abundant 
fauna, but the specimens are not well preserved. The deter- 
minations of species by Dall, Toula. Bose and others and their 
conclusions as to age. while appearing to agree on the Pliocene 
or later age of these deposits, seem to indicate that a portion 
of them may be older than this reference. This is apparently 
sustained by Bose*, who found similar beds at Santa Maria 
Tatetla. northwest of Veracruz, from which he described a 
number of species as Pliocene but later states that since larger 
and more careful collections have been made he considers the 
age to be Miocene. 

It will, therefore, be seen that while Eogene fossils were 
recognized north of the Tamaulipas range in the district of San 
Jose de las Rusias. and both Eogene and Neogene sediments 
found south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. nowhere within 
the area of the Tampico Embayment were Tertiary deposits 
observed whicli were referred to horizons earlier than the 
Miocene. 

This was the condition when the oil geologists began opera- 
tions. 

In Science of February 10. 1911. Dumble, reporting on the 
results of two years' work in Northeastern Mexico, reports 
the discovery of Oligocene deposits at San Fernando on the 
Conchos River and in the San Jose de las Rusias region and 
suggests the probable Cretaceous age of the blue shales under- 
lying the San Fernando beds of the Oligocene in the Panuco 
district, which in turn were succeeded by later beds as seen at 
Tuxpam. 

In 1910 Jeffreys made a report on the geology of eastern 
Mexico which, while it may not have been published, has been 
the basis of much that has been written by others. In this re- 
port he takes the same view of the age of the deposits in this 
area as that stated above. 

' Bull. 22, Mex. Gcol. Comm. 



Vol. VIII] DUMBLE—GEOLOCy TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 119 

He describes the lower members of his Cretaceous under the 
names of Tamasopa and San FeUpe, corresponding closely to 
the Tamasopa and San Juan of our classification. To the 
Mendez he refers the entire series of blue shales succeeding the 
San Felipe and extending eastward to and beyond Mendez. 
He gives these a thickness of 3000 to 3500 feet. In his section, 
which is reproduced by various authors, he shows the Mendez 
shales involved in the folding of the other Cretaceous rocks be- 
tween Valles and San Felipe and states that the San Felipe beds 
grade upward into the Mendez and downward into the Tam- 
asopa. 

The base of the Mendez of Jeffreys is the equivalent of our 
Papagallos, but the top is probably Tertiary. 

To the Tertiary he refers the fossiliferous beds around Tan- 
lajas on the extreme western border of the area, the beds 
around Ozuluama, which he considers practically their time 
equivalent, and the overlying Temapache series. 

In Science for June 7, 1912, Dumble reported the discovery 
of Eocene fossils at Alazan, northwest of Tuxpam, and gave 
further details of the occurrence of the San Fernando and Tux- 
pam beds (Miocene?) in this region. 

Garfias, in his article on The Oil Regions of Northeastern 
Mexico', reviews the descriptions of the various formations as 
given by different geologists, adds his own observations of the 
region, and gives in tabular form a tentative correlation which 
embodies the facts brought out after Jeffreys's report by the 
finding of Eocene fossils at Alazan. This shows the Mendez 
shales as originally described, including shales of both Upper 
Cretaceous and Eocene age. 

De Golyer' uses the names Tamasopa, San Felipe and 
Mendez for the formations found in the Furbero field, but re- 
fers both his San Felipe and Mendez to the Eocene, because 
of the fossils found at Alazan. He also claims an uncon- 
formity between his San Felipe and the beds he considers Cre- 
taceous. 

Huntley" also uses the same names for the same formations, 
but regards the entire Mendez of Jeffreys as Eocene. 



^ Economic Geology, Vol. X, p. 195. 
'Trans. A. I. M. E., LII, pp. 266 et seq 
•Trans. A. I. M. E.. LII. pp. 275 et seq. 



120 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4ih Seh. 

I. C. White'" quotes the opinion of Dr. C. W. Hayes, sug- 
gesting a Laramie age for the San FeHpe and Valles beds. 

A number of the geologists who have worked in this area 
and collected valuable data have been unable to publish it be- 
cause of the character of their engagements. The writer 
thankfully acknowledges the assistance through co-operation 
and criticism of a number of these gentlemen. 

General Features 

At first appearance the geology of this area does not seem at 
all complicated, but some misunderstanding and confusion have 
arisen from the fact that through the entire area the predom- 
inating material entering into and forming the floor of this 
Tampico embayment is blue shale. At its northern end the 
shale was proved to be Cretaceous by its position and as it was 
unfossiliferous and little physical change was observed, this 
interpretation was applied to cover all similar shales found 
south of these. But, it transpires that in addition to these 
Cretaceous blue shales there are also blue shales of Eocene and 
Oligocene age and these predominate south of the Tamesi 
River. 

The eastern face of the great plateau is composed of lime- 
stones of Meso-Cretaceous age and the Rudistes limestones of 
Micos canyon are found as far south as Chiapas. The dis- 
turbed area at the foot and immediately in front of the main 
mass shows the Meso-Cretaceous limestones folded, faulted, and 
overlain by later beds which are also folded. From the San 
Juan Hills in Coahuila to Aquismon in San Luis Potosi these 
overlying beds appear to belong to the upper or Neo-Cre- 
taceous. 

The beds found overlying the Meso-Cretaceous of the hill 
country south of Aquismon have few of the characteristics of 
the Neo-Cretaceous of the region northward and represent 
such dififerent conditions of sedimentation and fauna as to make 
such a reference of them impossible. Fossils are scarce in 
these beds but in the deposits overlying the Meso-Cretaceous in 
Chiapas Bose found orbitoides and nummulites that were 
clearly of Eocene age and similar forms occur south of Aquis- 
mon. It is. therefore, probable that in the hill country be- 

" Bull. Geo). Soc. Am., Vol, 24, p. 253. 



Vol. VIII] DUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 121 

tween Aquismon and Chiapas, the greater part of the San Juan 
and Papagallos which constitute the Neo-Cretaceous of the 
northern basin are either overlapped or replaced by these 
Eocene-Tertiary beds, outcrops of which extend eastward 
almost to the margin of the Gulf. 

The Coastal Slope lying east of this disturbed or foothill 
zone is largely occupied by deposits of Oligocene age as far 
north as the Tamaulipas RIountains and these Oligocene de- 
posits extend along the eastern face of this range as far as the 
Conchos River. The only other sedimentary deposits noted are 
deposits of the Quaternary and Recent which are not very ex- 
tensive. 

Basalts and other rocks of igneous origin occur as intrusive 
peaks, dikes, and flows. 

Cretaceous 

The Mexican geologists have divided the Cretaceous, of 
which they have a very complete section, into Eo-Cretaceous, 
Meso-Cretaceous and Neo-Cretaceous in place of the two di- 
visions. Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous, recognized 
in the United States. 

The Meso-Cretaceous of the Mexican authors includes the 
upper portion of our Lower Cretaceous and the lower portion 
of our Upper Cretaceous. 

It will appear from a comparison of the fossils that the line 
between our Lower and Upper Cretaceous — that is, between 
the Vola or Buda limestone and the Woodbine or Dakota sands 
— would be represented in the Meso-Cretaceous by a line drawn 
below the Tamasopa limestone. 

While, therefore, the heavy limestones below the Tamasopa 
may be properly correlated with our Comanche, it would not 
seem allowable to include the Tamasopa in such reference. 

MESO-CRETACEOUS 

The Meso-Cretaceous limestones of the Tamasopa gorge, as 
described by Bose", are considered by him to represent the 
Cenomanian, Turonian, and possibly the Vraconian, but the 
Tamasopa limestone of the various reports on this region, as 

" Guide Book Geological Congress. XXX, p. 10. 



122 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Sei. 

generally used, is restricted to the beds of the portion of the 
section which are characterized by the presence of rudistes. 
These are typically seen in Micos canyon and at the Choy 
grotto which also illustrates the cavernous condition so preva- 
lent in this limestone. 

The Tamasopa limestone is rather fine-grained, compact, 
creamy to gray in color, and most usually massive. It is often 
crystalline in structure and in places it is dolomitic. 

Between the Tamesi and the Tuxpam rivers the Tamasopa 
limestone appears to be the principal oil producing formation, 
while south of the Tuxpam valley it has not been found in any 
of the producing wells drilled up to this time. 

Villarello, describing the beds of the Meso-Cretaceous lying 
north of the railroad line between Tampico and San Luis 
Potosi. says : 

"The Meso-Cretaceous is made up of limestones of a gray- 
ish color in heavy beds with a strike about 18 deg. northeast 
and dip of 31 deg. to the northwest. These limestones are 
strongly folded and faulted and constitute a great portion of 
the Sierra Madre Oriental which extends from the Tula dis- 
trict passing through the western portion of the southern and 
central districts of the State of Tamaulipas and afterwards 
enters the State of Neuvo Leon. 

"The Tanchipa range rises to the west of Ebano and 

is made up of limestones and shales of Meso-Cretaceous and 
Neo-Cretaceous age. These beds extend toward the south 
and are exposed in nearly the whole of the petroliferous region 
of Aquismon." 

Of the continuation of these deposits south of the railroad 
he says : 

"The older sedimentary rocks (of the Aquismon region) 
are heavy beds of a grayish colored limestone, fossiliferous in 
some portions, especially in the neighborhood of Choy grotto 



"These limestones constitute the Meso-Cretaceous of the 
region, and only the limestones in the vicinity of Xilitla prob- 
ably belong to the Eo-Cretaceous. 

"The Meso-Cretaceous outcrops at the following places, 
from the northwest of Xilitla through Tampachal and Pubuche 
in the Temapache Mountains, to the west of Tocomon, Aquis- 



Vol. VIII] DUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 123 

tnon, and Micos and in the Colmena or Abra de Cabelleros 
monntains. To the east of these outcroppings and to the east 
of Valles the Meso-Cretaceous outcrops from the Rancho 
Nuevo and fraction of the Pujal on the Tampaon River to Abra 
and Las Pahnas stations on the Mexican Central Railroad and 
from there extends to Tanchipa Mountains. In this range the 
Meso-Cretaceous limestones are covered in various places by 
shales and marls of Neo-Cretaceous age which come in between 
Valles and Abra 

"The Meso-Cretaceous is highly folded forming anti- 
clines and synclines sometimes very close and in general un- 
symmetrical." 

Jeffreys describes a section in the San Dieguito Range in this 
region as showing at the base four feet of a dolomitized lime- 
stone with minute particles of petroleum, overlain by three feet 
of gray crystalline limestone which had a distinct petroliferous 
odor, while the overlying bed of about one foot thickness is a 
dark gray to almost black limestone well saturated with oil. 
The limestone is more or less fossiliferous throughout, hippu- 
rites and various lamellibranchs seeming to predominate. 

Similar impregnations are found in heavily bedded and 
folded Tamasopa limestone on the eastern slopes of the Tema- 
pache mountains. 

The Tamasopa limestone has been subjected to heavy fold- 
ing which has formed anticlines and synclines sometimes very 
close and, in general, unsymmetrical, and strikes vary from 30 
to 60 deg. N. of E. in the region along the railway. 

Except the statement that the Meso-Cretaceous limestone 
forms the main body of the Sierra Madre toward the south, 
there is almost nothing said about it in the region between 
Aquismon and Orizaba. 

Cummins, in his work between the Panuco and Tuxpani 
rivers, did not get far enough west to reach the Tamasopa lime- 
stone and saw no exposures of limestones similar to the San 
Juan. The most westerly exposures he observed were of ma- 
terials which he believed to be Tertiary. 

De Golyer, in writing of the Tamasopa south of Tuxpam, 
says that the main mass of the outcrop is in the Sierra Madres, 
the front range of which passes 28 miles west and 16 miles 
south of the Furbero field. The Tamasopa limestone has not 
been reached in anv well vet drilled in this field. 



1 24 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [P»oc. 4th See. 

He says that it "consists of hard gray, pure, compact porce- 
lain-like limestone bedded in layers less than a foot thick and 
is characterized in its upper part by the occurrence of an abun- 
dance of black to dark gray and green chert nodules interbedded 
with the limestone The uppermost member of the lime- 
stones which are massively bedded in the northern Veracruz 
and Valles region are somewhat porous and contain great solu- 
tion caverns." 

From this I understand that he considers the uppermost 
member, or Rudistes limestone of the Tamasopa, missing in 
this region, in which case these beds may be related to the 
Maltrata limestone of Bose's Orizaba section. 

The Orizaba limestone (Meso-Cretaceous) of Bose consists 
of two divisions : The Maltrata or lower member and Es- 
camela or upper. He describes them as follows : 

"The Maltrata limestones constitute an important division, 
which is often of great thickness. The greater part is com- 
posed of limestones in thin beds, is without fossils, and of a 
clear dark gray or black color. The limestones contain numer- 
ous segregations of flint in the form of lenses. In the upper 
portion the flint occurs in the form of nodules and irregular 
bodies. In the lower part of the limestones there occur in 
many places intercalated argillaceous slates which are yellowish 
and lustrous like silk, but these never form heavy beds. In the 
upper part toward the boundary with the Escamela limestones, 
there occur gray limestones and dolomites in heavy beds in 
which the stratification is scarcely recognizable. Above these 
follow dark compact limestones which represent the passage 
to the Escamela limestones and which may better be considered 
a part of the latter. In some places there occur above the 
dolomites flinty limestones, and in that case the line between 
them and the Escamela limestone is sufficiently well marked. 

"The Escamela limestones are composed of a clear gray to 
a dark gray limestone, in some places but slightly stratified 
and elsewhere in clearly distinct beds. Cherts occur only in the 
lower portion. There are no intercalations of slates or marls. 
The limestones resemble in their characters very often the 
Cretaceous limestones of southern Italy. They are petrograph- 
ically very uniform and may be recognized with ease." 

Still farther south in Chiapas he describes the Meso-Cre- 
taceous beds thus : 



Vol. VIII] DUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 125 

"This division is much the most important in Chiapas 

It consists of Hmestones and dolomites which generally occur in 
quite thick beds and only occasionally as intercalated lenses. 
Occasionally beds of limestone of brecciated structure are 
found. In the lower part there sometimes occur beds of lime- 
stone with chert concretions, but the upper part consists gen- 
erally only of gray limestone with interbedded dolomite. It 
may be said that these strata everywhere contain rudistes, 
especially radiolites." 

He adds that he himself has never observed beds in this 
vicinity which might with certainty be assigned to the Neo- 
Cretaceous. 

NEO-CRETACEOUS 

The upper members of the Cretaceous section (Neo-Cre- 
taceous series of Mexican authors) as determined by Cum- 
mins from their occurrence in Northeastern Mexico^^ com- 
prise a series of thin to medium-bedded limestones, with ino- 
cerami and ammonites, called by him the San Juan lime- 
stones, overlain confomiably by a great thickness of dark 
shales, without fossils, called the Papagallos. 

The San Juan Hills are made up of a series of thin to 
heavy-bedded limestones interstratified with thin beds of yel- 
lowish clay. Toward the base the limestones are shaly, dark 
gray in color and weather gray to whitish. Toward the sum- 
mit the limestones are of bluish shade, weathering white. The 
uppermost beds are sandy and weather to a reddish or rusty 
brown color. They carry numerous impressions of ammon- 
ites, oysters and inocerami which are of forms referable to the 
Taylor or Austin Chalk. 

The Papagallos consists of a series of very fine-grained 
blue or black limy clay shales, leaching brown, yellow or 
white. At their northern end, the type locality, and for some 
distance south, they carry both selenite and barite and break 
up into slaty particles. When broken down and fully weath- 
ered, they form a black clay which when wet makes a very 
stiff mud like the black waxy soils of central Texas. 

The Cretaceous age of the San Juan was fully proved by 
its fossils and that the Papagallos shales, at the type locality, 
were also of Cretaceous age was evidenced by the fact that 

^= Tertiary Deposits of Northeastern Mexico, pp. 170 to 174. 



126 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

wliile tliey were conformable witli the San Juan they had 
been folded and eroded prior to the deposition of the suc- 
ceeding sands and limestones of the basal Eocene. This is 
shown on the Salinas River at Ramones where there is a bed 
of sandstone lying in discordant stratification directly upon 
the crumpled and folded Papagallos shales. In this sand- 
stone were found : 

Venericardia alticostata 
V. planicosta 
Ostrea pulaskensis 
Cuculliea macrodonta 

These fossils are characteristic of the Midway, the lowest 
stage of the Gulf Tertiaries. There can, therefore, be no 
question as to the Cretaceous age of the Papagallos shales at 
the type locality. 

Similar limestones and shales were found at San Felipe and 
Valles, west of Tampico, but here they were without fossils. 
Jeffreys called the former the San Felipe beds and applied 
the term Mendez to the overlying shale and its upward con- 
tinuation east of the Sierra del Abra. With the idea that 
these were the continuations of the San Juan and Papagal- 
los, Cummins traced the beds from the Papagallos Hills to 
Mendez and Valles. 

It is about 10 miles from the Papagallos Hills where both 
San Juan and Papagallos formations occur, to San Juan on 
the railroad between Tampico and Monterey. Over that dis- 
tance the shales are exposed in all the ravines and are the 
surface rocks except where covered by superficial drift. On 
the south side of the San Juan River, south of the town of San 
Juan, there is a fine exposure of the beds in a railroad cut. 
From San Juan to Montemorelos is 26 miles. The shales 
are seen at numerous places between these points, and only 
at such places as are drift-covered was the shale not seen. 
East of Montemorelos there are hills that are composed en- 
tirely of the shales. A trip of 9 miles was made west of the 
town toward the Sierra Madres, and after getting out of the 
river valley the road was continuously on the shales. Be- 
tween Montemorelos and Linares, a distance of 32 miles, out- 
crops of the shales are numerous and they are also shown in 



Vol. VIII] BUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 127 

the floor of tiie valley for 25 miles southeast of Linares to 
the foothills of the San Carlos Mountains, in the elevation 
of which the San Juan is again brought up. 

The San Carlos and Cruillas mountains, lying between the 
Conchos and Sota la Marina rivers, are composed of heavy- 
bedded, compact limestones (Tamasopa ?) overlain by thin- 
ner bedded fossiliferous limestones of the San Juan series 
followed by the Papagallos shale. On the northern or Con- 
chos River face of the mountains the Cretaceous is overlain 
by the sandstones and clays of the Fayette substage of the 
Eocene which are last seen on the Choreras arroyo east of 
Cruillas; the Fayette is overlain in places by the San Rafael. 
On the southern face of the mountains the Sota la Marina 
drainage, on the contrary, shows the yellow sandy clays of 
the San Rafael directly overlying the Papagallos or earlier 
members of the Cretaceous. 

Between Linares and Cruz the Papagallos shales were found 
exposed at Summit, Carrizo, and other points, and simillar ex- 
posures are found in the valley for 25 miles eastward. At 
Cruz they are e.xposed in the bed of Purificacion River and in 
the same river northwestward to Hidalgo, just west of which 
are hills composed of the San Juan limestone. The valley 
between these hills and the Sierra Madres shows the upturned 
edges of the shales which are finally cut out by the scarp 
of Tamasopa limestone. Between Cruz and Victoria the sur- 
face is largely covered with drift or Reynosa, but these sur- 
face deposits are cut through in many places and the under- 
lying hardened blue shales can be seen dipping at a strong angle 
to the west. These shales were also seen just south of Victoria 
and in numerous gulches between Victoria and San Francisco. 
At San Francisco there is a well 90 feet deep in these shales 
and they are exposed at many different places between San 
Francisco and Gonzales where a well 1,500 feet deep was 
in the shale its entire depth. To the east of the railroad 
similar shales were found at Los Esteros and Mendez. 

From this it will be seen that the valley between the Sierra 
Madre on the west and the Tamaulipas Mountains on the 
east from San Juan to Gonzales and Los Esteros is under- 
lain throughout by a body of blue shales. 

At Mendez a well was drilled which passed through a 
thousand feet of shale before entering the platy limestone of 



128 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sei 

the San Juan. From Mendez the shales were traced west- 
ward around the south end of El Abra Hills to Micos and 
San Dieguito. where they hold the same relation to the Tam- 
asopa limestone that they do west of Cruz. They lie against 
the upturned edges of the limestone and extend to consider- 
able heights above the valley. 

The section along the railroad between Micos and Las Pal- 
mas is typical, showing the Tamasopa, San Juan, and Papa- 
gallos in their usual relations but disturbed and faulted, and 
a kilometre west of Las Palmas the Papagallos shales come 
in sight resting against the massive Tamasopa limestone with 
its rudistes fossils. 

There can, therefore, be little doubt that the beds be- 
tween the scarp of Tamasopa limestone at Micos and the 
El Abra Hills are the direct continuation of the San Juan 
and Papagallos of the north. East of El Abra Hills, how- 
ever, later beds may also be present. 

Bose says of this locality: 

"On leaving San Mateo the road turns again to the east 
to descend to the large plateau of Valles. This plateau, cov- 
ered by small hills, represents a broken up scale of Neo-Cre- 
taceous shales Above Valles the structure be- 
comes very simple. The Neo-Cretaceous beds are slightly in- 
clined toward the east and between Valles and El Abra the 
shales rest almost horizontally upon the Rudistes limestone." 

From the San Juan Mountains in Coahuila to the railroad 
line at Valles is nearly 400 miles, and throughout this entire 
distance, along the face of the Sierra Madres the San Juan 
and Papagallos formations preserve their lithological charac- 
teristics and their general relations to the Tamasopa lime- 
stone. Numerous exposures in the valley between the Sierra 
Madres and the Tamaulipas range show materials apparently 
identical with the Papagallos, and both San Juan and Papa- 
gallos (and probably Tamasopa) occur east of the valley in 
the San Carlos Mountains. Wells drilled at Ebano, Topila, 
and Panuco also prove that the same relations continue along 
the floor of the valley in that vicinity, as platy limestones en- 
tirely similar to the San Juan are found overlying the Tam- 
asopa and underlying the blue shale. 



Vol. VIII] DUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 129 

At the greater number of places where shales were ob- 
served north of the railroad they have a considerable dip to 
the north or west. The principal exceptions to this are cer- 
tain hills lying around Victoria and Cruz, which, while com- 
posed of similar materials, are horizontally bedded. This 
apparent discordance of stratification may indicate that these 
hills are not Papagallos but outliers of the Eocene sedimen- 
tation occurring south of the Panuco River. 

No fossils have been reported from the Papagallos shales 
but they are thought to contain foraminiferal remains and 
should have microscopic study. 

In the Aquismon region south of the railroad line Villa- 
rello classes all of the materials lying between the Tamasopa 
and Quaternary as Neo-Cretaceous, which classification 
would include both San Juan and Papagallos, and says of 
them: 

"Unconformably upon the Meso-Cretaceous lie shales and 
marls and sometimes slates between which are interpolated 
limestones and sandstones cemented with calcareous material. 

All these beds belong to the Neo-Cretaceous and 

outcrop over a great extent of country. 

"The Neo-Cretaceous outcrops on the north of Xilitla from 
the Huichihuayan Hacienda through the Tierras Coloradas, 
Tocamon, Huihuitlan, Tampamolon, Tancanhuitz, Aquismon 
and Tanquin to Valles. It extends on the west as far as the 
base of the Temapache and Colmena mountains and east- 
ward as far as the Tanchipa or Boca del Abra mountains. 

"The Neo-Cretaceous shales have a strike varying from 
North 25° E. to N.E. with dips of 10 to 20° to the west of 
northwest. These shales are slightly folded and sometimes 
form cross folds, the arches of which are little raised and of 
very gentle slope. 

"At Huihuitlan and Tierras Coloradas sheets of coal 5 cm. 
thick are found interpolated with the beds of sands and 
shales." 

While some of the deposits of the Aquismon district are 
Neo-Cretaceous, they cannot all be so referred. Jeffreys re- 
fers the beds east of Aquismon, which he described as his 
Tanalajas formation, to the upper Tertiary on the evidence 



130 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Sei. 

of the fossils, and states that they he in front of the Tam- 
asopa hniestone outcrop here and to tlie south. He makes 
no mention either of Valles or Mendez in this area. 

Huntley's map shows the Tanlajas beds as upper Tertiary 
and separated from the Tamasopa limestones lying west of 
them by belts of Mendez and San F~elipe deposits as far 
southward as the map extends. 

Jeffreys says his San Felipe beds are transition beds be- 
tween the underlying Tamasopa limestone and the overlying 
Mendez shales. Limestones predominate toward the base 
giving place to blue shales toward the top. He estimates 
their thickness at not more than 500 feet. It is the equiva- 
lent of our San Juan. 

Huntley describes his San Felipe formation as follows: 

"This may be described as a transition series between the 
upper Mendez marls and shales and the underlying massive 
Tamasopa limestone. It begins with an occasional thin lime- 
stone shell. These increase with depth in number and thick- 
ness, being interbedded with blue shales which conversely de- 
crease in thickness downward until the series gives place to 
massive limestone. These beds apparently vary in thickness 
from about 300 to as much as 800 feet." 

It corresponds approximately to our San Juan, and on his 
map is confined to the eastern face of the Boca del Abra 
Mountains, the valley west of them, and a belt along the face 
of the main range. 

The Mendez of Jeffreys, named from the IMendez east of 
Ebano. and which includes the Papagallos and probably some 
part of the Tertiary, is thus described : 

"This formation consists of a very uniform deposit of gray 
to blue shales, which, in the higher levels, verge into an in- 
durated clay or semi-marl, with a bolder fracture instead 

of the fine shaly appearance From top to bottom 

of this Mendez marl there is practically no change in the 
lithological character, save some irregular beds, varying from 
two inches to two feet thick, of a sandy limestone." 

The Mendez of Huntley is the same as that of Jeffreys, 
but he refers it as a whole to the Eocene. He says of it : 



Vol. VIU] DUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPJCO EMBAYMENT AREA 131 

"The Mendez marls consist of a very uniform deposit of 
gray to blue shales and marls. In regions of steep folding 
these often show bold jointing near the surface. There is 
practically no change in their lithological character from top 

to bottom They average from 2,000 and 3,500 feet 

in thickness. A few irregular beds of sandy limestone are 
reported in this formation, but they are not persistent." 

So far as can be judged from the reports now available, 
south of these exposures between Micos and Valles, beds hav- 
ing the characteristics of the San Juan formation have only 
been observed as narrow detached bodies lying along the 
border of the Sierra Madres. 

In a great many places through the region south of the 
railroad blue shales are found underlying the yellow clays, 
sands, and limestones of the Oligocene, and prior to the dis- 
covery of Tertiary fossils in such a shale at Alazan, this en- 
tire series of blue shales was supposed by us to be a continu- 
ation of those of the valley to the north and to be of similar 
age to the Papagailos. 

The only blue shales which were originally thought to be 
later were found by Cummins in the region about Chiconte- 
pec and while no fossils were found, on account of the litho- 
logic similarity of the interbedded limestones and sandstones 
to those on the Salinas River, these beds were tentatively re- 
ferred to the Eocene. 

While there is a similarity of color existing between the 
Alazan and Chicontepec beds on the one side and the Papagailos 
on the other, they differ both in composition and in weath- 
ering. 

The Papagailos is prevailingly clayey, weathering first into 
slaty particles and finally to very black sticky soil, while the 
others are usually more sandy, are frequently micaceous, and 
often weather to grayish or yellow sandy soils or loams. The 
prevailing dips of the Papagailos are northward and west- 
ward and in places at rather steep angles, while the Tertiary 
usually dips eastward at lower angles. 

South of Aquismon the scarp of Tamasopa limestone bends 
sharply eastward nearly to the Tempoal River, a distance of 
over 40 miles. It there bends southeastward again. The 



132 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se». 

continuous body of Neo-Cretaceous deposits have certainly 
been traced into this Aquismon Bay, and, so far as our pres- 
ent information goes, have not been certainly recognized in 
the valley south of the scarp which forms its southern boundary, 
except in remnantal areas. 

They have been observed in a narrow outcrop stretching 
southeastward from Tamazunchale and in scattered areas as 
far south as Tecualontepec on the upper part of the Rio Espi- 
nal-Tecolutla. To the south of this they seem to have been 
entirely eroded. 

Sinc€ the Papagallos of Aquismon Bay is identical with 
that farther north and shows no indication of approach to 
shore conditions, nor any reason to look for its immediate 
discontinuance, the sudden change in character of the mate- 
rials southward, the Tertiary fossils of the Tanlajas beds and 
the finding of Eocene fossils at Alazan and of fossils of sup- 
posedly Eocene age in the underlying beds at Sabanita, gives 
support to the idea that a large portion, if not all, of the 
shales south of Aquismon belong to the Eocene, and are, 
therefore, of later age than the Papagallos and that the 
Papagallos, if it formerly extended over this area, as it most 
probably did, was eroded or is now covered by the beds we 
have called Chicontepec. 

The Alazan shales are definitely proved by their fossils to 
be of Eocene age and are also known from similar fossils 
found in a well at Topila on the Panuco River. They are 
apparently unconformable on the underlying blue shales. 
Just how far these Alazan shales extend northward and what 
portion of the beds on the Panuco River belongs to the Papa- 
gallos and what to the Alazan or other Tertiary horizon, is 
unknown. 

Prof. Cummins found what seemed to be the Papagallos 
type of shales exposed at a few localities north of the Tux- 
pam River, but, until better information and criteria for iden- 
tification are at hand, it will be safer to treat the unfossilifer- 
ous beds of shales, clays, and sandstones, with occasional 
beds of limestone, which, in the region south of Panuco 
River, occur between the Tamasopa or San Juan and the 
Oligocene, as undifferentiated Chicontepec, which is referred 
to the Eocene. 



Vol. VIII] DVMBLE-GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 133 

AGE OF THE CRETACEOUS 

The Tamasopa, San Juan, and Papagallos seemingly rep- 
resent a long period of practically continuous sedimentation 
as the Tamasopa grades upward into the San Juan and the 
San Juan into the Papagallos, with no evidence whatever of 
unconformability. 

While the exact contact between the Papagallos shales and 
the Escondido beds was not seen, the relations of the two 
formations in the valley of the Salado River east of the San 
Juan Mountains warrant the statement that the Papagallos 
underlies the Escondido, which is the uppermost stage of the 
Cretaceous of Texas. 

According to Bose'' the upper portion of the Meso-Creta- 
ceous. here represented by the Tamasopa is of Cenomanian 
age and he correlates it on the basis of its paleontology with 
the Lower Cross Timber or Woodbine sands of the Texas 
region. The few fossils found in the San Juan prove it to 
be the equivalent of the Austin or Taylor and tlie Papagallos 
underlies the Escondido. It would, therefore, seem fairly 
well determined that the Tamasopa. San Juan, and Papa- 
gallos are the time equivalents of the Upper Cretaceous of 
the Texas section from the Woodbine to the Taylor, inclu- 
sive, and that so far no uppermost Cretaceous corresponding 
to the Escondido or Webberville has been observed south of 
the Tamaulipas barrier. 

Tertiary 

EOCENE 

The Eocene deposits of the Tampico Embayment area are 
quite different from those of the region north of the Tamauli- 
pas range. In the latter the beds are very fossiliferous and 
both lithologically and faunally are identical with the various 
subdivisions of the Lower and Middle Eocene which have 
been recognized in Texas. 

While the Chicontepec beds somewhat resemble the beds 
of the Lower Eocene of Texas lithologically, no fossils have 
vet been found corresponding to those of the Midway, Wilcox, 
or Lower Claiborne. Th e principal forms occurring in them 

" Neue Beitrage zur Kentniss der Mex, Kreide. 



134 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES IPaoc. 4th Se«. 

are nummulites and orbitoides, with a few undetermined mol- 
lusks. 

In the northern portion of the area, west of the Tamauhpas 
Range, no beds were found which, because of their fossils, could 
be positively referred to the Tertiary. However, certain sandy 
shales were seen along the railroad north of the Panuco River, 
and on the San Antonio River west of Cruz there are hills com- 
posed of shales which lie nearly horizontally, while the under- 
lying shales have a strong dip northwest. These shales closely 
resemble the Chicontepec in composition, and Cummins con- 
siders them of that age. 

Near Padillo, which is at the junction of the Purificacion 
and Pilon rivers, east of Victoria, similar sandy shales were 
observed, and these may possibly be Chicontepec also. It is not 
thought probable that any of the shales west of El Abra Moun- 
tains are later than Papagallos, but, from Las Palmas eastward 
to Mendez, part or all of the shales are probably Chicontepec, 
and this condition continues southward. 



Chicontepec 

The Chicontepec beds are best seen in the extreme western 
portion of the Embayment area south of Aquismon, and 
especially in the hills lying just east of the great Cretaceous 
escarpment. 

In places they are strongly folded as in the Chicontepec 
Mountain and almost everywhere show much stronger dips 
than the overlying Oligocene. 

The Chicontepec beds proper seem to have been folded and 
eroded prior to the deposition of the Alazan shales. 

From a locality in the Aquismon district, some 25 miles south 
of Valles, Jeffreys describes the following deposits, which he 
names the Tanlajas formation. 

The Tanlajas series, as a whole, averages probably about 
1100 feet in thickness. It consists, in the main, of marine de- 
posits of rapidly alternating sandy limestones and shales. The 
base is composed of 250 feet of alternating beds of thin, sandy 
limestones, calcareous sandstones, and gray shales. The upper 
portion of these beds has one or two beds of calcareous blue 
sandstone, weathering to dark brown, which average, in places, 



Vol. \III] DUUBLE-GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMEST AREA 135 

three feet thick. Some of the sandy beds have a strong petro- 
leum odor while tarry black residues are frequent along frac- 
tures and fault planes. This residuum is of a brittle texture and 
disintegrates on burning. In other places it will take the 
slickenside markings of the surrounding walls, thus assuming 
an extreme similarity to lignite. 

Overlying this there is a long stretch of coarse limestones 
about 450 feet thick. This limestone is brown in color, is fos- 
siliferous in places, showing Nummulites, sp. Turritella, sp. 
and Cardlum, sp. It also contains some sandy beds and carries 
small pebbles of rounded black chert and sandstone. 

Overlying this we have another series of alternating cal- 
careous sandstones and shales which carries some conglomer- 
ates locally. The harder beds in this series seem to have a 
predominance of ripple marks. 

Jeffreys states that the Tanlajas formation follows south- 
ward from this point, along the front of the Tamasopa lime- 
stone outcrop, through the State of San Luis Potosi into Vera- 
cruz and Hidalgo. He says nothing whatever of its relation 
to the San Juan (San Felipe) or Papagallos (Mendez) and, as 
he was fully familiar with those formations a few miles to the 
north, it can be taken for granted that he considered this en- 
tirely' different and later. While Jeffreys refers this to the 
Oligocene, it is probably the northward extension of the Eocene 
beds existing in like relation to the Tamasopa farther south- 
ward. Cummins considers it of sinn'lar age to the Chicontepec 
beds west of El Xuchil. 

Apparently, these beds become more arenaceous as we go 
south from Tanlajas and San Pedro, and the limestones dis- 
appear. The most of the beds reported are marls overlain by 
flaggy sandstones and bluish shales with few fossils except 
nummulites. 

Sixty-five miles southeast of Aquismon, and some fifty miles 
west of Tuxpam. Cummins and Sands found a series of beds, 
the lowest members of which were seen at the crest of an anti- 
clinal ridge on Chicontepec Mountain, a mile and a half east of 
tiie town of Chicontepec, at an elevation of about 3,200 feet. 
The beds are composed of yellowish brown sandstones, some 
being two feet in thickness and containing weather-worn boul- 
ders, inclusions, or segregations of a very hard steel gray sand- 
stone. The boulders seemed to carry some carbonaceous mat- 



136 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

ter and lignitic matter was found in the cleavage planes of the 
sandstones. No leaves or fossils of any kind were found. 

While the sandstones greatly predominate at the base they 
are interbedded with yellow clays and the sands become thinner 
and the clay bands become thicker higher in the section. Half- 
way down the mountain the sandstones carry boulders of con- 
cretionary clay ironstone, some of which are as much as two 
feet in diameter. Succeeding these beds the clays gradually 
give way to shales and the lower portion of the mountain was 
composed of bluish gray shale interstratified with fine-grained 
yellowish brown sandstone in layers three to si.x inches in 
thickness, while the shale beds are as much as a foot thick. 

As there was no Tamasopa limestone observed in the area 
where we found the Chicontepec beds the relation of the two 
was undetermined. 

From the strong resemblance of the Chicontepec beds to 
those of the Eocene at Ramones. Professor Cummins was in- 
clined to refer them to that horizon. 

It will be noted that while the upper beds are very largely 
made up of blue shales the basal beds, instead of being lime- 
stone like the San Juan, are sandstones. 

The same shales and sandstones are well exposed in the hills 
south of El Xuchil. and numerous seepages of chapapote occur 
in these blue shales in the vicinity of the basaltic dikes which cut 
them at many places. Carmelita Ranch lies five miles north of 
El Xuchil, and a mile to the eastward the bed of an arroyo 
shows a dike of basaltic material coming up through blue shales 
which have been hardened on both sides of the basalt. The 
shale has been impregnated by asphalt, and, away from the 
dike, carries masses of clay ironstone in banded nodules. At 
Pedernalis Ranch, which is northwest of Carmelita, a similar 
bed of asphaltic shale was found, and the surrounding hills 
were made up of gray and blue shales. At one place the shales 
showed several thin bands of hard sandstones with fucoid- 
like impressions. 

The beds, described by De Golyer as succeeding the Tama- 
sopa southwest of Tuxpam and to which he applies the name of 
San Felipe Beds, apparently differ considerably from the San 
Juan (San Felipe of Jeffreys and Huntley) of the Valles 
region. He says of them : 



Vol. VIII] BUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 137 

"Overlying the Tamasopa limestone and resting uncon- 
formably ( ?) upon it is a series of alternating impure thin- 
bedded limestones and gray, red, and green shales and marls 

The entire formation is somewhat sandy and contains 

locally beds of tuff of variegated colors which contain decom- 
posed mica and are finely porous With the exception of 

one or two doubtful inliers the outcrop of the formation is 
confined to a narrow strip adjoining the outcrop of the Tama- 
sopa limestone in the mountain front. The thickness of the 

formation varies from 600 to 1000 feet The formation 

is apparently Tertiary if one may judge from the few 

fossils which have been secured from drill cuttings. If such is 
true it is of lower Eocene age. The formation grades imper- 
ceptibly into the overlying shales series, the limestones becom- 
ing gradually more argillaceous and impure and grading finally 
into hard shale and in turn into soft shale." 

His description of his Mendez follows:" 

"Grading from the underlying San Felipe beds is a thick 
series of gray to green shales, marls and clays containing rarely 
thin shaly sandstones and limestones and red shales " 

"This formation outcrops, for the most part, over the entire 
floor of the Sabanita basin. It is the surface rock of the Fur- 
bero field proper, extending from the Oligocene hills on the east 
to the lava flows at the foot of the hills of the Sierra Madre on 
the west. The thickness of this formation at Furbero is ap- 
proximately 4000 feet. No fossils have been found in this 
region." 

"Both the altered and unaltered shales of the Alendez forma- 
tion, a series of blue and gray, medium soft, fine-grained shales, 
more or less calcareous in places, and (when not metamor- 
phosed) a fairly constant lithological character throughout." 

The Sabanita Valley, from which De Golyer describes his 
Mendez and San Felipe, is 60 miles southeast of Chicontepec. 
Aquismon is 65 miles northwest of Chicontepec. 

At Aquismon the blue shales and clays, with "practically no 
change in their lithological character from top to bottom", 
gradually pass downward into limestone interbedded with simi- 
lar blue shale. 

" Trans, A. I. M. E. LII, p. 275. 



138 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [P«oc. 4th Sei. 

At El Xuchil the blue and brown clays and shales are inter- 
bedded with brown sandstones, carry clay ironstone nodules in 
places, and gradually pass downward into sandstone. 

At Sabanita the upper beds are gray to green shales, marls 
and clays with shaly sandstones and limestones grading down- 
ward into impure thin-bedded limestones interbedded with 
similar shales and with beds of tufif of variegated colors. 

The materials of De Golyer's San Felipe, however, are ap- 
parently unconformable on the Tamasopa. and are very differ- 
ent from those found in the San Juan farther north, and if. as 
he suggests, such fossils as it contains are of Eocene age, his 
San Felipe can not possibly be correlated with the San Juan, 
which is undoubtedly Cretaceous. Furthermore, his overlying 
Mendez differs materially from that north of the Panuco River, 
and agrees more nearly with the upper portion of the Chicon- 
tepec beds of which we believe it to be the southern extension. 

Similar shales appear in many of the exposures examined 
between the Panuco and Tuxpam rivers. 

On the Tlacalula Ranch, northeast of El Xuchil, there are 
many exposures of beds similar to those between Chicontepec 
and El Xuchil. In many places the shales are standing at high 
angles and are cut by basalt dikes and frequently are impreg- 
nated with asphalt. They are blue to gray in color, interbedded 
with brown sandstones, and occasionally have bands of clay 
ironstone. 

These are found in the beds of such creeks as Puente, Palma, 
and Coyote, and near the river Tamozus. 

They are also found in the base of Mount Santo Domingo 
and between it and Cerro Tultepec. To the eastward they are 
found around Horcones and on the Buena Vista River at Ala- 
zan. Jeffreys reports them as underlying his Oligocene section 
at Temapache. six miles southeast of Alazan. 

Southeast of Tamiahua, on the San IMarcos River, Sands 
found good exposures of them and furnishes the following de- 
scription : 

"The beds are composed of bands of very hard light blue- 
gray, fine-grained calcareous shale which in places becomes 
almost a shaly limestone and varying in thickness from two 
inches to a foot, interbedded with softer bands of thicknesses 
varying from a few inches to fifteen feet. Some of these softer 



Vol. \III] DUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAVMENT AREA 139 

bands are fine-grained clay shale, dark blue gray to red in color, 
and seeming to carry little or no sand in its composition. 
Others, on the contrary, are very sandy, and in some places, 
grade into a shaly sandstone with calcareous cement. No fos- 
sils were found here." 

These shales occur here in gently undulating beds with pre- 
vailing dips of one to four degrees a little west of south. 

These are apparently very similar to the shales called Mendez 
by De Golyer. 

Blue shales were also observed on the Tuxpam River, west of 
Tumbadero. and near the coast as far south as the Arroyo 
Hondo, between Tecolutla and Nautla, and at many other 
localities in this region. 

Just how far south these Chicontepec beds extend cannot be 
told at present, but they probably skirt the foot of the Cordil- 
leras as far south as Nautla. 

Bose does not appear to have recognized any beds referable 
to them in his Orizaba section. 

In Chiapas, however, he finds similar beds, and states that 
the fossiliferous Eocene there consists of sandy shales, sand- 
stones, clay shales, calcareous shales and limestones. The pre- 
vailing colors are red and yellow, although sandstones, shales, 
and limestones are occasionally gray or blue. 

The Eocene fauna of this region, like that of the Chicontepec 
beds, appears to be almost altogether foraminifera— nummul- 
ites and orbitoides. The nummulites are found scattered over 
a considerable area, but the orbitoides were only found in a few 
localities. Dr. Paul Oppenheim. of Berlin, identified them as 
Orbitoides ortliofraginiiia, a typical Eocene form. 

Therefore, so far as our present observations go. Lower and 
Middle Eocene deposits such as occur in the Texas Gulf Coast 
region are not found on the Mexican coastal region south of the 
old barrier now represented by the Tamaulipas Range. Such 
deposits as do occur in the Mexican region, and which may 
represent the time equivalents of these Texas beds, are charac- 
terized by an entirely different fauna. 

The succeeding Eocene beds as seen at Alazan are, appar- 
ently, unconformable on the Chicontepec. The fauna is a 
commingling of species occurring in the Tejon formation of the 
Pacific Coast with those of the Upper Claiborne and Jackson, 
or Upper Eocene, of the Gulf region. It has only been recog- 



140 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se«. 

nized at a few localities so far, but even these remnantal de- 
posits are of great value as proof of the direct connection of the 
waters of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans during the final 
stages of the Middle Eocene and in the Upper Eocene. 

A large number of wells have been drilled in the area between 
the Panuco and Tuxpani rivers and from such logs as are avail- 
able, it appears that all the wells which have proved good pro- 
ducers are drilled into the Tamasopa limestone which is encoun- 
tered at depths from 1700 to 2400 feet. 

The identity of the Tamasopa is fully proved by fragments 
of the limestone which have been blown out of the wells, in 
some of which fragments the rudistes are clearly present. 

The drilling also shows that the Tamasopa. throughout most 
of this area, is overlain by the San Juan beds, but the irregular 
thickness of the beds so referable, showing, in place of the 800 
feet usually attributed to this formation in this area when un- 
disturbed, only 70 to 150 feet in places and occasionally seem- 
ing to be missing entirely, indicates that the San Juan was 
subjected to strong erosion prior to the deposition of the over- 
lying shales. Since there is no such unconformity between the 
Papagallos and San Juan anywhere as is found between the 
limestones and shales in this area, it is evident that these shales 
are not Papagallos and therefore whatever thickness of Papa- 
gallos may have originally overlain the San Juan in this region 
was entirely removed together with a large portion of the San 
Juan prior to the deposition of the shales now covering them. 

It is probable that a part of this shale belongs to the Chicon- 
tepec, especially in the western portion of the area, but it is also 
certain that a large part of it belongs to the Alazan, since 
samples of the drillings are identical in physical character with 
the tvpical shales and at times carry fragments of lamelli- 
branchs like those of the Alazan. It is also possible that some 
part of it may belong to the San Rafael. 

Just what part belongs to the Chicontepec and what to the 
San Rafael is as yet undetermined. 

It is probable that a careful microscopic study of the drillings 
of the materials overlying the San Juan in connection with 
similar study of Chicontepec, Alazan and San Rafael sediments 
would enable us to draw the line between the two formations as 
found in the wells with some exactness. 



Vol. VIII] DUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 141 

The tliickness of the Cliicontepec probably exceeds 2,000 
feet. De Golyer'^ cites fossils from the Tamijuin well from 
depth of 3150 feet which are said by Hopkins and Belt to have 
a decided Tertiary aspect and fossils from 2900 feet in Ganahl 
Well No. 1 at junction of jNIoctezuma and Tamuin rivers which 
were pronounced Tertiary by Dr. Hart. While the fossils are 
not named it is known that nummulites occur in the blue gray 
marls on the Tempoal River, as in other places in the Chiconte- 
pec, and it is, therefore, probable that the shales penetrated in 
these two wells are Tertiary, as stated, — but they are not 
Papagallos. 

It has been suggested that in this region these Tertiary beds 
occupy a deep synclinal, none of the wells having reached the 
Cretaceous beds which are found so much nearer the surface to 
the east and west. 

Alazan 

Whether the fossiliferous shales at Alazan are an integral 
part of the lower hard blue shales or are unconformable upon 
them, has not yet been fully determined, but they are probably 
later and are certainly Upper Eocene. 

The type locality of the Alazan shales is on the Buena Vista 
River at the crossing of the road between Alazan and Moyutlan. 

At this place the stream has cut down to the blue shales and 
exposed that formation along its western bank and in the bed 
of the river for a distance of more than half a mile. Overlying 
the shales to the west is a hill of yellowish clay, probably Oligo- 
cene. On the east side of the river there is a broad valley 
covered to a depth of 20 feet or more with recent deposits. 

The general body of blue shale seems to have been but little 
disturbed ; for the most part it is smooth and evenly bedded and 
has a low dip to the southeast. Three hundred yards below the 
crossing there is a limited area which shows the surface of the 
shale more or less disturbed and broken, and it is here that the 
fossils occur. In places it appears as if small basins or potholes 
8 to 10 feet in diameter had been eroded in the underlying shale 
and the fossil-bearing blue clays laid down in them. At other 
places the fossiliferous beds seem broken and piled together in 
every direction. The entire fossil-bearing area is not more than 
200 feet in length and a few hundred yards below this the main 

>' Traas. .\. I. M. E. LII. p. 266. 



142 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4iB Sei. 

body of shales ends abruptly as though faulted and the water 
plunges into a deep pool. 

The material in which the fossils occurs is very similar to 
that of the main body of the shales, but the fossils here are 
entirely confined to the disturbed and eroded area and not a 
single fossil was found elsewhere in this exposure and none 
at all was found in the main body of shale. 

The fossils are fragile and while abundant in this limited 
locality are hard to separate from the shale. 

A mile west of this locality on the Horcones road a small 
stream with high banks affords another exposure of the fos- 
siliferous Alazan shales. These shales are evenly bedded and 
have not been folded or broken as at the first locality. They are 
immediately overlain by recent material so that relations were 
not seen. The material here is a bluish shale which weathers 
white, differing in appearance from the great body of shale to 
the north which belongs to the Cretaceous and resembling very 
closely beds found at Tlacolula Ranch, 18 to 20 miles west of 
this locality on the Arroyo Puente. 

The fossils from the Alazan shales were submitted to Dr. R. 
E. Dickerson, who reports that they are of Upper Eocene age, 
containing some forms characteristic of the Tejon of California 
and others of the Upper Eocene of the Gulf Coast. 

The following forms have been identified from these beds : 

Orbitoides, sp. 

Cristellaria, sp. 

Corbula, sp. 

Nucula (Acila), sp. 

Nucula monrcensis Aldrich 

Chione, sp. 

Pecten promens De Gregorio 

(Pseudamusium) calvatus Morton 
" sp. 
Tellina cf. subtriangularis Aldrich 
Glycimeris, sp. 
Mactra ?, sp. 
Spisula, sp. 
Dentalium, sp. 

" stramineuni Gabb 

Cadulus subcoartatus Gabb 



Vol. Vni] DUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 143 

Conus reinondii Gabb 

" sauridens Conrad 

" alveatus Conrad 

" sp. 
Cylichna, sp. 
Epitonium, sp. 
Drillia, sp. 
" sp. 
Eulima lugubris Lea 

" _ sp. 
Haminea, sp. 
Galeodea, sp. 
Lunatia, sp. 
Mitra, sp. 

Murex migus De Gregorio 
Neverita cf. secta Gabb 
Nyctilochus, sp. 
Natica, sp. 

Olivella near matliewsonii Gabb 
Ringicula biplicata (Lea) 
Sinum, sp. 

Sinum striatum (Lea) 
Surcula, new sp. 

" sp. 
Tritonium, sp. 

Turritella cf. caelutura Conrad 
Turris children! (Lea) 
niii^era (Conrad) 

" acutirostra (Conrad) 

" cf. suturalis Cooper 

" cf. monolifera Cooper (Lea ?) 

" sp. 

" cf. mediavia equiseta Harris 
Cerithium, sp. 
Schizaster, sp. 

The cuts of the Tampico and Panuco Valley Railroad in the 
vicinity of the Topila Hills show the Alazan marls underlying 
sandstones belonging to the San Rafael beds. If the Meson 
stage is present it has not been recognized. The Alazan marls 
at this locality carry fragments of a Schizaster and a few small 



144 CAUFOR^IA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. -Ith Se». 

lamellibranchs. Similar marls with apparently the same Schi- 
zaster are found at I-os Naranjos, Tempoal, Zacamixtle and 
elsewhere, proving in some measure tlie extent of the Alazan 
beds in this region. 

Taken altogether, therefore, it would now appear that the 
section south of Aquismon probably corresponds closely with 
that described by Bose from Chiapas and Tabasco, but is 
more extended. The Tamasopa limestone, with occasional 
remnants of San Juan and Papagallos, is followed by Eocene 
deposits characterized by nummulites, orbitoides, etc., succeeded 
by Upper Eocene (Jackson) and this by Lower and Upper 
Oligocene. 

OLIGOCEXE 

After the deposition of the Eocene sediments they were ele- 
vated and folded and, in this area, were base-levelled so that at 
the present time they form a comparatively level floor, the gen- 
eral surface of which is not far below the water-level of the 
region. 

Upon this floor of Eocene sediments are found those of the 
Oligocene, which includes the greater part of the materials 
forming the various mountains, hills, and mesas of the region 
as well as those portions of the intervening valleys in which 
erosion has not reached the underlying Eocene. In many places 
they are penetrated by dikes and necks of basalt, and, at others, 
are covered by basalt flows. Some sedimentary deposits of 
Quaternary age also occur overlying them. 

The Oligocene deposits consist of sands and sandstones, 
clays, marls, shales, with more or less calcareous matter, and 
limestone. These, where unaltered, are brown, gray, or blue, 
but are usually weathered yellow, which is their prevailing color 
throughout the region. By far the greater part of the beds are 
clays with more or less sand, the shales and limestones being 
most abundant in the middle portion of the beds. 

These deposits were first studied by us on the lower Conchos 
River near the town of San Fernando, and that name was used 
to designate them'". Finding that the name was already in use 
the name San Rafael was adopted as a substitute''. 

" Tertiary Deposits of Nortlieastern Mexico. E T. Dumble. Science, No. 841, pp. 
232-4. 1911. 

Tertiary Deposits of Eastern Mexico, E. T. Dumble. Science. No. 910. pp. 901-8. 
1912 

" .\ Medial Tertiary Fauna from Northeastern Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 1917. 



Vol. VIII] DUMBLE—GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 145 

On tlie Conchos River and along tlie eastern face of the 
Pomeranes Mountains to the north of that stream the only 
beds recognized were those belonging to the uppermost part 
of the formation. To the southward in the Martines and San 
Jose de las Rusias ranges to the vicinity of Tordo Bay lower 
beds than those of the Conchos predominate. South of the 
Tamaulipas Range in the Panuco River drainage area a con- 
siderable part of the fossil-bearing deposits seem to be of this 
same age. while south of the Otontopec divide we find, in con- 
nection with these deposits toward the coast, a considerable de- 
velopment of later beds similar to those on the Conchos. 

The San Rafael, as here described, includes both the Eogene 
and Neogene of Villarello's report. Of the former, he says : 

"The Sierra San Jose de las Rusias is made up of yellowish 
colored nummulitic calcareous rocks which belong to the 
Eogene and which extend to the north as far as the vicinity 
of Santa Maria de las Ovejas. To the west they extend to the 
plain of San Jose. To the east they pass under the Quaternary 
and Recent formations of the Coast, and south they reach as 

far as the same Sierra of San Tose These beds belong- 

to the Eogene and form slight folds : sometimes cross-folding. 
The general structure is monoclinal." (P. 12.) 

The overlying beds, or "Neogene," are made up in this vicin- 
ity of argillaceous shales, while around Ebano the beds he cor- 
relates with these are thus described : 

"The Tertiary of this region is made up of yellow clay shales 
and blue or bluish gray marls. Interpolated in these marls antl 
shales are sandstones with a clay and sometimes calcareous 
cementing material. These rocks outcrop chiefly, although to a 
very small extent, toward the west from Ebano and some por- 
tions of the plain where generally they are covered by the 
Quaternary and Recent formations of the Gulf Coast." 

Jeffreys' section of the Tampico Tertiaries shows at the base 
semi-crystalline fossiliferous limestone with some shales, also 
a coarse crystalline limestone and the blue calcareous sandy 
marl. This is overlain by a soft calcareous sandy material 
interbedded with white nodular forms. The succeeding beds 
consist of coarse limestone weathering to yellow and carrying 
oysters. The top bed is of sandy turritella limestone with cal- 
careous sandstone beds containing white nodular forms. 



146 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES tPsoc. 4th Sek. 

Jeffreys, speaking of the Ozuluama and Temapache regions, 
says : 

"These Tertiaries chiefly consist of coarse h'mestones, fossil- 
iferous as at Ozukiama and Topila ; there are also strata of 
bluish limestones weathering to yellow, and some soft coarse 
blue sandy silt deposits underlying the former ; nummulites are 
present in most of the limestones, but more abundant in certain 
sections, especially near by Ozuluama. The so-called Tema- 
pache limestones are decidedly of a higher horizon than that 
of the Ozuluama Series, but are very similar in lithological 
character. They are somewhat thicker, however, and probably 
ostrea are more abundant in the southern series. There are 
also a few more or less localized conglomerates in the Tan- 
cochin area. 

"The whole series throughout are interbedded with a softer 
calcareous yellow sandy material, full of small white calcareous 
forms. 

"Under what conditions these Tertiaries were deposited is 
difificult to estimate, but they were probably laid down in not a 
very deep sea. 

"The Tertiary beds on the eastern side, moreover, are not 
homogeneous throughout. That is to say. we have beds in the 
southeastern and central portion which are not represented 
with a similar bed at the same horizon in the northeastern sec- 
tion." 

In the vicinity of Tuxpam we find shales, marls, and sand- 
stones overlying fossiliferous yellow limestones. Similar beds 
are found southward along the Cazones River and eastward 
almost to the Gulf shore at Nautla. 

De Golyer" says of the beds in this region : 

"Overlying the Mendez shales is a thick series of sandstones, 
shales, impure fossiliferous limestones and occasional conglom- 
erates of Oligocene age. The various strata making up this 
formation are lenticular and grade laterally into each other. 
Near the front of the Sierra Madre occur beds of shale so thick 
that their outcrops are hardly distinguishable from those of the 
Mendez shales." 

" De Golycr. .\. I. M. E., p. 1906. 



Vol. \'III] BUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 147 

The comparatively superficial character of these beds is well 
shown in the Topila district. Here the Topila Hills, several 
hundred feet high, seemingly show a section of more than 1000 
feet of clays with interbedded sandstones and limestones carry- 
ing fossils of San Rafael age, and yet wells drilled along their 
western foot show none of them. 

In places these beds are very fossiliferous and based on the 
fossil fauna they may be divided into three stages, although 
possibly the two lower may be ultimately combined into one. 
These, beginning with the lowest, will be called the Aleson. San 
Rafael and Tuxpam stages. 

Meson 

The type locality of the Meson beds is in the valleys lying 
between Moralillo and Meson on the trail leading from Tamia- 
hua to Alazan. These beds consist for the most part of yellow 
sandy clays with some lime and sandstone. It is characterized 
by the large foraminifer Orbitoides papyracccc, Bou. These 
fossils occur here in great number, but they have not been ob- 
served higher in the series. These beds, with their characteristic 
fossils, are also found near San Jose in the San Jose de las 
Rusias region underlying the San Rafael. 

San Rafael 

The San Rafael, from which these beds are named, is located 
on Zarzizal Creek, 65 miles north of Tampico. Four miles east 
of the town a range of hills 300 to 400 feet high is composed 
of beds of yellow clay alternating with bands of clayey lime- 
stones'^ The fossils are abundant and include corals, mollusca, 
echinoderms and foraminifera. The corals, echinoderms and 
forams are quite distinctive and through them the beds of this 
stage are easily distinguished for a considerable distance to the 
north and south of the type locality. 

While considerable stress seems to be placed on the limestones 
of this division, they are not the predominant materials, which 
consist of gray, blue, and yellow clays, shales, and marls, with 
occasional beds of sandstone. The limestones are more or less 
local in their development. 

" Tertiary Deposits of Northeastern Mexico, Cal. Ac. Sc. Vol. 5, No. 6, p. 189. 



148 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4ih Se». 

Beds of San Rafael age occur in the vicinity of Tampico, 
both to the west of the city and between the city and the Gulf. 

Among the best exposures of these deposits in the region 
under discussion are those found in the Topila Hills, 15 miles 
southwest of Tampico, where there are many good exposures 
of beds of limestones with characteristic fossils. There are also 
numerous exposures to the south, although where the limestones 
and fossils are lacking the identity of the beds is not so easily 
determined. 

Jeffreys, in describing his Temapache section, which seems 
to belong to this stage, states that succeeding what he calls the 
Mendez series, there is a dark bituminous sandstone containing 
sharks' teeth and numniulites, overlain by limestones and occa- 
sional conglomerate carrying ostrea, pectens, nummulites, and 
turritella. Above this comes a hard, coarse to fine-grained 
limestone, replaced upwards by a hard, coarse yellow limestone 
with calcareous sandstone, as in the Ozuluama beds, carrying 
turritella, ostrea, and pectens. The top of this section is the 
hard Temapache limestone. Still another section is given in 
the Cuchares River area which shows limestones and thin beds 
of shale overlain by calcareous sandstone, and this by Le Pena 
gray limestone with nummulites. Above this there are beds of 
semi-crystalline limestone, some of them being highly fossil- 
iferous, while the top is formed of turritella limestone inter- 
bedded with yellow calcareous sandstones. 

The fossils found in the San Rafael stage include the fol- 
lowing : 

Foraminifera :"" 

Orbitoides epphippium 

Nummulites radiata ? 
Corals r^ 

Orbicella cellulosa Duncan 

Orbicella, n. sp. 

Maeandrina, n. sp. 

Acropora, sp. ? 

Favites ? polygonallis Duncan 

Goniastrea antiguensis Duncan 

Goniopora, sp. very similar to, or identical with, an 
Antiguian species. 

^ Determinations by R. M. Bagg. 

'' Determinations by T. Wayland Vaughan. 



li t( 



Vol. \1U] DUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 149 

Echinoderms ;■■ 

Clypeaster concavus Cotteau 

" sp. a Dickerson & Kew 

sp. b 
Eiipatagus, sp. " 

Lovenia dumblei Dickerson & Kew 
Macropneustes mexicanum Dickerson & Kew 
Schizaster sclierzeri Gabb. 
Mollusca r^ 

Ostrea, sp. 

Pecten gatunensis Toula 

" oxygonum-optimum B. & P. 
Tnrritella altilira Conrad 



Tuxpam 

Following the clays, shales, and limestones of the San 
Rafael, we find another series of clays and shales which is also 
very fossil iferous in places as in the vicinity of Tuxpam, which 
place gives them their name. 

The Tuxpam beds comprise yellow clays and sandy clays, 
blue sandy shales and bands of calcareous sandstone. For the 
most part, the beds seem to lie nearly flat and show little dis- 
turbance, even in the vicinity of volcanic necks. 

They are well exposed around San Fernando, on the Con- 
ches River, have not been definitely identified at Tampico, but 
form a large part of the surface material around Tuxpam and 
southward to Larios and Nautla. While the contact of the 
Tuxpam and San Rafael beds has not been positively observed, 
we may conclude that a decided unconformity exists because 
there are numerous small anticlinals to be seen in the San 
Rafael, while the Tuxpam beds seem to show little or no dis- 
turbance of this character. A further study will probably dem- 
onstrate that south of the Otontopec divide the Tuxpam beds 
overlap the San Rafael in many places, as they certainly do in 
the region north of Tordo Bay. 

While certain molluscan forms seem to be common to the 
San Rafael and the Tuxpam, the number of species occurring 
in the Tuxpam is very much greater. The echinoderms of the 

— Determinations by Dickerson & Kew. 
^ Determinations by Dickerson & Kew. 



150 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pitoc. 4th Sei. 

Tuxpam seem to be specifically distinct from those of the San 
Rafael, corals are much scarcer and there is no such number 
or variety of foraminifera as in the lower beds. 

The following list of fossils of the Tuxpam stage is from 
the report of Dickerson & Kew : 

Echinoderms : 

Agassizia clevei Cotteau 
Cidaris cf. loveni Cotteau 
I Clypeaster cubensis Cotteau 

Macropneustes antillarum Cotteau 
I IVIetalia cumminsi Dickerson & Kew 

' Scutella cazonesensis Dickerson & Kew 

Molluscs : 

Astarte, sp. 

Area, sp. 

Antigona glyptoconcha Dall 

Cardium. sp. 

" gatunense Toula 
" lingua-leonis Guppy 
Clementia cf. dariena Conrad 
Chione cf. ballista Dall 
Glycimeris, sp. 
Meretrix, sp. 
Mya, sp. 
Macoma ? sp. 
Ostrea haitiensis Sowerby 

" trigonalis Conrad 

" sp. 
Paphia. sp. 
Panope, sp. 
Pecten gatunensis Toula 

" cf. " 

" condylomatus Dall. 

" levicostatus Toula 

" sp. 
Tellina 

Architectonica. sp. 
Amphissa, sp. 
Conus interstinctus Guppy 

" sp. 



Vol. VIII] DUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 151 

Cypraea, sp. 

Ficus, sp. 

R'lalea ringeiis Swainson 

" sp. 
Melongena, sp. 
Natica. sp. 
Olivella. sp. 
Sinum, sp. 
Turritella, sp. 
Urosalpinx, sp. 
Xenophora, sp. 

Bose states that the Semijoval division which overlies the 
Eocene deposits in Chiapas may possibly include both Oligo- 
cene and Miocene deposits. This division consists of argil- 
laceous shales, blue clays, gray sandstones, and limestones. 
The fauna, which was not carefully studied, embraced ostrca, 
sp. : pccteu. sp. ; turritella, sp. ; strombtis, sp. ; conns planiceps, 
echinolampas, sp. : clypcastcr cf. meridianns, etc. in the shales, 
with some corals and pectens in tlie limestones. From this it 
would appear that there is seemingly a strong resemblance be- 
tween the Semijoval and the San Rafael, just as there is be- 
tween his Cliiapas Eocene and the Chicontepec. 



NEOCENE 

Nortli of the Tuxpam River sedimentary beds of later age 
than the Oligocene seem to be confined to those of late Pliocene 
or Pleistocene age. 

In the northern portion of the Embayment area, lying be- 
tween the Tamaulipas Range and the Cordilleras we find, rest- 
ing directly on the Papagallos shales, beds of materials cor- 
responding in every way to the Reynosa of Southwest Texas 
and Northeastern Mexico. It consists of conglomerates, 
gravels, and sands, with some clays and more or less calcareous 
cementing material, which, in many places, takes the form of 
caliche. 

Similar beds are found east of the Tamaulipas Range and 
southward throughout the area. 

East of the Tamaulipas Range we find overlying the Oh'go- 
cene clays and sands, in a number of localities, a rather heavy 



152 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

bed of broken sliells, making a true coquina. In places this is 
found well up in the hills or forming the tops of hills. Just 
how it is related to the Reynosa is not known. 

The Reynosa, as shown by its relations to fossiliferous beds 
above and below it, is Upper Pliocene and our idea is that the 
Coquina is of similar age. 

Going southward we find, around Tampico and the Laguna 
Viejo, beds of sandy clay with Ostrca virginica and a few other 
shells of like recent affinities. Similar deposits occur in the 
area between Tampico and Tuxpam and to the south of the 
Tuxpam River. 

All of tliese deposits are more or less local in their distribu- 
tion, and have not been studied sufficiently to permit a fuller 
description. 

While no fossiliferous beds of Miocene or earlier Pliocene 
age are known within the area here discussed, they do occur 
farther south and more detailed work may discover extensions 
of them in this region also. 

The nearest locality at which such fossils have been collected 
and identified is Santa Maria Tatetla, Veracruz, about sixty 
miles south of Nautla. This was described by Bose in Bulletin 
22 of the Mexican Geological Institute. Both Bose and Vil- 
larello state that a similar fauna is found in deposits occurring 
near Actopani and Tezuitlan which lie between Santa Maria 
Tatetla and Nautla. 

The following is from Bose's description : 

Santa Maria Tatetla is a native town in the Canton of 
Huatusco and 25 or 30 miles northwest of the city of Veracruz. 
It is situated in the bottom of a deep barranca at an elevation 
of 349 meters on the bank of the Rio Santa Maria, which, after 
uniting with several arroyos, forms the Rio Antigua and enters 
the gulf near Antigua. The general character of the region is 
that of an extended mesa almost perfectly flat, somewhat in- 
clined towards the east and cut by numerous barrancas. To- 
wards the north and west the mountain rises in sierritas made 
up chiefly of Middle Cretaceous limestones and modern eruptive 
rocks. The upper part of the mesa is mostly a conglomerate 
of eruptive rocks horizontally stratified and in all probability 
an upper Pliocene and Post-Pliocene ^larine formation. Be- 
neath these conglomerates there are outcrops of the Escamila 



Vol. VIII] DUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYMENT AREA 153 

division of the Middle Cretaceous, one of these being to the 
south of Apasapan, and another near Santa Maria Tatetla, 
where there are Hmestone beds carrying Riidistes, Actceonella, 
Nerinca, etc. At Pahner the limestones carry Caprina and 
other Cretaceous fossils. On top of these come calcareous con- 
glomerates, marls, and sands somewhat consolidated and sand- 
stones carrying the fauna described as Pliocene. Above the 
fossiliferous beds come a conglomerate of modern eruptive 
rocks. 

The Tertiary fossiliferous bed occurs at an altitude of 280 
meters above the sea-level, and, in the bottom of the barranca, 
about four kilometers below Santa Maria. The bed extends 
eastward and the same fossils are found in a somewhat harder 
limestone at an elevation of 150 meters at Puente Nacional. 
That the beds dip to the east may be seen from the altitude of 
the fossil localities. 

The sandstones and sand in the Barranca Santa Maria admit 
of two divisions : Osti'ca, Animnssimn and Encopc are the more 
abundant in the lower division and in the upper there are 
numerous bivalves of other genera and gasteropods, but, with 
the exception of Anuiutssinm, the species are rather scarce. 
Both divisions carry many forms in common and are un- 
doubtedly of the same age. 

The fauna found in this region comprises the following: 

Encope Tatetlfensis, n. sp. (frequent) 
Pecten Aztecus, n. sp. 

santarosanus Bose 
Ammussium mortoni Rav. (frequent) 
Pinna serrata Sow. (frequent) 
Anomia simplex D'Orb. 
Ostrea virginica Gmelin (frequent) 

" sculpturata Conr. 
Area taeniata Dall. 
Lucina quadrisulcata D'Orb. 

" pectinata Gmelin 
Laevicardium sublineatum Conr. (frequent) 
" serratum Linnaeus (frequent) 

Dosinia elegans Conr. (frequent) 

" acetabulum Conr. (frequent) 
Venus ebergenyii Bose (frequent) 



154 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se«. 

Solecurtus cummingianus Dunk. 

" gibbus Spengl. 
Seniele perlamellosa Heilpr. 
Panopaea floridana Heilpr. 
Xenophora conchyliophora Born. 
Sigaretus cfr. multiplicatus Dall. 
Turritella Aguilerae Bose. 
Cerithiuni caloosaense Dall. 
Strombus pugilis Linnaeus (frequent) 
Pyrula papyratia Say (frequent) 
Dolium cfr. galea Linnaeus 
01i\a litterata Lam. (frequent) 
Balanus eburneus Gould. 

Nearly all the fossils occur in the form of casts and it is 
not possible to determine a number of the species on account of 
the absence of ornamentation or because, being new species, 
they cannot be determined for want of better preserved ma- 
terial. 

This fauna appears to be a littoral or at least comparatively 
shallow water one and many of the species or their kindred are 
still living in the adjacent .sea. The Santa Maria Tatetla. 
Santa Rosa, and Tuxtepec species appear to belong to the same 
fauna and same age, which, although given as Pliocene, in the 
publication quoted, is now regarded (so Bose says) on account 
of larger and more complete collections, as Miocene. 

Igneous Rocks 

The igneous rocks occurring" in this area are nearly all 
basaltic. 

They occur as dikes of various widths, as plugs or bosses, 
and in beds forming the tops of hills and mesas. 

The great number and extent of the dikes suggest that the 
lavas which form the caps of the hills and mesas came up as 
sheet flows rather than through craters. 

Huntley"* gives two maps showing the location of a number 
of these dikes running in different directions, together with sur- 
face flows and states that the peaks and plugs of basalt are 
usually found at the intersection of such dikes. 

"Trans. A. I. M. E. LII. pp. 302. 310. 



Vol. VIII] DUMBLE— GEOLOGY TAMPICO EMBAYUENT AREA 155 

Garfias"^ has described the mushrooming of these plugs in 
sending out siUs of basalt through the bedded limestones. 

De Golyer-" e.xpresses the opinion that the lava cap was 
originally continuous over a very large part of the area, and 
that the flow occurred after the deposition and folding of the 
entire series of marine sediments. 

The largest single body now remaining in this area is prob- 
ably tliat of the Otontopec Range or Mesa, but there are many 
other detached mesas and hills which still show their lava 
covering resting upon the yellow, sandy clays of the Oligocene. 

History 

Tiie movement, which, during tlie later portion of the Austin 
Chalk period, caused the formation of the Sabinas barrier in 
northern INfexico, was probably the beginning or directly con- 
nected with the one that began the deformation which has re- 
sulted in the present conditions of our area. 

East of the Sabinas barrier the Taylor, with its coal beds 
and the overlying Escondido, were laid down with little, if any, 
interruption, and are followed by the basal Eocene without 
any evidence of an erosion interval between. 

One hundred and sixty miles south, at Ramones, on the 
Salinas River, where we found the contact of the Papagallos 
(which represents the Taylor, in some part, at least), and the 
same basal Eocene, we see that the Papagallos has been 
strongly folded and eroded prior to the beginning of Eocene 
deposition. Similar folding is evident in the San Felipe-Valles 
region. 

The initial movement in this area was, therefore, immedi- 
ately following the deposition of the Papagallos and the fact 
that between the Panuco and Tuxpam rivers not only the entire 
thickness of Papagallos, but, in places, that of the San Juan 
was removed prior to the submergence which permitted the 
beginning of the deposition of the Eocene, indicates that the 
erosion was very active. Farther south it was even more 
active as the Rudistes limestone also seems to have been carried 
away. 

The Midway or basal fauna of the Gulf Coast Eocene is 
found as far south as the Tamaulipas Range but has not been 

" Journal of GeotoKy, Vol. XX. No. 7, p. 666. 
"Trans. A. I. M. E. LII. p. 275. 



156 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES tPnoc. 4th Sex. 

observed again nortli of Venezuela, 2,000 miles away. Fossils 
of the Lower Claiborne occur along the Conchos River not 
more than 30 or 35 miles from the upper end of the Embay- 
nient area, near Linares, but are not known farther south. 

The waters of the Eocene sea covering the Tampico Em- 
bayment area probably came in from the south and were either 
entirely separated from those of the Gulf or their connection 
was such that the faunas did not mingle. 

Toward the close of the Middle Eocene further elevation 
and folding took place. This is shown in the Pomeranes 
Mountains north of the Conchos River, in the mountains east 
of Burgos, south of that stream, at Alazan, and at Chicontepec. 
This movement is also evidenced on the Texas coast by the ab- 
sence of the Upper Claiborne and the erosion of a part of the 
Lower Claiborne prior to the deposition of the Upper Eocene 
or Jackson. 

The succeeding submergence clearly shows a connection in 
the Embayment area of the waters of the Pacific and those of 
the Atlantic by the commingling of the Pacific and Gulf types 
of fossils at Alazan where Tejon forms of the west are mingled 
with Jackson and possible LIpper Claiborne forms from the 
Gulf. 

The close of the Eocene was marked by further folding, ele- 
vation, and erosion. 

The Oligocene submergence, which followed, seems to have 
afifected not only the entire Gulf region, but the Carribean as 
well, and since almost identical faunas are reported from the 
west coast of Mexico, it is probable that the passage between 
the Oceans was still open. 

With the final emergence of the Oligocene* important sedi- 
mentation in our area seems to have ceased, and was succeeded, 
probably during the Miocene, but, seemingly, before any great 
erosion had taken place, by the vulcanism which gave us the 
dikes, necks, and caps of basalt. 

To the north and south of this area the coast was subjected 
to further submergence and deposits of ]\Iiocene and Pliocene 
age were laid down, but such Post-Oligocene submergences as 
may have occurred in this portion of the Tampico Embayment 
area seem to have been relatively unimportant. 

* The nummulitic limestones of the San Rafael beds are ample warrant for their 
reference to the Oligocene. The Tuxpam beds were included in the Oligocene because 
of the identity of certain ferns. Some of these ferns, however, seem to indicate a 
later Horizon and closer collecting ntay necessitate a reference of the Tuxpam beds 
to the Miocene. 



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PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIII ' [ DUMELE J Plate 5 







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PROC. CAl . ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIII 



CUMELE) Plate 6 




PROCEKDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. VIII, No. 5, pp. 157-179, text figs. 1-10 Sept. 16, 1918 



THE KELP-FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 
(GENUS FUCELLIA, FAMILY ANTHOMYID^) 

BY 

J. M. ALDRICH 

Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture 

The genus Fucellia was established in 1841 by Robineau- 
Desvoidy (Annales Soc. Ent. France, x, 269), with the single 
species arcnaria. The type specimens are lost, and the descrip- 
tion contains at least two palpable blunders ; but from the 
account of the habits of the adult on the French coast, it is 
undoubtedly identical with Haliday's Haliihca uwritiuia, pub- 
lished in 1838 (Annals Nat. Hist., ii, 186). The generic name 
Halithea is preoccupied, so maritima becomes the type of Fucel- 
lia, and is so given by Coquillett (Type-Species, 1910, 545). 

The species of Fucellia live in the larval stage in brown sea- 
weeds (kelp, Fucus, etc.), cast up by the waves along ocean 
beaches ; the adults can be found all summer long on these 
masses, often in immense numbers. Only maritima and 
fricontiii have been reported at any distance inland ; their larval 
habits in these situations are unknown. 

Stein has published an excellent monograph nf the species 
of the world, 14 in number, in Wiener Ent. Zeitung, xxix. 

September 16. 1918 



158 



C ALIFORM A ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pboc. 4th Ser. 



11-27, January, 1910. Johnson closely followed this with a 
review of the species of our Atlantic coast and Greenland, four 
in number, in Psyche, xvii, 76-78; April, 1910. As the rich 
fauna of our west coast was only partly known to Stein, and 
as his paper is not very accessible, I offer a new treatment of 
our species, both east and west. 

Generic characters. — Maritiiiia shows the following charac- 
ters in both se.xes : front wider than one eye ; a single large pair 
of cruciate bristles on the front; fronto-orbitals 6 in a single 
row, the upper 3 somewhat outcurved, the lower incurved ; 
verticals two pairs; ocellars large, two smaller pairs behind the 
triangle; parafacials narrow, bare; antennae short, with bare 
arista ; eye small, bulging, bare, nearly round ; bucca fully one- 
half the eye-height, bare except a single row of bristles below ; 
epistoma slightly produced, vibrissae above the lower edge of 
head, only a single small bristle above them ; palpi ordinary ; 
proboscis short, with a pair of long hairs below beyond the 
elbow; labella ordinary; back of head bulging, with sparse 
hairs. Thoracic chaetotaxy' : postsutural dorsocentrals 3 (a 
rather large hair Ijehind the third), anterior dorsocentrals 2, 
humeral 2 or 3, interhumeral 1, presutural 1, notopleural 2, 
intraalar 2. supraalar 1, a small prealar, postalar 2 (the hind 
one very large), anterior acrostichal 3 pairs rather large and 
no small hairs, posterior acrostichal 5 or 6 small pairs and 1 
larger prescutellar, sternopleural 2 in front and 2 behind, pro- 
thoracic 1, mesopleural 5 behind and 1 at front lower 
corner; scutellum bare below with 1 marginal near base, 
1 pair long apical close together, 1 smaller discal. the disk 
without hairs except at sides ; pteropleura and metapleura bare. 
Front calypter projecting far beyond the reduced hind one. 
Hind tibia with a row of 3 or 4 erect bristles on the extensor 
side, the lowest subapical. Venation ordinary, costal spine 
present, third and fourth veins parallel, ant cv at middle of 
wing, the cross-veins separated by almost the length of the 
last segment of the fourth : last segment of fifth short, sixth 
slender but reaching the margin ; costa setulose. 

In listing the preceding characters, it is not intended to in- 
timate that a species must have them all in order to be con- 

' The names of the thoracic bristles are given in full here, but are generally 

abbreviated farther on; they are explained in Williston's Manual, my Sarcophaga 

and .-Mlies, also in a valuable and easily accessible paper by Walton, Ent. News, 
XX, 307-314. 



Vol. VIIl] ALDRICH— KELP-FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 159 

generic witli iiiaritiiiia; for instance, in the known species the 
costal setules may be much larger than in niaritiina (costalis) 
or absent {cvennanni) ; the lower hind stpl may be absent 
(bicniciata and evervuanni) ; a few very minute hairs may 
occur underneath the scutellum (in some but not all specimens 
of separata, costalis, and fucornni) ; and so on. The head 
structure, venation, and chjetotaxy. however, vary but little, 
and the group is decidedly homogeneous, although the species 
are easily separated. 

Down to 1893. the genus had been uniformly referred to the 
family Scatophagiclse (or ScatomyzidcC), so far as I ha\e been 
able to trace its history. In the year mentioned, Girschner 
(Berl. Ent. Zeitsch, xxxviii, 304) referred it to Ccenosiinre; 
but as he included Scatopliaga. Cordylura, etc., in the same 
group, this has not much significance. Becker (ibid, xxxi.x, 
80) in the following year first definitely separated the Fucellias 
from Scatopliaga and its allies. "They are," he wrote, "Antho- 
myids, clearly excluded from this family by having a four- 
segmented abdomen, cruciate frontal bristles, and a pair of 
costal spines at the end of the auxiliary vein." Stein accepted 
this disposition of them in the Palaearctic Catalogue (1908), 
where they stand as a subfamily, Fucelliinje containing but the 
one genus. 

Malloch, in a recent analysis of Anthomyid subfamilies 
(Canadian Ent., xlix, 408; Dec, 1917) separates Fucelliinje 
from Ccenosiinse in the possession by the former of cruciate 
frontal bristles and a spine below on the hind basitarsus, the 
sternopleurals being never in the form of an equilateral 
triangle. 

Schnabl and Dziedzicki, Die Anthomyiden. 1911. p. 123, 
proposed the genus FuccUuia for FuccUia griscola I*"all., sigiiata 
Zett., and pictipcunis Beck. The principal character is that the 
tronto-orbital bristles are single-rowed in Fucclliiia, and 
double-rowed in FuccUia. This I must regard as purely a mis- 
take, as they are single-rowed in all that I know. Several 
other characters are mentioned, but they do not remain grouped 
in our species, but split in all directions. Hence FucelUna ap- 
pears to be only another in the long list of unsuccessful attempts 
to improve Anthomyid genera. 



160 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Slb. 

Tables of Species 
Males 

1. Femora largely yellow (Southern California) .rt'/cc/a, new species 
Femora black 2 

2. Front with two or three pairs of cruciate bristles 3 

Front with a single pair 4 

3. Front with three pairs, the lower farther apart ; ant acr with 

scattered minute hairs between ( Bering Straits) 

hicruciata Stein. 

Front with two pairs, the lower farther apart, ant acr without 
scattered minute hairs (California) ... .eivrmdHni, new species 

4. Hind femora beneath at extreme base with a tuft of short spines. . S 
Hind, femora plain 7 

5. Middle tibix on inner front side with one or two distinct bristles 6 
Middle tibiae without bristles on inner front side (Atlantic coast ; 

Europe) inarilima Hal. 

6. Hind femur at base close to the tuft of bristles with a knoblike 

protuberance turned toward the body, which is also beset with 
short spines (Greenland to Bering Straits, and down the Pacific 
coast ; Europe) fucorum Fall. 



6;/2.Head square in profile, the front flattened, protuberant anteriorly 

(Greenland; Arctic North America) ariciiformis Holnig. 

Head globular, front as usual ; front of wing clouded beyond mid- 
dle (Kodiak Island, Alaska) hinei, new species 

7. With a large dark spot in apical half of wing (Greenland; Arctic 

North America) pictipennis Beck. 

Wing unspotted 8 

8. iliddle femur with stout bristles below, which on the apical half 

are short and comblike; costa with long spines (California)... 

costalis Stein. 

Middle femora without such bristles, costa with short spines . . 9 

9. Hind femora beneath on apical half with a close-set row of about 

14 slanting bristles (Alaska) antcnnota Stein. 

Hind femora with only three to five bristles beneath 10 

10. Prealar absent, bucca as high as eye (CAViiorma) . .separata Stein. 

Prealar present, bucca not so high 11 

H. Tibiae red. hind ones with only two or three bristles on outer 

front side (California ; Washington) rufitibia Stein. 

Tibise black, hind ones on outer front side with a row of about 
8, the upper small (British Columbia) testuum, new species 

Females 

1. Femora yellow (Southern California) ....rejecta, new species 
Femora black 2 

2. Front with two or three pairs of cruciate bristles 3 

Front with a single pair 4 



Vol. VIII] ALDRICH— KELP-FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 161 

3. Front with three pairs, the lower farther apart; ant acr with 

scattered minute hairs between them (Bering Straits) 

bicruciata Stein. 

Front with two pairs, the lower farther apart, ant acr without 
scattered minute hairs (Cahfornia) evcrmanni, new species 

4. Tibiae mostly or wholly reddish-yellow 5 

Tibiae black, or paler only at the extreme base 6 

5. Middle femur below with two or three scattered bristles below 

from base to middle ; middle tibia with two small sets on front 

inner side (California; Washington) rufitihia Stein. 

Middle femur without bristles below, middle tibia without setas 
on front inner side (Atlantic Coast; Europe) .... wunViuia Hal. 

6. Wings distinctly infuscated on apical half (Greenland) 

piclipciiiiis Beck. 

Wings not infuscated apically 7 

7. Third antennal joint elongated, almost twice the second. (Alaska) 

antennata Stein. 

Third antennal joint but little longer than second 8 

8. Bucca (below the eye) as high as the eye (California) 

separata Stein, 

Bucca hardly over half the eye-height 9 

9. Numerous small hairs between the two rows of the ant acr .... 

.' costalis Stein. 

Ant acr in two rows without small hairs between 10 

10. Head nearly square in profile, prominent at antennae; sterno- 

pleural hairs long and abundant (Greenland; Arctic North 

America) ariciiformis Holmg. 

Head not so square; hairs of sternopleura small, sparse 11 

11. Palpi wholly black (Arctic; Pacific, etc.) fucorum Fall. 

Palpi with basal half red ( British Columbia ) 

cestmim, new species 

Note. — The male is unknown in rejecta and bicruciata, and the female 
in astuum. I have placed these in the tables by analogy with the known 
sex, but there is a chance of error. The unknown female of hinci I have 
not ventured to place. 



162 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkdc. 4th Ser. 

Description of the Species 

1. Fucellia maritima Hal. 
(Figs. 1, 2, 3) 

Haliday, Annals of Natural Hist., ii, 186. 1838 (Halithca). 
— Europe. 

Macquart, Annales Soc. Ent. France, vii. 424. 1838 or 1839 
{Scatophaga marina) . — Europe. 

Robineau-Desvoidy, ibid, x, 272 {arcnaria). — Europe. 

Lundbeck, Dipt. Grcenl.. ii, (Vidensk. Meddel., 1900) 291. 
f. lb. (iiitcnitcdia). — Greenland. [Stein.] 

Stein. Wien. Ent. Zeit., xxix. 1910, 18. — Entire European 
coast, North Africa, North and South America on Atlantic 
side; sometimes inland (Genthin and Berlin) ; seems unknown 
from shores of Pacific. 

Johnson, Psyche, xvii. 1910, 77 (marina). — Labrador to 
Florida. 

Winn and Beaulieu, List of Quebec Diptera, 1915, oc. at 
East Bolton. Que. 

Johnson made marina prior, but accepted the date of the 
seance as the date of publication. 

In addition to the characters listed as generic, the species shows the fol- 
lowing (in both sexes unless the contrary is indicated): General color 
brown-gray, pollinose; front red in middle, yellow toward antennae, brown 
at verte.K ; a circle of pale pollen, interrupted behind, around the ocellar 
prominence; gena and bucca brown in ground color; palpi yellow; tips 
brownish; proboscis blackish; antennae black, second joint sometimes 
brown, over half as long as third; arista straight, short, thickened for 
2-5 its length. Thorax indistinctly brown above ; humerus dark brown on 
the side, below which the pollen suddenly becomes whitish, making a pale 
spot which includes the lower half of the spiracle; mesopleura hairy on less 
than the upper-posterior half; calypters pale yellow, rim and its hairs the 
same ; halteres yellow. 

.'\bdomen tessellated, opaque brown-gray ; in the male the first segment 
is longest, in the female the fourth; the male has a stnall and retracted 
hypopygium, the fifth sternite with a broad emargination behind and a 
narrow lobe each side. Coxje, femora, and tarsi black, the trochanters and 
tibis vellow ; front tibije with two small setae on outer hind side ; middle 
tibia with one on outer front, three small on outer hind side ; hind femur 
with an upper-outer row of liristles double toward tip, and a sparse row 
below that begins alx>ut the middle ; in the male there is at base below 
a protuberance against which the tip of the tibia closes, which bears a 
bunch of black spines. Hind tibia with the row behind as already men- 
tioned, three on outer hind side, four on outer front side. Hind basitarsus 
with spine below. Pulvilli short, the front ones a little elongated in the male. 

Wing hyaline or very slightly grayish, veins brown to yellow ; setulse 
on costa iieginning before the tip of auxiliary and extending nearly to 
tip of second, but not very large. 

Length 5 to 5 '/I mm. 

Note — The figures in this paper are not drawn to a uniform scale. Wings and profiles 
were made with camera lucida. 



Vol. \-in] ALDRICH-KELP-FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



163 




Fig. 1. Fucellia mtirituna. head in profile, male. 




Fig. 2. Fucellia maritiitia, wing. 



164 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4iH Se«. 




Fig. 3. Fucellia maritima, inner side of base of hind femur, male. 

Eleven specimens, both sexes ; one pair European without 
locahty, determined as fucorum by Strobl many years ago; 
seven from New Bedford. Mass., determined as fucorum by 
Stein in 1897; one from Woods Hole. Mass.; one from Falls 
Church. Va., collected by Nathan Banks. I have determined 
and returned other Atlantic coast specimens of this common 
.species, without making a note of the localities'. Mr. Malloch 
informs me that he has taken the species in southern Illinois. 



2. Fucellia fucorum Fall. 
(Fig. 4) 

Fallen, Scatomyzides, 5, 1819 (Scatomyza). — Europe. 
Meigen, Syst. Beschr., v, 253, 1826 ( Scatophaga ) . 
Curtis, Insects of Ross's Polar Exped., 1831, Ixxx, oc. in 
Arctic America (Scatophaga). 

Macquart, Hist. Nat. Dipt., ii, 395 (Scatophaga), 1835. 
Haliday, Annals Nat. Hist., ii, 186 (Halithea), 1835. 

2 In the Osten Sacken material in the Museum of Comparative Zoology are a pair 
of maritima labeled "S. Barbara. O. Sacken," evidently indicating Santa Barbara. 
Cal.. as the place at which they were collected. I had never seen the species from the 
Pacific coast, and in July, 1917. I improved an opportunity to collect closely for a 
couple of hours at Santa Barbara, endeavoring to confirm the occurrence of the 
species. I was entirely unsuccessful, and am obliged to conclude that the label is 
probably erroneous, as I think is also the one which would represent a female of ever- 
manni as occurring on "Summit of Sierras." That such mistakes can easily occur 
when collections from several places stand unlabeled for a time is also illustrated by 
one of my 1917 specimens of separata, which I find labeled Jacumba Springs. Cal., 
about 100 miles inland from San Diego, where I collected the day before my arrival 
at the coast. 



Vol. VIII] ALDKICH-KELP-FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 165 

Zetterstedt, Ins. Lapp., 722, 722>, 1838 {Scatomyza fuconmi 
and muscccfonnis) ; Dipt. Scand., v, 1982 (Scatomyza) viii, 
3293, 1849 (Aricia bninnea). 

St?eger, Grocnl. .\ntliater. 366. 1845, oc. in Greenland 
(Scatophaga). 

Schiner, Fauna Austr., ii, 15, 1864. 

Boheman, Kong, Vet. Akad. Forliandl., xxii, 572 (Scato- 
111x^0 livpcrborca). 

".Meade, Ent. Mo. Mag., 1899, 219. 

Lundbeck, Dipt. Green]., ii, 291, 1900, oc. in Greenland, with 

fig. 




Fig. 4. Fuii'llia fiicoruiii. inner side of base of hind femur, male. 

Pandelle, Rev. Ent. France, xix, 270, 1900 (Chortophila). 

Cuquillett, Dipt, of Commander Islands ( The Fur Seals, 
elc, 1899, pt. iv, p. 344), oc. on Commander Islands; Proc. 
Wash. Acad. Sci., ii, 1900, 453, oc. Sitka, Kukak Bay, Popof 
Island, and Saldovia. all in Alaska. 

Stein, Wien. Ent. Zeit., xxix, 16. 1910, full discussion. — 
Seacoast of northern Europe, rare as far south as Ger- 
many ; Bering Straits ; St. Paul Island ; Friday Flarbor, Wash. 

Johnson, Psyche, xvii, 76, 1910, not seen from east coast of 
North America : must be limited to the far north. 

Tliis species was not satisfactorily separated from mniitima imtil Stein's 
1910 paper, and the latter was generally named fucorum in collections until 
that time; hence we have several references in onr literature to fiicnnim 
occurring in Georgia, Porto Rico, New Jersey, and Florida, now believed to 
refer to inariliina. 



166 CALIFOKSIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sr.B. 

Fucoriim possesses the generic characters given above for inaritima, as 
well as most of the specific characters of that species. The general color 
is darker; the palpi and legs are wholly black and the front dark brown; 
front wider, almost half the head; parafacials wider, and with a change- 
able dark pollinose spot beside the base of antenna ; vibrissre higher above 
lower edge of head ; bucca wider, about 34 the eye-height ; middle tibia with 
a seta on inner front side, one or two on outer front, and two on outer hind 
side; middle femur witli an even row of about 12 sliorl bristles along upper 
front side ; Iiind femur of male with a basal meso-ventral protuberance 
which is slightly enlarged at tip and bears very minute spines; just latcrad 
of it is a tuft of larger stout hairs or small bristles. Hypopygium small ; 
a male from Douglas, Alaska, shows the parts somewhat protruded ; in 
this the second segment of the hypopygium has a deep median groove 
behind, dividing it into two lobes; the lateral lobe of the fifth sternite is 
angular and slightly notched mesially near its base, the median cmargina- 
tion of the sternite yellow, witli a small yellow point in the center. In a 
Friday Harbor specimen the cmargination and point are lirown. the rest 
retracted: 

Length 4.3 to 6 mm. 

Forty-five specimens, both sexes : eiglit fi"om Dotis^las, 
Alaska (Eldred Jenne) ; 27 from Vaslion Island, ^^'asll. 
(Melander) ; one from Seattle, ^^■ash. (O. B. Johnson): one 
from Tokeland. Wasli. (R. \\'. Doane) : and eight from l"rid;i\' 
TTarhor, \\^asli. (Aldrich). 

I have also seen a long series collected at Kodiak- Inland 
and Katmai, Alaslca. \)v Professcir Tline in 1017. 



3. Fucellia costalis Stein 

(FiK.5) 

Stein, \\'icner Knt. Zcitimg, xxix, 21, 1910. — INlontercN'. 
Cal. 

Cole. I'irst Report Lagnna Marine Laboratory, ]). 15(), 1912, 
oc. at Lagnna, Cal., and notes. 

Male : Front black with thin brown pollen, as wide at vertex as one eye, 
narrower toward antenna ; two verticals, one ocellar. two small behind 
ocelli, three frontals curving outwardly, five smaller below curviii.g to the 
middle; lower part of the narrow parafrontal with a few small hairs in a 
row ; parafacial and bucca silvery pollinose, the former % as w-ide as the 
length of the third antennal joint, the latter 2/5 as high as the eye and 
bearing one row of bristles at lower edge; antennje lilack, third joint \'/i 
times the second and rather tapering, arista thickened on basal fourth; 
vibrissae rather high above lower edge of head; palpi black; proboscis 
short, black, fleshy ; back of head with numerous black hairs, the occiput 
however conspicuously bare. 

Thorax as in mciritiina except that the acrostichals are small and 
irregular, some outside the two rows, and the dorsal surface is quite 
generally covered with small hairs amon.g the bristles, not present in 
maritinia; prescutellars distinct ; prothoracic three, mesopleura hairy ex- 



Vol. \ni] ALDRICH— KELP-FLIES OF \OKTH AMERICA 167 

tept behind the spiracle, several bristles below the latter; calypters white, 
the upper edge of the hind one projecting a little; lower part of sterno- 
pleura with coarse, abundant bristles. 

Abdomen tessellated, with rather distinct median black stripe ; first seg- 
ment almost as long as the ne.xt two; a tifth segment visible dorsally as 
a narrow edge before the hypopygium. Hypopygium of moderate size, the 
first segment densely set with straight spiny bristles; fifth sternite with a 
long brown lobe each side of the excision. 

Legs entirely black ; front tibia with one seta in front, one or two sleiider 
on hind side; middle tibia with one on outer front, two on outer hind side; 
middle femur with the hind lower row becoming short and comblike near 
tip; hind tibia with three on hind (extensor), three on outer hind, four 
on outer front side ; hind basitarsus with a conspicuous stout spine on 
lower surface near base ; front and middle coxK very bristly ; pulvilli all 
enlarged and elongated. 

Wing subhyaline; beginning at apex of auxiliary the costa bears seven 
or eight stout sct.-e, much larger than in the other species, diminishing 
toward the end of the series (fig. 6). 

Length 6.8 to 7 mm. 

Female ; Front wider, 1 Y} times as wide as one eye ; width of parafacial 
equal to length of third antcnnal joint; bucca fully half the eye-height; acr 
rather distinctly four-rowed; anterior tibia with one in front and two 




Fuicllia costalis, costa. 



stout on outer hind side; middle femur with only hairs in place of comb; 
mid tibia with one or two small on inner front side ; one large on outer 
front, two or three irregularly placed on outer hind; hind basitarsus as in 
male ; pulvilli not enlarged. 
Length 7 to 7.8 mm. 

Twenty-tliree specimens of both sexes ; two from Laguna, 
Cal. (Cole) ; 20 from San Diego, Cal., June 29, 1917; and one 
from Santa Barbara, Cal, July 6, 1917. 

The largest species of the genus. Cole (loc. cit.) says of it: 
"This species is quite common on decaying kelp. They are 
large, quick flies. They seem to be at least partially predaceous 
in habit, as I have seen them pounce upon weakened sandhop- 
pers and by their numbers soon overcome them." 



4. Fucellia pictipennis Beck. 

Becker, Meddel. om Greenland, xxi.x:. appendix. 411. — I'last 
Greenland. 

Neilsen, ibid, xliii, 32, oc. in N. E. Greenland, lat. 76° 46'. 

Stein, W'ien. Ent. Zeit.. xxix, 26. types redesc. — Hecla 
Havn, East Greenland. 

Johnson, Psyche, xvii, 76. note. 



168 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIE.\CES [Proc. 4tii Ser. 

Male: General color deep black, with thin lis'ht-gray pollen; frontals 
live, the two upper turning out, the rest inward; antennae notaljly large 
and broad, reaching the oral margin, wdiich is not much above lower edge 
of head; bncca almost as high as the eye, bare except the usual row below; 
hack of head bulging, nearly bare; palpi black, long and broad; proboscis 
short; one pair cruciate bristles on front, one pair ocellars and two stnall 
behind ; arista short, thick at base. 

Thorax with two or three pairs of ant acr, no hairs among them ; 
ch.Ttota.xy as in maritinui (prealar not noted) ; stpl 2-2, but the lower 
ones hardly inore than hairs, especially the hind one; calypter small with 
dark riin but pale fringe, hind calypter very small ; halteres sordid dark 
yellow, almost brown. 

Abdomen showing five segments above, the first elongated, the fifth very 
narrow; hypopygiuin not very large; fifth sternite black, the lobes long, 
black, with a few long bristles on outer edge. 

Legs entirely black; front tibia with one seta on front (extensor) and 
one on outer hind side; middle tibia with two on outer front, two on 
outer hind, and one on inner hind side; hind tibia with the usual three 
erect long ones on hind (extensor), the outer hind with two near middle 
and some coarse hairs above and below ; hind femora without a protuber- 
ance but with a row of 12 bristles below, beginning at second third. 

Wing wdiitish, apical half blackened, less so behind; first vein thick and 
black at apex, crossveins black, costa with almost imperceptible setules. 

Female: Palpi decidedly broadened toward tip, somewhat as in Lii/'ii 
ullgiwsa Fall., but black. 

Length 3 mm. 

Eleven specimens, both se.xes, Bernard Harl)or, Northwest 
Territory. Canada, collected by the Canadian Arctic Expedi- 
tion. I saw this material in the Illinois State Laboratory of 
Natural History, where it had been identified by Mr. Mailoch, 
who called my attention to it. It is to be deposited in the Cana- 
dian National Collection in Ottawa. A single specimen in the 
Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, is labeled, "82° n. Lat. On the 
Beach at n. e. extremity of L. Hazen in the interior of Grant 
Land. June 7, 1908. Peary Arctic Exped." It was collected 
bv J. W. Goodsell, surgeon, along with two specimens of 
Plwniiia tcrra-noi'cc RD., which bear the same label, and are 
also in the Carnegie Museum. This record is proliably as far 
north as any fly has been collected. I have mentioned it in 
Psvche, XXV. Z2>. 



5. Fucellia rufitibia Stein. 

(Fig. 6) 

Stein, Wien. Ent. Zeit., xxix, 2.\ 1910. — Pacific Grove, Cal. 
Cole. First Report Laguna Marine Laboratory. 1912, p. 156, 

note and full-page figure. — Laguna, Cal. 



Vol. VIII] ALDRICH-KELP-FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



169 



This Pacific species is very closely similar to maril'ma of the Atlantic 
coast; it is easily separated in the male sex, but pretty close attention is 
required to distinguish the females, except by the locality labels. 

Male: Compared with maritima. the male of ruAlihia has black or 
blackish palpi instead of yellow; the bucca is more than half the eye- 
height; the bind femur has no protuberance on the under inner side at 
base; the middle femur has a long bristle below at middle and one nearer 
base, whereas there is none in uiariliiini : the second, third and fourth 
abdominal segments are shortened (retracted) so much that they are 
together usually not much lonper than the fust segment ; and the bypopyg- 
iuin is very much larger and more globose. Among these characters, the 




Fig. 6. Fuccllia riiHlibia, front view of head in female. 



color of the palpi and the absence of the hind femoral tubercle are ample 
to distinguish the species. The forceps are difficult to draw out. but are 
found to be very slender and nearly straight, shining black, more like 
needles than hooks. 

Female: This sex is distinguished from maritima by the palpi, bucca and 
middle femur, being as in the male; the setules of the costa are longer than 
in the Atlantic species, and this is also true in the male. 

Length 3 to 4 mm., noticeably less than in maritima. 

Forty-five specimens, both sexes; Pacific Grove, Santa Bar- 
bara, Laguna, Santa Monica, Long Beach and San Diego, Cal. ; 



170 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se». 

two Laguna specimens are from F. R. Cole, and two Santa 
Barbara are marked "Dyar". Ijut I have had them many years. 
I collected all tiie rest, including some at Santa Barbara. Dates 
of collection are of almost no significance. 

The species occurs in swarms on the castup seaweed of the 
California seasliore; T have had several tlMusamls in mv net at 
once. It is the most abundant of the shore llies. 



6. Fucellia separata Stein. 

Stein, Wien. Ent. Zeit.. xxix, 24, 1910. — Monterey, Cal, 
and Seattle, Wash. 

Male and female : General ground color dark brown, with gray-brown 
pollen. Front over one-tliird llie width of the head, yellow above an- 
tennae, bristles as in maritima; antenn» black, small, third joint only a little 
longer than second, arista short, a little thickened on basal third ; para- 
facial yellow-poUinose, narrow but very short on account of the peculiar 
shape of the eye, which has its longest diameter almost lengthwise of the 
insect and is short vertically. leaving a broad, yellow-poUinose bucca as 
high as it is; vibrissa high above lower edge of head; palpi black, some- 
times dark yellow at base; proboscis sinall, black; back of head bulging 
and nearly bare. 

Thorax brown, opaque, a lighter pollinose streak from the inner part 
of humerus back to root of wing, and a pale spot on side just below 
humerus; chaetotaxy as in maritimo, but with a few small, distinct hairs 
bordering the humerus and suture and bcliind the latter, and stpl only 1-1 ; 
calypters pale yellow, rim and fringe concolorous ; halteres yellow. 

Abdomen a little tessellated, in the female with no special characters ; in 
the male the hypopygium is large, the fourth segment wide and declivous, 
the fourth sternite strikingly large, prominent but bare ; first segment of 
hypopygium dull brown, with numerous spiny hairs on hind part ; second 
segment concolorous, concave in prolile to a bifurcated hump just before 
the anus; forceps dark yellow, wide, flat, and arched toward the median 
line. 

Front tibia with one seta on front, generally one small on outer hind 
side ; middle tibia with one on outer front, one on outer hind, and in the 
female there are also one or two each on inner front and inner hind, which 
are generally absent in male; hind tibia with two on hind, two on outer 
hind, three on outer front; middle femur in male with a row of small 
bristles on lower front edge, showing but slightly in female ; hind femora 
plain in male, with row of bristles on outer upper edge in both sexes, and 
one smaller on lower outer edge in male, which is but little developed in 
female. 

Wing subhyaline, costal spine rather distinct, other costal setules present 
but small. 

Length 4 to 4^ mm. 

One hundred specimens, both sexes; 65 collected by myself 
at Pacific Grove. Santa Barbara, Long Beach, and San Diego, 
Cal., and 35 by Professor Melander at Bwaco. Wash., in 1917. 

This is the second species in abundance on the California 
coast, ranking next to ntfitibia. 



Vol. VIII] ALDRICn—KEU'-FLIBS OF NORTH AMERICA 171 

7. Fucellia rejecta, new species 

Female : Black in ground color, but with legs, wing veins, and most of 
the head yellow. Front almost half as wide as head, decidedly prominent 
above antennre, bristles as in inaritiiiw ; paraf rentals brown above, yellow 
below their middle ; frontal stripe reddish, with an interrupted blackish 
crescent anteriorly, beyond wliich it is yellow to the an'tennn:; parafacinls 
and bucca yellow, with yellowish pollen, the former wider than usual, the 
latter almost as wide as eye-height; eye almost perfectly round; antenna 
dark yellow, third joint except the base dark brown, arista brown, thick- 
ened almost halfway, pale in middle ; palpi yellow, proboscis lilack ; back 
of head black in ground color above, yellow below, bulging, with few hairs, 
those of metacephalon long. 

Thorax with same chastotaxy as mariliina, but the post dc might be 
counted as four, since the coarse hair behind the third is here fully half 
as long as the latter; between and above the front coxne is a keystone- 
shaped sclerite with a notch above, into which fits a rather striking, small 
shining red sclerite; calypters white, rim and fringe concolorous ; halteres 
yellow. 

Abdomen slightly tessellated, with an indefinite median dark stripe which 
disappears at some angles of view ; fourth segment yellow on apical third. 

Legs yellow, including tarsi as much as halfway, but the latter are dark- 
ened by the usual small hairs; front and hind femora slightly infuscated at 
base; front coxas yellowish, the others black in ground color; front ti1)ia 
with one strong seta on front and one on outer hind side: middle tibia 
with one (large) on outer front. 3 irregularly placed on outer hind; hind 
tibia with three on hind (the third nearly one-third as long as the tibia), 
four on outer hind.- and two on outer front ; middle femur with four 
scattered bristles on lower hind edge; hind femur with a row above and 
6 or 7 below on outer side. 

Wings hyaline, veins yellow, third more brown ; costal spines small, the 
usual setules of the genus almost imperceptible. 

Length 7 mm. 

One female, Ocean Beach, a suburb of San Diego, Cab, June 
28, 1917. Type in U. S. National Museum. 

I do not hesitate to describe this well-marlced species from a 
single specimen, as it is not rare where the type was obtained. 
I saw several specimens, distinguishing them readily at several 
feet by their pale color; but on account of their activity and 
wildness, I .succeeded in capturing but one in the time at my 
disposal. It is not unlikely that the males have somewhat 
darker femora, judging from the slight infuscation at the base 
of the front and hind femora in the type. 

The nearest ally of rcjccta is perhaps fuiiifcra .Stein ( W. E. 
Z., xxix, 22) of Chile and Peru; it has yellow legs, but the 
parafacials are hairy, and the scutellum has hairs on the disk 
and lacks the usual p.'iir of discals. Fuiiifcra is the only species 
of the genus known from the west American coast south of San 
Diego. 



172 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCF.S [Proc. 4th Sir. 

8. Fucellia antennata Stein. 
(Fig. 7) 
Slcin, Wiener Ent. Zeit, xxix, 2i, 1910.— Silka, St. Tanl 
Island, and Karluk. Alaska. 

Male and female; Black with opaque gray pollen, wliich has a glaucous 
or bluish cast. Front in male, .483, in female .515 of head width (one of 
each sex) ; frontal stripe brown, with brown pollen; bristles of head as in 
vidiiliina. but only two lower, incurved frontals ; antennre black, the third 
joint distinctly longer and wider than in other species, reaching almost to" 
the vibrissa; parafacials rather narrow, bucca almost as high as the eye, 
which is nearly round; facial ridges yellowish, pollen of bucca smooth and 
gray; palpi black, ordinary; proboscis black, small; back of head bulging, 
with scattering hair. 

Thorax with same chsetotaxy as in iiuiiiliiiia, except that the scutellum 
has only a single very distinct row of hairs well down on the edge; 
prcalar distinct, but only a third as long as supraalar; behind the suture 
arc only a few hairs laterally; the pale spot below the humerus is indis- 
tinct; lower stpls very small; calypters pale, rim and rather heavy fringe 
concolorous ; halteres yellow. 




\ \ Fig. 7. FticiHiii (iiilcniHitd. 

\f\f^J outer side hind fennir of male. 

Abdomen hardly tessellated, of ordinary structure; in the female the 
fourth segment longer than the preceding; male hypopygium of moderate 
size, black; fifth stcrnile rather erect, with large lateral lobes forming 
more than half a circle, within them a deep cavity, in the single specimen; 
second and tliird tcrgitcs together in male longer than first, fifth tcrgite 
not visible. 

Legs black, trochanters reddish ; front tibia with one seta in front ; 
middle tibia with one on outer front, one on outer hind, on inner front the 
male has one, the female two; hind tibia with three behind, four on outer 
bind, female has two on outer front which are absent in male; middle 
femur with erect row of about 7 small slender bristles on bind side below, 
stopping just beyond middle, the same in both sexes ; hind femur with 
usual row above in both sexes, in the male a very characteristic row of 
about 13 on lower outer edge, beginning before the middle, very straight 
and even and close together ; the last in the female are fewer, only about 
7, and ordinary in appearance. 

Wing hyaline, costal spines and setules very minute. 

Length, of male i'A mm. ; of female, 5 mm. 

Twenty specimens, Ixith sexes: five from Dongias. Alask-a, 
August, 1901 ( Elilied Jenne) ; one from Katmai, Aksska, in 
1917 (Hine) ; 13 from Ihvaco, Wash., in May and July. 1917 
(Melander) ; and one from Tacoma, Wash. 



Vol. VIII] ALDRICH— KELP-FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 1 73 

9. Fucellia evermanni, new species 

(Fig. 8) 

Male : Opaque, gray-brown species ; front .463 of head-width ( in the 
type), rather short and bulging; bristles of head as in maritima, except 
that there is uniformly a second pair of cruciate frontals, slightly smaller 
than the usual ones and standing about twice as far apart below them; 
antennae small, black, second joint reddish on front side, third only as long 
as second, arista short, shining black on the enlarged basal fifth ; parafacials 
opaque gray, front edge and down along facial ridge reddish ; bucca 
opaque gray, almost as high as the eye, which is small, roundish, slightly 
elongated obliquely; palpi dark yellow, their tips a little infuscated ; pro- 




Fig. 8. Fucellia evermanni, side view of hinder part of male abdomen with 
genitalia drawn out, together with posterior view of the forceps. 

5t, fifth tergite. 

if, inner forceps. 

of, outer forceps. 

ac, anterior clasper. (Penis and posterior claspers not shown.) 

boscis short, black; back of head very bulging, with rather coarse and 
numerous black hairs. 

Thorax opaque gray with slight traces of brown pollinose spots above ; 
chaetotaxy as in man'/iHia, e.xcept as follows : in the ant dc rows and 
laterad of them are some noticeable hairs, and there are hairs on the 
disk of the scutellum, as well as rather plentifully behind the suture ; 
prealar and lower hind stpl absent. Calypters white with yellow rim and 
long, whitish fringe ; halteres pure yellow. 



174 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Seb. 

Abdomen smooth, sub-opaque, dark gray, with slightly silky surface, 
rather long and with parallel sides ; second, third, and fourth segments of 
equal length, each more than half the first ; the hairs on hind edge are 
longer and more numerous on each succeeding segment, very striking on 
the last, yet so slender as hardly to be called bristles ; fifth tergite con- 
spicuous, half as wide in middle as the preceding, unsymmetrical in shape, 
its left end shortened and exposed, the right passing out of sight under the 
preceding segment ; its hind part bearing long, rather appressed hair ; first 
segment of hypopygium rather large, with the same hair ; second segment 
large but more or less folded in out of sight, its hind part bearing an 
unsymmetrical black hump or protuberance to the right of the middle ; a 
fringe of black hairs around the nearly circular ana! space; the inner for- 
ceps forming an oblong plate with only short projecting anterior outer 
angles ; outer forceps shining yellow to brown, very slender and nearly 
straight, far apart at base but approaching apically, the tips slightly turned 
up : anterior claspers a little larger than the outer forceps, shining yellow, 
strongly curved forward, widened near apex; fifth sternite broadly shining 
black in middle, the sides opaque, both parts hairy, lobes with longer hair ; 
fourth sternite large, prominent, hairy. 

Legs entirely black ; front tibia w-ith one bristle in front ; middle tibia 
with two on outer front, two on outer hind, one on inner hind side ; hind 
tibia with three behind (the middle one long and tapering), three on 
outer hind, four on outer front ; middle femur with row of small bristles 
on lower front edge and another a little larger but still small on lower hind 
edge; outer side of hind femur with the usual row above, and a row of 
about a dozen below, beginning near base. Claws large, pulvilli hardly en- 
larged. Hind basitarsus without spine below. 

Wings uniformly subinfuscated, veins heavy and dark; costa broken at 
tip of first vein, which is pale for a short distance ; first vein almost white 
for a section near its middle, thence to apex heavy and black ; some in- 
distinct pale markings around the basal crossveins; costal spines very 
minute, no setules before or beyond them. 

Female: Front .461 of head-width (in allotype) ; ant acr in the middle of 
the series coarser than in male : middle tibia with two on inner front, none 
on inner hind, two on outer front, two on outer hind ; middle femur with 
the bristles on lower front edge larger than in male, second segment of ab- 
domen shortest, fourth narrowing almost to a point, and bearing at hind 
edge both above and below a close row of stout, appressed bristles, about 
16 above and 12 below ; other abdominal bristles inconspicuous ; lateral and 
lower surface of abdominal tergites and whole of sternites covered with 
short, erect, spiny hairs of an unusual character. The rest as in male. 

Length S'A to Syi mm. 

Twelve males and four females, collected by Dr. Barton 
Warren Evemiann, Director of the Museum of the California 
Academy of Sciences, for whom the species is named, on the 
Farallon Islands off the Golden Gate, on July 6, 1917. "This 
kelp-fly is excessively abundant on the Farallon Islands. On 
July 6 and again on August 6. 1917, when I visited Southeast 
Farallon Island, these flies simply swarmed by hundreds of 
millions on and about the bird rookeries, particularly on the 
areas where Brandt's cormorants were nesting. One could not 
move about these rookeries without being constantly covered 
and surrounded by myriads of these pestiferous little flies." 
(Evermann.) One female from the Museum of Comparative 



Vol. \III1 ALDRICH— KELP-FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 175 

Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., bearing tlie label, "Summit Sierra 
Nevada, July 17. O. Sack," in Osten Sacken's handwriting. 
This locality, so far from the seashore and elevated about 7000 
feet above it, seems almost incredible for a Fuccllia; it agrees, 
however, with Osten Sacken's statement on the first page of 
his "Western Diptera", that he spent two weeks in July, 1876, 
in collecting about Webber Lake in the Sierras, this lake being 
near the summit north of the Southern Pacific railroad. 
Whether he did not accidentally incorporate a seacoast speci- 
men with his summit material is the question. 

Type and paratypes in Museum of California Academy of 
Sciences ; paratypes in U. S. National Museum. 

See notes on relationship under Fuccllia bicruciata Stein. 

10. Fucellia bicruciata Stein. 
Stein, Wien. Ent. Zeit., xxix, 20. — Miednaja, Bering Straits. 

"Front very broad, above the antennae at least twice as broad as one 
eye at the same level, with two pairs of cruciate bristles, one pair close 
behind the other, eqitally strong and equally far apart, in front of which 
is still a third pair which stand fartlier apart. The projecting part of the 
front is in profile completely convex. Bucca very wide, fully equal to the 
eye-height ; back of the head very bulging. Antennje shorter than the 
face, third joint hardly longer than the reddish second, arista thickened on 
the basal fourth. Palpi black and bristly, quite stout. Thorax colored and 
marked as in fucontin, acr in two rows, anteriorly with small, scattered 
hairs between them ; prealar entirely wanting, stpl two in front, one be- 
hind, below the latter no trace of a small bristle. Scutellum on its upper 
surface more bristly than in the other species. Abdomen of the usual 
color, apparently with a median narrow dark stripe. Legs black, claws 
somewhat elongated, pulvilli short. Front tibia without a bristle on the 
side away from the body, only ciliated with fine hairs; middle tibia with 
two on outer front, one on outer hind, three on inner front, the last on 
the apical half, short but strong ; hind femur on the lower outer edge with 
about 8 bristles in the whole length, hind tibia with the usual bristles. 
Wings dirty yellowish-gray, the base with whitish spots, all the veins strong, 
especially the last tliird of the first vein, which is whitish just before this 
part. Costal spine very small, no setules visible, both crossveins feebly 
infuscated. Calypters very small, whitish with yellowish border, halteres 
yellow. 

"Length about 8 mm. 

"The two specimens before me, which seem to be females, are from Mr. 
Becker's collection and were taken at Miednaja on Bering Straits." 

The above is a translation of the entire description. I have 
seen no specimens agreeing with it in regard to the cruciate 
bristles. It may be inferred that the type specimens were not 
in good condition, as Stein was not sure of the sex. In many 
details ci'crmmud agrees, and must be a near relative, but has 
so manv strong characters not mentioned bv Stein that it would 



176 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Seb. 

be assuming far too much to identify it as bicntciata, to say 
nothing of the thousands of miles of coast line between the 
Farallon Islands and Bering Straits which has so far yielded 
nothing to connect the species. 

Whether Miednaja is on the Asiatic or the North American 
side of the Straits I have been unable to find out. 

11. Fucellia ariciiformis Holmg. 
(Fig. 9) 

Holmgren, Kongl. Ventesk. Forhandl., 1872, 103 (Scato- 
phaga). — North Greenland. 

Lundbeck, Dipt. Grcenl.. ii. 292. fig. (Vidensk. Medd., 




Fig. 9. Fucellia ariciiformis, head in profile, male. 

1900). — Several places on Greenland coast, bred from sea- 
weed. 

Stein, Wien. Ent. Zeit., x.xi.x. 19. 1910, redesc. from Lund- 
beck's material; Arch. f. Naturgesch., l.x.xix. 44, female in 
table, 1913. 

Johnson, Psyche, xvii, 77, 1910. 

Male: Opaque dark gray, with three indistinct brown thoracic stripes. 
Front prominent, .451 of head-width in the described male ; face receding 
more than usual ; bristles of head as in maritiina but generally longer, 
especially the two pairs behind the ocelli ; parafacials and bucca dark gray, 
the latter fully half as high as the eye, with long bristles below ; antennae 



Vol. VIII] ALDRICH— KELP-FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 177 

black, standing out prominently, second joint about half as long as third, 
arista black, penultiniate segment distinct, thickened for nearly a third of 
last segment, beyond with minute, microscopic pubescence ; palpi black, with 
long bristles below ; proboscis short, black ; back of head bulging, with a 
few rather long hairs. 

Thorax opaque dark gray, with an indistinct brown stripe on the acr, 
one each side on the dc, and behind the suture a short one on the in- 
traalars ; chi-etotaxy as in maritima. but there are a few quite long hairs in 
the dc rows, about the humeri, and laterally behind the suture; the hind 
postalar is notably long; calypters dirty, whitish, rim and fringe indistinctly 
brownish ; halteres rather dark yellow. 

Abdomen rather long, with parallel sides ; second, third and fourth seg- 
ments subequal, not much shorter than the first ; a distinct fifth tergite 
shows about ^ the length of the preceding one ; hypopygium rather small, 
its first segment with numerous smallish bristles directed backward, second 
much imbedded, when viewed from behind showing a decided notch 
posterior to the anal area ; fifth sternite not in good condition in the 
described specimen, but with long hairs on the sides ; the preceding stern- 
ites inconspicuous. 

Legs wholly black, with long bristles; front tibia with one in front and 
one on outer hind side; middle tibia with one on outer front, two on 
inner front, one on outer hind, and two on inner hind but not far out of 
line with the last preceding; hind tibia with three behind, four on outer 
hind and four on outer front side. Middle femur with about four long 
scattered bristles on lower front edge and a row on lower hind which are 
long near the middle, but shorter and slanting toward tip ; hind femur 
with the usual upper outer row, and a lower outer one of about 8 long 
ones, beginning near base; hind femur at base below with a tuft of small 
spines situated upon a slight elevation ; hind basitarsus with a spine below. 
Pulvilli and claws small. 

Wings slightly and uniformly infuscated ; veins blackish, crossveiiis 
not bordered ; spines and setules distinct but small. 

Female: Parafacial and bucca wider (or eye smaller) ; bucca over half 
the eye-height, with very long bristles below; the specimen has four decus- 
sate lower frontals, instead of three as in male ; abdomen without any 
striking bristles, the second and third segments shorter than the first and 
fourth ; tibial bristles same as in male ; middle and hind femora as in male, 
except tliat the latter lacks the spinous elevation on the base below. 

Length 45/2 to 5 mm. 

One male, one female. St. Paul Island, Berina: Sea, Auarust 
16, 1915, in the collection of the U. S. Biological Survey; the 
Survey has a series taken at the same time and place which I 
have not seen ; they were determined by Mr. Malloch. I have 
seen a series of 25 specimens, taken by the Canadian Arctic 
E.xpedition at Bernard Harbor, Northwest Territory, Canada ; 
these are tlie property of the Canadian National Collection, and 
were also determined by Mr. Malloch. 

Stein places some stress upon the bloodred color of the 
halteres in both sexes, but I think it a variable character in 
dried specimens, and it does not occur in what I have seen, 
although they run to ariciifoniiis in both sexes in Stein's tables. 
Existing descriptions say very little about the chretotaxy. 



178 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEAXES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

12. Fucellia aestuum, new species 

Male: Very much like mariliina, but the tibiae black and the hind femora 
plain. Front .426 of head-width (one specimen), brown, very little paler 
at front edge; bristles as in maritima; antennae black, third joint less than 
twice the second, arista bare, enlarged for a third its length ; parafacials 
and bucca gray, the former rather narrow and with a changeable spot 
opposite antenna, the latter half the eye-height : palpi dark yellow, the 
apical third blackish; proboscis black, small; back of head only moder- 
ately bulging. 

Thorax unicolorous dark gray above, a shade lighter on sides ; ant acr 
three stout pairs, no small scattered hairs before the suture, and only 
four to six beliind it; prealar distinct but less than half as long as the 
bristle behind it ; rest of thoracic characters as in maritima. 

Abdomen with thin brown, changeable pollen, giving a tessellated effect, 
in some lights showing a broad median dark stripe; bristles inconspicuous; 
fifth segment indistinctly marked off from the first of the hypopygium, 
which is small and bears numerous bristles behind ; second of hypopyg- 
ium small, subshining black, with only small hairs ; fifth sternite yellowish 
brown, suberect, forming with its concolorous lateral lobes a raised rim 
open behind, the central space hollow to some depth (probably not so in 
all specimens, this is a single case) ; the lateral lobes bear only fine hair. 

Legs black; front tibia with one bristle on front side ; middle tibia 
with one on outer front, two or three on outer hind; hind tibia with three 
on hind, four on outer hind, and on outer front side with a row of about 
8, smaller above ; hind basitarsus with spine below ; middle femur with a 
few scattering bristles below on both front and hind edges, longer behind; 
hind femur plain, its outer side bearing the usual row of bristles above, 
w^hile below it has a row of about 7, beginning before the middle. 

Wings snbhyaline, crossveins not infuscated, costal spines and setules 
small but visible. 

Female : Same as male except as to genital segments. The palpi being 
red at base is a good character to separate these females from those of 
fucorum, ariciiformis, antcnnata, and apparently /!i;ici. 

Length 4 to 4K nini. 

Fifty Specimens, botli sexes: 46 (including type) from 
Ilwaco, Wash.. July. 1917 (Melander) ; two Vancouver, B. C, 
Aug. 8, 1917 (Melander) ; one Tokeland, Wash. (Doane), and 
one Pender Island. B. C. (Aldrich). 

Type and paratypes in California Academy of Sciences; sets 
of paratypes in the United States National Museum, the Cana- 
dian National Collection, in Professor Melander's collection, 
and in that of the writer. 



13, Fucellia hinei, new species 
(Fig. 10) 

Entirely black, slender, with globose head, apical half of wing anteriorly 
with distinct but ill-defined brown tinge. 

Male: Front .486 of head width (average of two — ^.5(X) and .471); 
irontals 7, upper 3 inclined outwardly, lower 4 mesially ; one large pair 



Vol. VIH] 



ALDRICH— KELP-FLIES OF NORTH AMERICA 



179 



cruciate in the front; ocellars large, with two smaller pairs behind them; 
front, face, antennse and palpi entirely black ; parafacials at narrowest as 
wide as third antennal joint, the latter less than twice as long as second 
joint; bucca over '/^ the eye-height; back of head greatly protuberant, with 
black hairs. 

Thorax thinly pollinose, the mesonotum not showing the normal pollen 
in either specimen ; pleur:e with faint white pollen, which becomes dense 
in a spot just below the humerus at the side; chstotaxy as given for 
inaritinM. except that the lower hind sternopleural is absent and there are 
several of different sizes at the anterior end of msn and above front coxa ; 
calypters and fringe nearly white, rim more yellowish; halteres dark yel- 
low, subinfuscated. 

Abdomen narrow, black, with thin, dark tessellation; second, third and 
fourth segments subcqual, first longer; hypopygiuni small and much re- 
tracted, wholly black; fifth sternite wholly black, its free and elevated 
lateral lobes black, infolded. 




Fig. 10. FuccUia liiiici, outer side hind femur of male. 



Legs wholly black ; front tibia with one bristle in front at second third 
and one on outer side at middle ; middle tibia with 2 on outer front, 2 on 
inner front, 3 on outer hind (of which the upper and lower are almost on 
inner hind) ; hind tibia with 3 on hind. 4 on outer hind, S on outer front; 
hind basitarsus with smallish spine below ; middle femur with a row of 
15 on the whole length of the lower hind edge, and nearly a dozen on 
lower front edge, of which the stoutest are before the middle : hind femur 
with the usual upper and lower row on outer side, and at base below with 
a tuft of four to six small spines, which are variable and sometimes stand 
on a distinct elevation. 

Wings tinged with gray, and marked as stated with a vague brown spot 
beyond the middle on anterior half; costal spines and setules rather smaller 
than usual. 

Length 5 mm. 

Two males, Kodiak Island, Alaska. Collected by Prof. Jas. 
S. Hine, after whom the species is named. Type and paratype 
in Professor Hine's collection. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. VIII, No. 6, pp. 181-270, pis. 7-17 October 18, 1918 



VI 

THE GARTER-SNAKES OF WESTERN NORTH 

AMERICA 

BY 

JOHN VAN DENBURGH 
Curator, Department of Herpctology 

AND 

JCSEPH R. SLEVIN 
Assistant Curator, Del>artinent of Herpetulogy 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

P.\GE 

Introductory remarks 182 

List of species and subspecies 183 

Key to the various forms 184 

The Sirtalis group 185 

General discussion 186 

Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis 190 

Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus 192 

Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis 198 

Thamnophis eques 204 

The Elegans group 206 

General discussion 207 

Thamnophis ordinoides ordinoides 215 

Thamnophis ordinoides atratus 224 

Thamnophis ordinoides elegans 235 

Thamnophis ordinoides vagrans 240 

Thamnophis ordinoides biscutatus 245 

Thamnophis ordinoides couchii 251 

Thamnophis ordinoides hammondii 256 

Thamnophis marcianus 261 

Thamnophis megalops 263 

Thamnophis angustirostris 264 

Bibliography 267 

October 18, 1918 



182 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIE.^fCES [Peoc. 4th bE». 

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 

A number of years ago, in preparing an account of the rep- 
tiles of the Pacific Coast, it became necessary to study with 
great care the various species and races of garter-snakes of this 
region. Cope had described and recognized some 17 kinds of 
garter-snakes from these far-western states, and had left the 
whole subject in most puzzling confusion. Critical study' of 
more than 300 fresh alcoholic specimens, in conjunction with 
the material in the National Museum, including most of the 
type specimens, showed that many of the forms recognized by 
Cope were based solely upon individual variations, and as a 
result of that study the species and races which seemed worthy 
of recognition by name were reduced to seven. 

A. E. Brown, in 1901 and 1903, adopted those conclusions 
except that he held that Cope's race zidua was identical with 
T. leptocephala instead of with T. elegans, it having been based 
upon the type specimens of Kennicott's Eiitcenia atrata. 

Some years later, Ruthven published an exhaustive account 
of the garter-snakes. Unfortunately, much of the available 
material from the Pacific states was not included in his studies. 
It is probable that more abundant material would have changed 
his views in several respects as to the relationship and distribu- 
tion of our garter-snakes. Largely because Ruthven's views 
and our own have not been in complete accord, we have under- 
taken to study anew the garter-snakes found west of the Rocky 
Mountains, and for this purpose have gathered together about 
1700 of these snakes from this region. Most of these are the 
property of the Academy, but several hundred have been bor- 
rowed for study from the collections of Stanford University 
and the University of California. For this privilege we are in- 
debted to Professors Charles H. Gilbert and John O. Snyder 
of Stanford and Dr. Joseph Grinnell of the University of 
California. The snakes in the collection of the University of 
California are distinguished by the letter C prefixed to their 
numbers ; those from Stanford University, by the letter S. 
When no letter is attached to its number the specimen is in the 
collection of the Academy. In this renewed study of these 
snakes Mr. Slevin has assisted in many ways and especially is 
responsible for the counts of the scales of all the specimens. 

' The Reptiles of the Pacific Coast and Great Basin, by John Van Denburgh. Occa- 
sional Papers Cal. Acad. Sci., Vol. V, pp. 1-236, 1897, 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURCH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 183 

The seven kinds of garter-snakes recognized in the earHer 
study are here increased, through the recognition of additional 
subspecies and the inclusion of the snakes of Arizona, to 14 
species and subspecies. As regards the original area, however, 
the increase is three subspecies. 

Excepting certain species from Arizona, all of our garter- 
snakes may be regarded as belonging to two groups or lines 
of descent. These may be spoken of as the sirtalis and elegans 
groups. The latter is much the larger. We are unable to fol- 
low Ruthven in placing in it Thamnophis angustirostris, but 
otherwise include about the same forms. 

LIST OF SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES 

The present study concerns itself with the following species 
and subspecies : 

1. Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis 

2. Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus 

3. Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis 

4. Thamnophis eques 

5. Thamnophis ordinoides ordinoides 

6. Thamnophis ordinoides atratus 

7. Thamnophis ordinoides elegans 

8. Thamnophis ordinoides couchii 

9. Thamnophis ordinoides biscutatus 

10. Thamnophis ordinoides vagrans 

11. Thamnophis ordinoides hammondii 

12. Thamnophis marcianus 

13. Thamnophis megalops 

14. Thamnophis angustirostris 

These snakes usually may be distinguished by the characters 
set forth in the following "key," but it often will be necessary 
to have series of specimens, since individual variation is so 
great that a single specimen may not show the normal charac- 
ters and may be referred to the wrong section. Thus, a speci- 
men of T. s. concinnus having eight supralabials might be re- 
ferred to T. eques, or one of T. o. atratus with seven labials 
might cause confusion, whereas a series of three or four speci- 
mens would immediately clear up the matter by showing these 
counts to be abnormal ones. 



184 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIB!VCES [Proc. 4ih Ser. 

KEY TO THE GARTER-SNAKES. OF WESTERN NORTH AMERICA 

a. — Lateral light stripe anteriorly not involving scales of the fourth row. 
b. — Lateral stripe anteriorly upon scales of the second and third rows, 
c. — Supralabials normally seven. 

d. — Eye large, posterior genials much longer than anterior, 
infralabials usually ten, scale-rows 19 — 19 — 17. 
e. — Gastrosteges (146 to 170) and uroste.ces (66 to 95) 
average fewer in number (156-166 and 76 to 85). 
f. — Coloration lighter, with broader light lines. 

T. sirtalis parietalis p. 190 

f. — ^Coloration usually darker both above and below, 
lines often narrower. 

T. sirtalis concinnus p. 192 

e'. — Gastrosteges (156 to 177) and urosteges (74 to 97) 
average more numerous (163 to 169 and 83 to 90), col- 
oration lighter than in f". 

T. sirtalis infemalis p. 198 

d". — Eye much smaller, posterior genials about equal to anterior, 
infralabials usually fewer than ten, scale-rows usually 17 — 
17—15. 

T. ordinoides ordinoides p. 215 

c". — Supralabials normally eight. 

dd. — Scales usually in not more than 19 rows. 

ee. — Gastrosteges average more than 160, eye large, pos- 
terior genials longer. 

T. eques p. 204 

ee^ — ^Gastrosteges average fewer than 160, eye small, genials 
subequal. 

T. ordinoides atratus p. 224 

dd^ — ^Scale usually in more than 19 rows. 

eee. — Dorsal line present over most of body. 

ff. — Dorsal line very distinct with sharply defined bor- 
ders not invaded by dorsal spots, little dark pir;men- 
tation on gastrosteges. 

T. ordinoides elegans p. 235 

ff. — Dorsal line with borders invaded by dorsal spots, 
dark pigmentation of gastrosteges often present, 
g. — Preocular single, dorsal spots and dark pigmen- 
tation of gastrosteges usually very prominent. 

T. o. vagrans p. 240 

g". — Usually two preoculars, dorsal spots and pig- 
mentation of gastrosteges usually less evident. 

T. o. biscutatus p. 245 

eee'. — Dorsal line usually absent, or short, or indistinct, 
fff. — Remnant of dorsal line usually present, preocular 
single, infralabials often more than ten. 

T. o. couchii p. 251 

fff. — No dorsal line, often more than one preocular, in- 
fralabials rarely more than ten. 

gg. — Lateral lines usually present, dorsal spots fewer, 
or absent. 

T. o. hammondii p. 256 

gg'. — Lateral lines usually absent, dorsal spots very 
numerous and prominent. 

T. angustirostris p. 264 

b'. — Lateral stripe anteriorly upon scales of the third row only, liirht 
postora! crescents present. 

T. marcianus p. 261 

a'. — Lateral light stripe anteriorly involving the scales of the fourth row 

T. megcilops p. 263 



Vol. VIII] y.-IN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 185 

The following facts also will be of aid in the determination 
of specimens : 

1. Any red in the coloration indicates that the specimen be- 
longs to one of tiie subspecies of T. sirtalis or to T. o. ordinoides 
or T. 0. atratus. 

2. Red on the upper surface of the head seems to be peculiar 
to the subspecies of T. sirtalis. 

3. Red on the belly or in the dorsal line is distinctive of T. o. 
ordi)widcs and T. o. atratus. 

4. The members of the sirtalis group have a much larger eye 
and longer posterior genials than are found in the subspecies 
of T. ordinoides, with the possible exception of T. o. hani- 
tnondii. 

5. The members of the sirtalis group practically always have 
19 — 19 — 17 rows of scales and a single preocular. 

6. In the subspecies of T. ordinoides 21 rows of scales are 
almost always present, except in T. o. ordinoides and T. o. 
atratus. 

7. Two preoculars are most frequent in T. augustirostris and 
T. 0. biscutatus, but are frequent in T. o. hammondii and T. o. 
ordi>ioides. 

8. Absence of the dorsal stripe occurs only in four of the 
subspecies of T. ordinoides — viz., Iwmniondii, couchii, ordi- 
noides, and atratus, — and is usual in only hammondii and 
couchii. 

THE SIRTALIS GROUP 

Garter-snakes of the sirtalis type have been found in nearly 
every state of the Union. They have not definitely been shown 
to occur in Arizona and New Mexico. Since these snakes are 
distributed so widely, it is to be expected that racial differences 
may be found to distinguish the snakes of various portions of 
this territory. This has been found true, but the geographical 
races are surprisingly few. Of these, the best known are sir- 
talis and parietalis, which often have been regarded as distinct 
species. Those who, with the most adequate material, have 
studied the question, however, state emphatically that sirtalis. 



186 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sei. 

of the eastern states, and parictalis, of the western, intergrade. 
It is upon their authority that trinomials are used here. Inter- 
gradation, it seems, occurs chiefly in the vicinity of the ninety- 
fifth (90° to 100°) Meridian. Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis 
ranges west from this area of intergradation. The snakes of 
the northwest coast of Oregon and Washington have been 
recognized by many authors as a distinct race, under the names 
Thamnophis parictalis pickeringii or, more properly, Tham- 
nophis sirtalis concinnus. 

Several names have been based upon individuals of these 
races. Thus, parictalis was originally described by Say in 1823 
from material collected at Camp Missouri near Council Bluff. 
Blainville's Coluber infcrnalis, 1835, from California, is based 
upon a garter-snake belonging to this group, and Cope's 
Eutccnia sirtalis tctratcciiia, from Pitt River, California, also is. 
Hallowell's type of concinnus (1852) was from Oregon Terri- 
tory. It represented the dark northwest-coast form which 
Baird and Girard soon afterwards (1853) named Eutaiiiia 
pickeringii from material secured at Puget Sound. Cope, in 
1892, proposed the name E. sirtalis trilincata for specimens 
from Port Townsend, Oregon, and Fort Benton, Montana. 

General Discussion 

While the northwestern coastal snakes thus were distin- 
guished from parictalis at an early date, and have since been re- 
corded by most authors under a different name, no one has 
claimed that these two races showed any distinctive characters 
other than those of coloration. Ruthven states that "there is 
no character which will constantly distinguish specimens of 
concinnus from parictalis. The narrow dorsal stripe and lateral 
interspaces of the former will usually do so, but these may be 
exactly as in parictalis. Still, the fact that nearly all specimens 
from Washington and northern Oregon, west of the Cascade 
Range, are characterized by a marked predominance of black 
pigment and a narrow dorsal stripe justifies their recognition 
as a separate form." This was the opinion reached as the result 
of earlier studies set forth in "The Reptiles of the Pacific Coast 
and Great Basin," and now, with nearly 400 of these snakes 
before us, this opinion is unchanged. Although there is much 
variation in the amount of dark pigment and in the width of 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEV IN— GARTER-SNAKES 



187 



the dorsal line these characters are sufficiently constant to serve 
for the recognition of concinnus as a subspecies distinct from 
parictalis. 

As we pass south and east from the range of concinnus in 
California and southern Oregon we find a definite increase in 
the number of ventral plates. The snakes from the northwest 
coast have fewer gastrosteges and urosteges than the snakes 
from farther south and east in California. The greater differ- 
ence is in the gastrostege counts, and these might perhaps be 
used alone, but the combination of gastrostege and urostege 
counts helps to bury individual variation. In a comparison of 
this kind it is, of course, necessary to separate the sexes, for the 
females have much lower counts than the males. 

The following table shows these counts in specimens from 
many localities : 

Table of combined gastrostege and urostege counts 



Locality 



Males 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens 



Average E.ttremes 



Females 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens 



Average 



Extremes 



British Columbia 

Idaho. 

TwinPallsand Washi ngtonCos 

Washington 

Oregon. 

Clatsop Co 

Tillamook Co 

Yamhill Co 

Lincoln Co 

Benton Co 

Lane Co 

Coos Co 

Douglas Co 

Curry Co 

Jackson Co 

Harney Co 

Klamath Co 

Utah 

California. 

Del Norte Co 

Shasta Co 

Humboldt Co 

Mendocino Co 

Sonoma Co 

Marin Co 

Lassen Co 

Santa Clara Co 

Monterey Co 

Lake Co 

Alameda Co 

San Joaquin Co 

Merced Co 

Butte Co 

Sutter Co 

Mariposa Co 

El Dorado Co 

Modoc Co 

Los Angeles Co 

San Bernardino Co 



3 
11 



1 
3 
11 

9 
7 

i 

1 

4 

5 
1 
6 
6 
1 
2 

10 

5 



245 3 
242.5 



248 
250.8 



255 
246.3 
247.4 
248 3 
246.4 



248 
254 
251 

246.4 

243 

251. 2 

249.7 

251 

254 



258.6 
260.4 



260.5 

255 

265 



259 
263 



241-248 
239-250 



243-253 
246-254 



255 
243-248 
240-253 
242-255 
241-251 

248 

254 

249-253 

237-256 
243 

245-254 

231-258 

251 

253-255 

251-267 
253-267 



258-266 
255 
265 

251-269 
254-270 



7 

8 
10 

1 
9 
1 
1 

I 
1 

8 

5 

15 

1 



235.9 
230.1 

226 

233.2 

240 

236 

250 

239 

237.6 

231.2 

236.5 

253 



237.5 

233 

241,5 

234.3 

241.2 

229 

230 

237 

243,7 

244,6 

258 



248 

240 

244, 

254 

252 

249 

246, 

245 

248 



226-234 

229-247 
227-238 

226 

228-237 

240 

236 

250 

239 

231-243 

224-237 

221-246 

253 



231-241 

230-238 

239-244 

231-240 

231-251 

215-233 

230 

237 

236-248 

236-252 

258 

248 

240 

237-253 

254 

252 

245-253 

240-258 

245 

248 



188 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pxoc. 4th Ser. 

It will be seen that while the average count in males from 
Washington is 245.5, the average in males from central and 
southern California ranges from 255 to 265 ; the extremes of 
variation in the latter area being 251 and 270, while in Wash- 
ington specimens they are only 239 and 250. Similar differ- 
ences are found in the counts of female specimens, the Wash- 
ington average being 230.1, as against central and southern 
California averages of from 243.7 to 248. Intermediate locali- 
ties show some intennediate counts, but in general it may be 
seen that the difference is quite great and constant enough to 
sen'e well for the separation of a southwestern race, T. sirtalis 
infcrnalis, from the northern subspecies, T. sirtalis coiicinnus. 
This difference in gastrosteges is clearly shown in Figure 1. It 
also is evident that T. sirtalis coiicinnus is not confined to the 
extreme northwest, but. on the contrary, occupies a strip close 
to the coast south nearly or quite to San Francisco Bay. In 
the extreme north T. sirtalis concinnus ranges east far from the 
coast, for the specimens from northern Idaho are of this dark 
race and it very possibly may be that Cope's type of trilincata 
from Fort Benton, Montana, also belongs here. A little farther 
south, however, concinnus does not range far from the ocean, 
as is shown by the specimens from Klamath County, Oregon, 
and Modoc County, California, which represent the race T. 
sirtalis inf emails. 

Thainnophis sirtalis parictalis agrees with T. sirtalis concin- 
nus in having a smaller number of ventral plates than is to be 
found in T. sirtalis infcrnalis. It differs from T. s. concinnus 
and resembles T. s. infcrnalis in its lighter style of coloration. 
Specimens at hand do not show where Thamnophis sirtalis 
parictalis meets the other two subspecies, or whether there are 
definite areas of intergradation between these forms. One 
would expect to find such a state of affairs in Nevada, southern 
Idaho, and perhaps in southeastern Oregon, but. unfortunately, 
our specimens from these areas are very few. The Idaho 
snakes are of the dark T. s. concinnus type, while those from 
Utah are definitely T. s. parictalis. 

We thus recognize from the territory west of the Rocky 
Mountains three subspecies of Thainnophis sirtalis, as fol- 
lows : — 



Vol. \III] VAN DBNBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 



189 



1. Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis (Say) 

2. Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus (Hallowell) 

3. Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis (Blainville) 

While these three are the only western races of T. sirtalis 
recosfnized in this review, it is far from certain that this num- 



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Figure 1 

Fig. 1. This chart shows the number of gastrosteges in specimens of 
Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus, represented by a continuous line, and 
Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis, represented by a broken line. The upper 
half of the chart shows the counts in males, the lower half the counts in 
females. The chart shows the percentage of the total number of speci- 
mens of each sex having each number of gastrosteges, and brings out 
clearly the fact that in T. s. infernalis these scutes are more numerous 
than in T. s. concinnus. 



190 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Proc. 4th Se». 

ber might not be largely increased if very much larger series 
were at hand. We were able to distinguish easily, and with 
but few errors, the snakes of Idaho from those of the Puget 
region, and those of Palo Alto from those collected in the San 
Joaquin Valley, as we picked them from a large pile of speci- 
mens bearing numbers but no locality labels. The differences 
are too intangible to describe, but they must exist, and may 
become more evident when larger series can be studied. Some 
of the color differences which we now regard as individual may 
prove to be geographical, and the day may come when the 
herpetologist, with enormous series, will emulate the orni- 
thologist and mammalogist in the multiplication of subspecies. 



Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis (Say) 
Prairie Garter-Snake. 

Diagnosis. — Squamation similar to that of T. s. concinnus 
but coloration usuallj' lighter and with more red, thus re- 
sembling T. s. infernalis. 

Type Locality. — West side of the Missouri River, three miles 
above the mouth of Boyer's River. 

Synonyms. — It seems that no other names have been based 
upon individuals of this subspecies as here restricted. 

Range. — The great plains, west to Utah and perhaps eastern 
Nevada and southern Idaho. 

We have examined specimens of Thmnnophis sirtalis parie- 
talis from the following localities : — 

1. Bear River, Logan, Cache Co., Utah. 

2. Fort Douglas, Salt Lake Co., Utah. 

3. Woods Cross, Morgan Co., Utah. 

Material. — Only 12 specimens have been studied by us. 

Variation. — The loreal is 1 — 1 in all. The preoculars are 
1 — 1 in all. The postoculars are 3 — 3 in all. The temporals 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 



191 



are 1+2—1+2 in eight, or 66% ; 1+2—1+3 in three, or 25% ; 
and 1 + 1 — 1+2 in one, or 8%. The supralabials are 7 — 7 in 
nine, or 75% ; 7 — 8 in two, or 17% ; and 8 — 8 in one, or 8%. 
The infralabials are 10 — 10 in seven, or 58% ; 9 — 9 in four, or 
33% ; and 9—10 in one, or 87o. The scale-rows are 19—19— 
17 in all. The gastrosteges vary in number from 157 to 168, 
males having from 164 to 168, females from 157 to 166; the 
average in five males is 165.4, in seven females, 161.1. The 
urosteges vary from 74 to 87, males having from 84 to 87, 
females from 74 to 79; the average in four males is 85.2, in 
four females, 76. 

These variations are shown in full in the following table of 
scale-counts. The series, of course, is too small to show the 
real limits of variation. 



Scale counts in Thamnophis sirlulis parietalis 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


nculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


SI778 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


164 


86-1- 


7—7 


10—9 


1 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 4-2—1 4-2 


1 


14169 


9 


19—10—17—17 


166 


75c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 4-3—1 4-2 


2 


40403 


9 


19—19—17—17 


162 


73 4- 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


14-2—14-2 


3 


40404 


9 


19—19—17—17 


158 


68-t- 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 4-2—1 4-2 


3 


40405 


9 


19—19—17—17 


162 


24-1- 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


14-2—14-2 


3 


40406 


9 


19—19—17—17 


157 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


I — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 4-3—1 4-2 


3 


40407 


9 


19—19—17—17 


161 


79c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


14-2—14-3 


3 


40408 


9 


19—19—17—17 


162 


76c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 4-2—1 4-2 


3 


40409 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


165 


84c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 4-2—1 4-2 


3 


40410 


d" 


19—19—17—17 


168 


85c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


14-1—14-2 


3 


404 U 


J 


19—19—17—17 


164 


87c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 4-2—1 4-2 


3 


40412 


cT 


19—19—17—17 


166 


85c 


7—7 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 4-2—1 4-2 


3 



Remarks. — The specimens at hand are insufficient to show 
the western limits of the range of this subspecies and where and 
how it meets, or merges with, or is replaced by, T. s. coucinnus 
and T. s. infcnialis. The last named form ranges east at least 
to the western edge of Nevada, while T. s. conciiuius seems to 
occur as far east as northern Idaho or, possibly, Montana. 
Many more specimens are needed from southern Idaho, eastern 
Oregon and all parts of Nevada, to throw light on these ques- 
tions. 



192 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sfr. 

Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus (Hallowell) 
Northwestern Garter-Snake. 

Diagnosis. — Squamation similar to that of T. s. parictalis. 
Gastrosteges and urosteges average fewer than T. s. infcrnalis. 
Coloration usually darker than in either T. s. parictalis or T. s. 
infcrnalis. 

Type Locality. — Oregon Territory. 

Synonyms. — Eutcenia pickeringii Baird & Girard, 1853 : type 
locality Puget Sound. Eutcenia sirtalis trilineata Cope, 1892; 
type localities "Port Townsend, Oregon", and Fort Benton, 
Montana. Eutcenia sirtalis tetratcenia (part?), Cope, 1875, no 
locality, and 1892, Puget Sound, Washington. 

Range. — The coast region of British Columbia. Washington. 
Oregon, and California south to San Francisco Bay, intergrad- 
ing toward the south and east in California with T. s. infcrnalis. 
In the far north, probably ranging east to Idaho, or possibly 
Montana. 

We have examined specimens of Thamnophis sirtalis con- 
cinnus from the following localities: — 

1. Lillooet River Valley, British Columbia. 

2. Union Bay, Bayne Island, B. C. 

3. Vancouver Island, B. C. 

4. Alberni Valley, Vancouver Island, B. C. 

5. Blue Lakes, Twin Falls Co., Idaho. 

6. Weiser, Washington Co., Idaho. 

7. San Juan Islands, Washington. 

8. Lake Crescent, Clallam Co., Wash. 

9. Darrington, Snohomish Co., W^ash. 

10. Seattle, King Co., Wash. 

11. Quiniault, Chehalis Co., \\'ash. 

12. Melbourne, Chehalis Co., Wash. 

13. Longmire, Pierce Co., Wash. 

14. Pierce Co., Wash. 

15. Pullman, Whitman Co., W^ash. 

16. South Bend, Pacific Co., W^ash. 

17. Holcomb, Pacific Co., Wash. 

18. Olney, Clatsop Co., Oregon. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 193 

19. Gearheart, Clatsop Co., Ore. 

20. Garibaldi, Tillamook Co., Ore. 

21. Tillamook, Tillamook Co., Ore. 

22. Trask River, Tillamook Co., Ore. 

23. Road to Nestucea between Grand Ronde and Dolpli. 
Yamhill Co., Ore. 

24. Road between Chit wood and Siletz River, Lincoln Co., 
Ore. 

25. Road between Pioneer and Siletz River, Benton Co., 
Ore. 

26. Alsea River, near Alsea, Benton Co., Ore. 

27. Elmira, Lane Co., Ore. 

28. June Lake and Siuslaw River. Lane Co., Ore. 

29. Junction Lake and Deadwood Creek. Lane Co., Ore. 

30. South Fork Coos River, Coos Co., Ore. 

31. Sumner, Coos Co., Ore. 

32. Coquille, Coos Co., Ore. 

33. Myrtle Point, Coos Co., Ore. 

34. Takeneitch Creek, Douglas Co., Ore. 

35. Camas Mountains, Douglas Co., Ore. 

36. Langlois, Curry Co., Ore. 

37. Sixes River, Curry Co., Ore. 

38. Port Orford, Curry Co.. Ore. 

39. Elk Creek, Curry Co., Ore. 

40. Between Flores Creek and Rogue River, Curry Co., Ore. 

41. Flores Creek, Curry Co., Ore. 

42. Vicinity mouth of Rogue River, Curry Co., Ore. 

43. Harbor, Curry Co., Ore. 

44. Battle Creek, near Eagle Point, Jackson Co., Ore. 

45. Smith River, Del Norte Co., California. 

46. Crescent City, Del Norte Co., Cal. 

47. Requa, Del Norte Co., Cal. 

48. Sisson, Siskiyou Co., Cal. 

49. Burney Creek. Shasta Co., Cal. 

50. Redwood Creek, Orick, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

51. Carlotta, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

52. Maple Creek, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

53. Samoa, Humboldt Bay, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

54. Eureka, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

55. Covelo, Mendocino Co., Cal. 



194 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

56. Garcia River, half mile above mouth, Mendocino Co., 
Cal. 

57. Sherwood, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

58. Willits, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

59. Mendocino, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

60. Albion River, 2 miles below Comptche, Mendocino Co., 
Cal. 

61. Kidd Creek, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

62. Skaggs Springs, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

63. Napa, Napa Co., Cal. 

64. Inverness, Marin Co., Cal. 

65. Point Reyes Station, Marin Co., Cal. 

66. Tocaloma, Marin Co., Cal. 

67. Willow Camp, Marin Co., Cal. 

Material. — Two hundred and forty-six specimens have been 
studied by us. 

Variation. — The loreal is 1 — 1 in two hundred and thirty- 
seven specimens (all counted). The preoculars are 1 — 1 in 
two hundred and thirty-six and 2 — 2 in one. The postocu- 
lars are 3 — 3 in two hundred and fifteen or 92% ; 3 — 4 in thir- 
teen or 5% ; 2 — 3 in four, or 2% ; 4 — 4 in one, and 2 — 2 in one. 
The temporals are l-j-2 — 1+2 in two hundred and twenty-one, 
or 947o; 1 + 1—1+2 in five, or 2%; 1+2—1+3 in four, or 
2% ; 1 + 1—1 + 1 in four, or 2% ; and 1+3—1+3 in one. The 
supralabials are 7 — 7 in one hundred and eighty-three, or 77% ; 
7 — 8 in forty-one, or 17% ; and 8 — 8 in fourteen, or 6%. The 
infralabials are 10 — 10 in one hundred and sixty-nine, or 71% ; 
9 — 10 in forty-one, or 17% ; 9 — 9 in fifteen, or 6% ; 8 — 9 in 
eight, or 3% ; 8 — 10 in two, or 1% ; and 10 — 11 in two, or 1%. 
The scale-rows are 19 — 19 — 17 in all specimens. The gastro- 
steges vary in number from 146 to 170, males having from 150 
to 170, females from 146 to 167; the average in ninety-nine 
males is 164.3, in one hundred and eighteen females, 156.4. 
The urosteges vary from 66 to 95, males having from 70 to 95, 
females from 66 to 91 ; the average in eighty males is 84.2, in 
eighty-eight females, 76.8. 

These variations are shown in full in the following table of 
scale-counts. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 



195 









Scale counts 


in TIta 


iinophis 


sirtalis 


toncinnus 












Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


S5171 


9 


19—19—17—17 


159 


67c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


1 


S5174 


9 


19—19—17—17 


157 


75c 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


i~i 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


1 


S7212 


d 


19—19—17 


170 


78c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 


2 


C2297 


9 


19—19—17—17 


160 


78c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


3 


C2298 


d' 


19—19—17 




84c 






1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


4 


C2300 


d" 


19—19—17 


170 


81c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


4 


C2301 


d' 


19—19—17 


154 


73c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


4 


C2302 


cf 


19—19—17 


164 


62 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2-1+2+2 


4 


C2303 


9 


19—19—17 


159 


69c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+3+2 


4 


C2304 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


76c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


4 


C2305 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


69 + 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


4 


C2306 


9 


19—19—17 


161 


72c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1 +2 1 +2 


4 


C2307 


9 


19—19—17 


161 


68 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


4 


S2649 


9 


19—19—17—17 


165 


44 + 


7—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


S 


S2650 


9 


19—19—17—17 


167 


78c 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


S 


S26S1 


d' 


19—19—17—17 


163 


85c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


S 


S2652 


9 


19—19—17—17 


158 


74c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


S 


S2653 


d 


19—19—17—17 


160 


81c 


7—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — I 


1+2 1+2 


5 


S2654 


d' 


19—19—17—17 


164 


85c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


5 


S2555 


9 


19— 19-17-17 


156 


78c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


S 


S2656 


o" 


19—19—17—17 


163 


84c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


S 


S2657 


9 


19—19—17—17 


154 


37 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


5 


S2658 


J 


19—19—17—17 


165 


82c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


5 


S2659 


9 


19—19—17—17 


158 


72c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


S 


S2663 


9 


19—19—17—17 


155 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


5 


S1686 


9 


19—19—17—17 


162 


80c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


6 


S6506 


9 


19—19—17—17 


166 


79 + 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


7 


S6514 


9 


19—19—17—17 


161 


77 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


7 


30418 


d" 


19—19—17 


163 


62 + 


7—7 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


8 


30419 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


8 


30420 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


71c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+1+2 


8 


30421 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


68c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


8 


30509 


d' 


19—19—17 


164 


84 c 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+1 


9 


30510 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


73c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


9 


S4181 


9 


19—19—17—17 


167 


53 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


10 


29941 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


63 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


11 


29942 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


67c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


11 


29943 


d" 


19—19—17 


156 


70c 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


11 


29944 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


47 + 


8—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


11 


29945 


d" 


19—19—17 


161 


82c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


11 


29946 


d' 


19—19-17 


159 


80c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


11 


29947 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


72c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


It 


29948 


9 


19—19—17 


161 


73c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+1 


11 


29949 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


59 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


11 


29928 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


68c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


12 


29929 


d' 


19—19—17 


166 


84c 


7—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


12 


30395 


d' 


19—19—17 


161 


83c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


13 


S5151 


d" 


19—19—17—17 


167 


82c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


14 


S2560 


d 


19—19—17—17 


157 


72 + 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


IS 


S2661 


d 


19—19—17—17 


162 


81c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


IS 


S2662 


d 


19—19—17—17 


163 


76c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


IS 


29881 


d 


19—19—17 


167 


79c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2+2 


16 


29882 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


71 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


16 


29920 


9 


19—19—17 


161 


58c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


29921 


d 


19—19—17 


165 


79c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


i~i 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


29872 


d 


19—19—17 


164 


79c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


18 


29873 


d 


19—19—17 


166 


61 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+1+2 


IS 


29812 


d 


19—19—17 


165 


88c 


7—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1+2—1+2+2 


19 


29813 


d 


19—19—17 


164 


64 + 




10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


19 


29814 


d 


19—19—17 


160 


48 + 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


19 


29815 


9 


19—19—17 


159 


67c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


19 


29715 


d' 


19—19—17 


168 


75 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


20 


29716 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


58 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


20 


29717 


d' 


19—19—17 


166 


83 + 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


20 


29718 


d 


19—19—17 


167 


79c 


7—7 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


20 


29719 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


76c 


7—7 


10—10 


J \ 


3—3 


1 \ 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


20 


29696 


d 


19—19—17 


155 


77 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 




1+2 1+2 


21 


29698 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


71 + 


7—7 


10—8 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


21 


29699 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


70c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


21 


29700 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


69c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


21 


29701 


9 


19—19—17 


161 


45 + 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


21 


29702 


d' 


19—19—17 


165 


88c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


21 


29703 


9 


19—19—17 


159 


72c 


7—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


21 


29704 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


78c 


8—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


21 


29705 


d 


19—19—17 


165 


77 + 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


21 



196 CALIFORNIA ACADEMV OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser 

Scale counts in Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus — Continued 







Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


29705 


9 19—19—17 


163 


74c 


7 7 


9—8 


1 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


21 


29734 


V 19—19 — 17 


157 


71 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


22 


29735 


9 19—19—17 


157 


20 + 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


22 


29736 


9 19—19—17 


161 


74c 


7^7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


22 


29737 


9 19—19—17 


161 


72c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


22 


29738 


cf 19—19—17 


165 


87c 


7-^7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


22 


29739 


9 19—19—17 


161 


7Sc 


7 — 7 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


22 


29740 


d' 19—19—17 


169 


85c 


7 — 7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1— I 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


22 


29741 


d» 19—19—17 


163 


54 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


22 


SS307 


9 19—19—17—17 


160 


«0c 


7 — 7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 —1+2 


23 


S4426 


9 19—19—17—17 


161 


7Sc 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


24 


S4512 


rf' 19—19—17—17 


169 


86c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — I 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


25 


S4504 


9 19—19—17—17 


165 


85c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


25 


29622 


9 19—19—17 


157 


23 + 


7 — 7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


27 


29623 


d' 19—19—17 


155 


83c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — i 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


27 


29624 


d" 19—19—17 


162 


86c 


7 — 7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+1+2 


27 


29625 


d- 19—19-17 


164 


79c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1— I 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


27 


S4501 


9 19—19—17—17 


160 


79c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


28 


S4501 (o) 
S4S01 (6) 
S4501 (c) 
S45Q1 ((/) 
S4501 («) 
S4501 (/) 


19 — 19 — 17 


157 


70c 




9 — 9 










29 


19 — 19 — 17 


160 


77 + 
72c 
















29 


.'. 19 — 19 — 17 


159 
















29 


19 19 — 17 


165 


86c 


■J y 


9-^9 












29 


19 — 19 — 17 


158 


78c 
















29 


'. 19—19—17 


152 


89c 


7 — 7 


—9 


i— i 


3—3 






i+2^^^-^i+2 '■ 


29 


S4501 (g) 
S4501 (K) 
S4501 (>) 


. . 19—19—17 
cf 19—19—17 
d' 19—19—17 


161 


78c 
















29 


158 


77c 


y 1 














29 


161 


80c 


7 — 7 












i+2 


29 


S4484 (a) 


.. 19—19—17 


169 


90c 


8 — 7 


i6-^io 


1 — 1 


3—3 


i— 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


30 


S4484 (6) 


. . 19—19—17 


158 


57 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


30 


S4484 (f) 


.. 19—19—17 


165 


93c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


30 


S4484 ^d^ 


.. 19—19—17 


167 


87c 


7 — 7 


10— 10 


1 — I 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


30 


S4484 (e) 


.. 19—19—17 


157 


90c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


30 


S4484 if) 


. . 19—19—17 


168 


92c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


30 


S4484 (g) 


. . 19—19-17 


156 


80c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


30 


S4484 (fc) 


.. 19—19—17 


157 


79c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


30 


S4446 


9 19—19—17—17 


156 


79c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


31 


S44S0 


9 19—19—17—17 


157 


51 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


32 


29441 


d' 19—19—17 


161 


85c 


7 — 7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


29442 


cf 19—19—17 


150 


8Sc 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


33 


29443 


9 19—19—17 


150 


76c 


7 — 8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


29444 


tf 19—19—17 


161 


88c 


7 — 8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1-1 


1 +2 1 +2 


33 


29445 


d" 19—19—17 


165 


81 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


29446 


9 19—19—17 


161 


82c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


29447 


d' 19—19—17 


161 


57 + 


7—8 


8—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+1 


33 


29448 


d' 19—19—17 


168 


66 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1—1 


1+1+2—1+1+2 


33 


29449 


d" 19—19—17 


164 


42 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


29450 


d" 19—19—17 


167 


78c 


8 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I— 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


ii 


29451 


9 19—19—17 


158 


81c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


29452 


9 19—19—17 


157 


81c 


7 — 7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


4—4 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


33 


29453 


d" 19—19—17 


165 


87c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+1+2—1+1+2 


33 


29454 


9 19—19 — 17 


161 


77c 


7 — 7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2-1+2+2 


33 


29455 


d' 19—19—17 


164 


80c 


7 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 +2—1 +2 +2 


33 


29456 


9 19—19—17 


155 


76c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


29457 


d' Il9— 19— 17 


153 


87c 


7 — 7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


29458 


d" 19—19—17 


163 


89c 


7 — 7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


29459 


d' 19—19—17 


167 


85c 


7 7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


29460 


d" 19—19 — 17 


167 


82c 


7 — 7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+1+2—1+2+2 


33 


29461 


9 19—19—17 


150 


81c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


S4218 


9 19—19—17—17 


153 


20 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


33 


S44I5 


d' 19—19—17—17 


155 


85c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4416 


9 19—19—17—17 


154 


72c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I— 1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4417 


d" 19—19—17—17 


164 


81c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4418 


d' 19—19—17—17 


161 . 


88c 


7 — 7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4419 


9 19—19—17—17 


157 


72 + 


8 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +3 1 +2 


34 


S4420 


d' 19—19—17—17 


165 


89c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4421 


9 19—19—17—17 


157 


39 + 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4422 


9 19—19—17—17 


159 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4423 


9 19—19—17—17 


158 


56c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4424 


d' 19—19—17—16 


155 


86c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1—1 


1 +2— 1 +2 


34 


S4425 


d" 19—19—17—17 


157 


88c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4493 


9 19 — 19 — 17 — 17 


160 


77c 


7 — 8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4494 


d' 19—19—17—17 


160 


87c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4495 


d" 19—19—17-17 


165 


85c 


7 — 7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4496 


9 19—19—17—17 


157 


74c 


7 — 7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4497 


d" 19—19—17—17 


150 


85c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1- 


-1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 



Vol. \ HI] I'AN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 



197 







Scale counts in Thamnoph 


is sirtalis concinnus — Continued 












Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


I-oreals 


Temporals 


ity 


S4423 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


66c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 I 


3—3 


1 I 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4423 (a) 




19—19—17 


159 


80c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 —1+2 


34 


S4423 (,b) 




19—19—17 


135 


72c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4423 (c) 


d' 


19—19—17 


161 


81c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4423 (d) 
S4423 (f) 




19 19 17 


154 
154 


71c 


7 — 7 


9 — 10 




3 — 3 






34 




19—19—17 


75c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


i+2^^^^i+2" 


34 


S4423 if) 




19—19—17 


154 


7Ic 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4423 (g) 




19—19—17 


155 


70c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4423 (A) 


cT 


19—19—17 


158 


78c 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4495 


9 


19 — 19 — 17 


157 


74c 


7—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


i—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4495 (a) 


tf 


19—19—17 


155 


79c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4496 (6) 




19—19—17 


150 


75c 


7—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4496 (c) 




19—19—17 


156 


78c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4496 (d) 




19—19—17 


155 


73c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4496 (e) 




19—19—17 


153 


74c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4496(/) 


d' 


19—19—17 


162 


85c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4496 (g) 


cT 


19—19—17 


159 


84c 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


S4496 (h) 




19—19—17 


158 


72c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4496 (0 




19—19—17 


154 


81c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


29494 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


77 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


35 


29418 


d" 


19—19—17 


164 


78 + 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+1+2—1+1+2 


36 


S4449 


& 


19—19—17—17 


167 


82c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


37 


S4450 


9 


19—19—17—15 


159 


81c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


37 


29390 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


74c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


i—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29391 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


78c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — I 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29392 


d" 


19—19—17 


162 


87c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29393 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


83c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29394 


9 


19—19—17 


155 


81c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29395 


9 


19—19 — 17 


157 


77c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


38 


29396 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


79c 


8-7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


S4443 


d" 


19—19—17—17 


160 


86c 


7-7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


39 


S4463 


9 


19—19—17—17 


161 


79 + 


7-8 


10—10 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


40 


S44S1 


d 


19—19—17—17 


161 


86c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


41 


S4437 


9 


19—19—17—17 


158 


77c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


42 


S4438 


9 


19—19—17—17 


157 


78c 


7—8 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


42 


S4439 


9 


19—19—17—17 


155 


81c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


42 


29262 


9 


19—19—17 


161 


83c 


8—8 


11—10 


1 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


43 


29264 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


46 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


43 


29265 


9 


19—19—17 


154 


85c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


43 


29266 


d 


19—19—17 


165 


86c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


43 


29267 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


84c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 +2—1 +2 +2 


43 


S4441 


9 


19—19—17—17 


162 


91c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


44 


29212 


d 


19—19—17 


164 


77c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


45 


29222 


9 


19—19—17 


152 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


46 


29231 


d 


19—19—17 


163 


89c 


8—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


46 


29232 


9 


19—19—17 


152 


78c 


7—7 


9—10 


i — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


46 


29233 


d 


19—19—17 


156 


81c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


46 


29234 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


75c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


46 


29235 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


80c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


46 


29083 


9 


19—19—17 


153 


19 + 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


47 


29084 


d 


19—19—17 


161 


86 + 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


47 


29086 


d 


19—19—17 


160 


89c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


47 


29087 


d 


19—19—17 


164 


92c 


8—8 


9—10 


1 1 


3—3 


\ 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


47 


29088 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


77c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


47 


29089 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


78c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


47 


29092 


9 


19—19—17 


152 


78c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


47 


S6609 


9 


19—19—17—17 


155 


80c 


7—8 


10— 10 


1 1 


3—i 


1 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


47 


S6610 


9 


19—19—17—17 


152 


35 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


47 


S4314 


d 
d 


19 19 17 — 17 


166 


77 + 
76c 


7 7 


10—10 
10—10 




3—3 
3—i 




11? 1 I '' 


48 


S6441 


19—19—17—17 


167 


7—7 


1—1 


1—1 


1 -TO 1 ^i 

1+2 1+2 


49 


S6442 


9 


19—19—17—17 


164 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


49 


S6508 


9 


19—19—17—17 


160 


79c 


7—7 


11—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


49 


S4261 


9 


19—19—17—17 


155 


85c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


1 J 


1 +2 1 +2 


50 


28828 


d 


19—19—17 


157 


9Sc 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


51 


28835 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


75c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +2—1 +2 +2 


51 


28836 


d 


19—19—17 


163 


91c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 +2—1 +2 +2 


51 


28838 


d 


19—19—17 


164 


89c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


1 J 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


51 


S4262 


d 


19—19—17—17 


161 


91c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


S4263 


d 


19—19—17—17 


161 


48 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


C2321 


9 


19—19—17 


155 


77c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2 


S3 


C2318 


d 


19—19—17 


159 


86c 


7—7 


10—9 


1 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+1 


54 


C2319 


d 


19—19—17 


161 


90c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


i—i 


1 1 


1+2+1—1+2+2 


54 


C5318 


9 


19—19—17 


162 


84c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


55 


C5319 


9 


19—19—17 


165 


86c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 1 


1 +2 +2—1 +2 +2 


55 


C5320 


d 


19—19—17 


165 


91c 


7—7 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


55 



198 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [P»oc. 4th Se«. 

Scale counts in Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus — Continued 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


ocular3 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


S4246 


S 


19—19—17—17 


151 


76 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


J 1 


1+2 1+2 


56 


S423S 


9 


19—19—17—17 


146 


83c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


56 


€1162 


tf 


19—19—17 


164 


9Ic 


7 — 7 


10—9 


I — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


57 


C1164 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


79c 


7 — 7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 


57 


28667 


cf 


19—19—17 


160 


83c 


7 — 7 


10-10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


58 


28668 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


57 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


58 


28669 


cf 


19—19—17 


167 


88c 


7 — 7 


10—9 


1 — -1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


58 


C5325 


9 


19—19—17 


153 


80c 


7 — 8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


58 


CS316 


(f 


19—19—17 


150 


81c 


8 — 7 


10—10 


1 — -1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +2—1 +2 +2 


59 


S4239 


9 


19—19—17—17 


153 


78c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


60 


27981 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


27 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


61 


28022 


9 


19—19—17 


150 


54 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 +2 


62 


28023 


9 


19—19—17 


154 


79c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


62 


28026 


d< 


19—19—17 


160 


91c 


7 — 7 


9—10 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


62 


28027 


9 


19—19—17 


150 


79c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


62 


28028 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


82c 


7 — 7 


10-9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


62 


C4315 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


44 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


63 


C5294 


9 


19—19—17 


153 


77c 


7—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


64 


C5289 


cf 


19—19—17 


163 


92c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


65 


27815 


d' 


19—19—17 


161 


92c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


66 


39682 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


167 


68 + 


7 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


67 



Remarks. — While a dark style of coloration with a tendency 
toward narrow lines is characteristic of this subspecies, this 
type of coloration is by no means constant. Specimens similar 
in color to the type of pickcringii seem to be very rare even in 
the far north. In general, the difference from T. s. parietalis 
and T. s. infcnwlis lies in an increase in the dark pigment, both 
dorsally and ventrally, rather than in a marked narrowing of 
the lines or a reduction in the amount of red in the coloration. 
Some specimens from Oregon are no darker than Californian 
T. s. infernalis, and show red heads and often much red on the 
body. Others are quite dark. Upon the whole, and notwith- 
standing wide individual variation everywhere, it may be said 
that the coloration becomes lighter toward the south and is 
gradually changed to that of T. s. infernalis. This color change 
seems to occur more rapidly (i. e., farther north) than the 
change in number of gastrosteges. The latter change has been 
discussed under the heading The Sirtalis Group. 



Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis (Blainville) 

Pacific Garter-Snake. 

Diagnosis. — Gastrosteges and urosteges average more nu- 
merous than in T. s. parietalis and T. s. concinnus. Coloration 
usually lighter, with broader lines and more red than in T. s. 
concinnus, similar to that of T. s. parietalis. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIII 



I VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN | Plate 7 



. ^ 




I'hivnniiphis sirtalis iiifcnialis. Pacilic Gnrtcr-Sn.ike : — Phiitngrajili fniiii 
living ailiilt iiialf { Xo. 39197) collected at Pacific Grove, Moiitei-ey County, 
Californi.a, May 11. 1914. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 199 

Type Locality. — California. 

Synonyms. — Eutania sirtalis tetratcenia (part?), Cope, 
1875, no locality, and 1891, Pitt River, Cal. 

Range. — California east and south of the northwest coast 
region, south to San Bernardino County, east to Modoc County, 
and Lake Tahoe. In Oregon about the Klamath Lakes. 

We have examined specimens of Thaninophis sirtalis infer- 
nalis from the following localities : — 

1. Oroville, Butte Co., California. 

2. West Butte, Sutter Co., Cal. 

3. Kelseyville, Lake Co., Cal. 

4. Fyffe, El Dorado Co., Cal. 

5. Yosemite Valley, Mariposa Co., Cal. 

6. Fresno, Fresno Co., Cal. 

7. Isabella, Kern Co., Cal. 

8. Weldon, Kern Co., Cal. 

9. Buttonwillow, Kern Co., Cal. 

10. Los Banos, Merced Co., Cal. 

11. Banta, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 

12. Walnut Creek, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

13. Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 

14. Palo Alto, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

15. Stanford University, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

16. Castro, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

17. Pacific Grove, Monterey Co., Cal. 

18. Seaside, Monterey Co., Cal. 

19. Carmel, Monterey Co., Cal. 

20. Mount Mars, Monterey Co., Cal. 

21. El Nogal, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 

22. Colton, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

23. Bixby, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 

24. Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Co., Cal. 

25. Merrill, Klamath Co., Oregon. 

26. Goose Lake, Modoc Co., Cal. 

27. Davis Creek, Modoc Co., Cal. 

28. Warner Mountains, Modoc Co., Cal. 

29. Cedarville, Modoc Co., Cal. 

30. Lake Tahoe, El Dorado Co., Cal. 

31. Snelling, Merced Co., Cal. 



200 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pr^c. 4th Se8. 

i2. Coulterville, Mariposa Co., Cal. 

33. Pleasant Valley, Mariposa Co., Cal. 

34. Marshy Meadow, Yosemite National Park, Cal. 

35. Klamath Falls, Klamath Co., Oregon. 

Material. — We have used one hundred and thirty-five speci- 
mens in this study. 

Variation. — The loreal is 1 — 1 in all. The preoculars are 
1 — 1 in all except one specimen with 1 — 2 and two with 2 — 2. 
The postoculars are 3 — 3 in ninety-five, or ly/r ; 3 — 4- in 
twenty-five, or 199f ; -1 — 4- in seven, or 5% ; 2 — 3 in three, or 
2% ; and 2 — 4 in one, or 1%. The temporals are 1+2 — \+2 
in one hundred and fourteen, or 887c ; 1+2 — 1+3 in eight, or 
67c; 1 + 1 — 1+2 in three, or 27o ; 1 + 1 — 1 + 1 in one, or 
17o; 2+2—2+2 in one. or 1%; 1+3—1+3 in one. or 
1%; and 1+2 — 2+2 in one, or \%. The supralabials 
are 7 — 7 in one hundred and four, or 807t ; 7 — 8 in 
seventeen, or 13% ; 8 — 8 in eight, or 6% : and 9 — 9 in one. 
or 1%. The infralabials are 10 — 10 in one hundred and ten. or 
857o ; 9—10 in thirteen, or 107 ; 9—9 in three, or 2% ; 10—1 1 
in two, or 1% ; and 9 — 8 in two, or 1%. The scale-rows are 
19 — 19 — 17 in one hundred and thirty-four and 19 — 21 — 19— 
17 in one. The gastrosteges vary in number from 156 to 177, 
males having from 161 to 175, females from 156 to 174; the 
average in forty-seven males is 168.7, in eighty-one females, 
163.7. The urosteges vary from 74 to 97, males having from 
82 to 97, females from 74 to 93 ; the average in thirty-eight 
males is 89.8, in fifty females, 82.8. 

These variations are shown in full in the following table of 
scale-counts. 



\"0L. Mil] VAN DENBURCH AND SLEVIN— CARTER-SNAKES 



201 











Scale counts in Tha 


mnophis 


sirtalis 


infernalis 














Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


C4023 


9 


19—19—17 




164 


83c 


y 7 


10—10 


1 I 


^—3, 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 




C4024 


V 


19 — 10 — 17 




161 


79c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C4025 


d" 


19—19—17 




171 


47 + 


7 7 


10 — 10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C4026 


9 


19—19—17 




163 


74c 


7 — 7 


—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C4027 


d' 


19—19—17 




169 


90c 


7 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C4028 


d' 


19—19—17 




172 


36 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3,—Z 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C4029 


d 


19—19—17 




167 


91c 


7 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


i—Z 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C4a30 


9 


19—19—17 




163 


85c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 




C4031 


cf 


19—19—17 




172 


94c 


7 — 7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C4032 


<f 


19—19—17 




166 


93c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—4 


I — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+3 




C4033 


9 


19—19—17 




163 


90c 


7 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C4034 
C403S 


9 
9 


19—19—17 
19—19—17 




160 
162 


85c 
82c 


7 3 


10 10 




3 — 3 












10— 10 


\ I 


5-3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C4036 


9 


19—19—17 




165 


57 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C4037 


9 


19—19—17 




164 


76 + 


7 — 8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2+2 




C4038 


9 


19—19—17 




160 


26 + 


7 — 7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 




C4020 
C4021 
C4022 


9 


19—19—17 
19—19—17 
19—19—17 




167 


87c 
85c 
90c 
























.... 
.... 










i65 


7—7 


lo^io 


i— i 


3-^4 


i-^i 


i +2 +2— i +2 +2 




SI 742 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


165 


93c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2 




S4367 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


164 


89c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+2 




C24S8 


9 


19—19—17 




169 


46 + 


7 — 7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C2489 


c? 


19—19—17 




170 


95c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C2491 


9 


19—19—17 




162 


30 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C2490 


9 


19—19—17 




165 


86c 


8 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 




S1691 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


158 


48 + 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


5 


S4140 


9 


19 — 19 — 17- 


-17 


168 


81c 




10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


6 


S4141 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


168 


44 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


6 


S4142 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


162 


82c 


8 — 8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


6 


S4143 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


164 


81c 


7 — 7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


6 


S4145 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


163 


60 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


i—i 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


6 


S4146 


cf 


19—19—17- 


-17 


173- 


77 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


6 


S4147 


9 


iq— lq_17- 


-17 


169 


83c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


6 


C2801 


9 


19—19—17 




163 


80 + 


g 8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


7 


C2802 


9 


19—19—17 




164 


85c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I — 1 


—1+2+2 


7 


C2803 


9 


19—19—17 




160 


85c 


7 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+3+2 


8 


C2804 


9 


19—19—17 




165 


51 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


8 


C280S 


9 


19—19—17 




162 


85c 


7 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


8 


39SS4 


cf 


19-19—17- 


-17 


172 


85c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


9 


13633 


9 


19—19—17 




164 


37 + 


7 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


10 


13634 


9 


X— 19— 17 




165 


75c 


7 — 7 


X— X 


X— X 


X— X 


X— X 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


JO 




9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


164 


76c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — I 


3 — 3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


10 


si 800 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


167 


81c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


11 


C4039 


9 


19—19—17 




163 


64 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+3+3 


12 


C6I37 


9 


19—19—17 




162 


37 + 


7 — 7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


12 


C2447 


cf 


19—19—17 




172 


93c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+3+2—1+2+2 


13 


Field 4 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


166 


83 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


14 


S1U8 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


156 


80c 


7 — 7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


U 


S1210 


d" 


19—19—17- 


-17 


170 


97c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1+2 


14 


S1791 


d 


19—19—17- 


-17 


172 


67 + 




10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


14 


S1792 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


158 


81c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


I — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


14 


S1807 


cf 


19—19—17- 


-17 


170 


89c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


14 


S4021 


cf 


19—19—17- 


-17 


167 


87c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


14 


S4136 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


165 


42 + 


8 — 8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +3 


14 


S4137 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


160 


79c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


14 


S4224 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


165 


82c 


7 — 8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


14 


S5262 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


161 


81c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


14 


S5263 


cf 


19—19—17- 


-17 


169 


93c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


14 


SR20 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


161 


86c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—2 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


15 


81147 


o" 


19—19—17- 


-17 


169 


89c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


15 


81188 


9 


19-19-17- 


-17 


163 


8Sc 


7 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


15 


81189 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


159 


75 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


15 


81190 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


167 


47 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


15 


SI 192 


9 


19—21—19- 


-17 


161 


87c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


15 


SI 193 


d" 


19—19—17- 


-17 


168 


89c 




9—9 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 — I 


I +2 1 +2 


15 


SI 194 


d' 


19—19—17- 


-17 


167 


78 + 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


15 


Si 195 


d' 


19—19—17- 


-17 


166 


94c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+2 


IS 


S5310 


cf 


19—19—17- 


-17 


170 


94c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4 — 4 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


IS 


S6379 


d' 


19—19—17- 


-15 


163 


88c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2 


15 


S6381 


d" 


19—19—17- 


-15 


167 


87c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


IS 


S5382 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


162 


68 + 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


IS 


S1653 


9 


19—19—17- 


-17 


165 


82c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


IS 


38944 


d- 


19—19—17 




168 


88c 


8—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — I 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


16 


39196 


d 


19—19—17 




169 


90c 


7—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


39197 


d" 


19—19—17 




169 


93c 


7 — 7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 



202 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Scale counts in Thamnophis sirlalis infernalis — Continued 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sen 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


13755 


9 


19—19—17 


166 


39 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


SR63 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


169 


92c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


SSI 62 


9 


19—19—17—17 


160 


76c 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


S5162 (a) 




19—19—17 


160 


80c 


7—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


17 


S5162 (6) 




19—19—17 


157 


77c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


S5162 (c) 




19—19—17 


160 


76c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


S5162 id) 




19—19—17 


159 


80c 


7—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


17 


S5162 (e) 




19—19-17 


161 


80c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


85162 (J) 




19—19—17 


151 


79c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


S5152 (s) 


'cf 


19—19—17 


164 


88c 


7—7 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


S5162 (h) 


c? 


19—19—17 


167 


91c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


S5152 CO 


d" 


19—19—17 


161 


8Sc 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


17 


S5162 0) 


<f 


19—19—17 


163 


86c 


7—7 


lO— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


17 


S5162 (*) 




19—19—17 


160 


77c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


S5162 (i) 




19—19—17 


161 


79c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


S5162(m) 


j 


19—19—17 


165 


90c 


9—9 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


13762 


9 


19—19—17 


164 


88c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 l+l , 


IS 


13763 


9 


19—19—17 


162 


84c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


18 


13754 


d' 


19—19—17 


173 


94c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


19 


20963 


9 


19—19-17 


162 


68 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


19 


27308 


d" 


19—19—17 


171 


82c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


19 


S5192 




19—19—17—17 


165 


4 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


20 


27474 


'cf 


19—19—17 


174 


75 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2 


21 


27475 


9 


19—19—17 


167 


81c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


21 


C27 


J 


19—19—17 


172 


82c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


22 


C57 


9 


19—19—17 


163 




8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


22 


C58 


d" 


19—19—17 


171 


85c' 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


22 


C763 


9 


19—19—17 


167 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


23 


C764 


d" 


19—19—17 


174 


96c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


2+2 2+2 


23 


40033 


9 


19—19—17—17 


174 


85c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2^, 


24 


C5429 


9 


19—19—17 


168 


33 + 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


25 


CS430 


d" 


19—19—17 


167 


87c 


7—7 


10—11 


1 — 1 


4 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 


25 


C2148 


(f 


19 — 19 — 17 


171 


91c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


26 


C2150 


9 


19—19—17 


163 


78c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


26 


C2151 


d- 


19—19—17 


175 


94c 

39 + 


7—7 
7—7 


10—10 
9—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 

1 1 ■> 4-? 


26 
26 


C2154 


9 


19 — 19 — 17 


167 










C2155 


9 


19—19—17 


161 


41 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


26 


C2156 


d" 


19—19—17 


167 


89c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


26 


C2157 


d' 


19 — 19 — 17 


171 


87c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


26 


C21S9 


d" 


19—19—17 


168 


48 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


26 


C2160 


9 


19—19—17 


161 


83c 


8—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


4 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


C2161 


9 


19—19—17 


162 


62 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


'+2 't?^-, 


26 


C2162 


d" 


19—19—17 


168 


16 + 


7—7 


8—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1+2—1+2+2 


27 


C2174 


9 


19—19—17 


162 


82 + 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


28 


C2175 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


81c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2— 1+2 •'-2 


28 


C2176 


d' 


19—19—17 


162 


89c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


28 


C2177 


9 


19—19—17 


169 


84c 




11—10 




3—3 




1+2 1+2 


28 


C2178 


9 


19—19—17 


168 


90c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


28 


C2182 


9 


19 — 19 — 17 


170 


81c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


28 


C2180 


9 


19 — 19 — 17 


163 


77c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


29 


C2181 


9 


19 — 19 — 17 


165 




7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


29 


39646 


9 


19—19—17—17 


162 


83c' 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


30 


C5894 


9 


19—19—17—17 


164 


71 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


31 


C5896 


9 


19—19—17—17 


161 


88c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


32 


C5895 


9 ? 


19—19—17—17 


177 


92c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


33 


C5905 


9 


19—19—17—17 


164 


86c 


8—8 


10—10 


I — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


33 


C5900 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


81c 

75c 


7—7 
X— 7 


10—10 
X— X 


1—1 


3—3 
X— 3 


1 — 1 


2+2 1+2 

1 1 ** 


34 
34 


C5901 


9 


19 — 19 — 17 — -17 


172 










C5903 


9 


19—19—17—17 


162 


8Ic 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


34 


C5959 


9 


19—19—17—17 


164 


89c 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


S 


20388 


9 


19 — 19 — 17 


167 


79 


7—7 


10—10 








1+1+2—1+2+2 


35 


20389 


9 


19—19—17 


166 


79 + 


8—7 


10—9 








1+2+2—1+2+2 


35 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— CARTER-SNAKES 



203 



The following localities are represented each by one speci- 
men. The material being so limited we are unable to state 
definitely to which subspecies of sirtalis these specimens should 
be referred. 

1. Willow Lake, Tehama Co., California. 

2. Susanville, Lassen Co., Cal. 

3. Fallen Leaf Lake, El Dorado Co., Cal. 

4. Silver River, Harney Co.. Oregon. 

5. Vicinity Nixon, Washoe Co., Nevada. 









Scale counts of Thamnophis s 


ir talis, subspecies? 






Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


Gastro- 
steges 


Uro- 
steges 


Supra- 
labials 


Infra- 
labials 


Pre- 
oculars 


Post- 
oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


Local- 
ity 


39643 
S6543 
36323 
S6507 
S 


9 
9 
9 


19—19—17 
19—19—17 
19—19—17 
19—19—17 
19—19—17 


161 
160 
162 
169 


34 + 
77c 
72c 
79c 
50 + 


8—8 
7—7 
7—7 
7—7 
8—8 


10—10 
10—10 
10—10 
9—9 
10—10 


1—1 


3—3 
4—3 
3—3 
2—3 
3—3 


1—1 


1 +2 1 +2 

1+2 1+2 

1+2 1+2 

1 +2 1 +2 

1+2 1+2 


1 

2 
3 

4 
S 



Remarks. — This subspecies differs from both T. s. panefalis 
and T. s. co)ici)iiius in having a greater number of gastrosteges 
and urosteges. This is clearly shown in the following table of 
average counts : 

Gastrosteges ^ ^ 

parietalis 165.4 161.1 

concinnus 164.3 156.4 

infernalis 168.7 163.7 

Urosteges 

parietalis 85.2 76. 

concinnus 84.2 76.8 

infernalis 89.8 82.8 



It probably will prove to be impossible to draw any very 
definite limits to the areas occupied by this form and by T. s. 
concinnus. This must be so, for one gradually changes into the 
other. The area of intergradation is a broad one, individual 
variation is great, and opinions may easily differ as to geo- 
graphical limits. Our own views are expressed in the lists of 
localities given under each subspecies. These indicate that to 



204 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

T. s. conciiiuus are referred snakes from Del Norte, Siskiyou, 
Shasta, Hiimboklt, Mendocino. Sonoma, Napa, and Marin 
counties, wiiile those from elsewhere in California are regarded 
as T. s. infernalis. 

There is much variation in color. Certain types of colora- 
tion seem to be more frequent in certain localities than else- 
where. Thus, the majority of the snakes from the San Joaquin 
and Sacramento valleys and the Klamath region differ in ap- 
pearance from those from Santa Clara County and the southern 
coast. Much larger series might perhaps throw light upon 
these conditions, which now are obscure. 

Some specimens have bright red heads. Others, perhaps of 
the same lot, have no red, or heads that are partially red. The 
red-headed snakes are of both se.xes, various ages, and all sorts 
of localities. 

One specimen had eaten a fuU-grow-n toad. 



Thamnophis eques (Reuss) 

Diag)iosis. — Squamation similar to that of the other mem- 
bers of the sirtalis group but supralabials usually eight; prom- 
inent dark nuchal blotches. 

Type Locality. — Mexico. 

Range. — This snake occurs in the United States in Arizona, 
New Mexico and western Texas. Thence it ranges south 
through Mexico to Guatemala. In Arizona it has been found 
in the plateau region and about the foothills of various moun- 
tain groups. Ruthven has recorded it from Fort Apache. Fort 
Huachuca. White River Canyon, Sabino Canyon, and Fort 
Whipple. Arizona. 

We have examined specimens from the following localities : 

1. Cave Creek, Maricopa Co., Arizona. 

2. Oak Creek, Coconino Co., Ariz. 

3. Sabino Canyon, Santa Catalina Mountains, Pima Co., 
Ariz. 

4. Steam pump, foothills of the Catalina Mountains, 18 miles 
north of Tucson, Pima Co., Ariz. 



Vol. VIII] 



FAN DENBURGH ASD SLEVIN— CARTER-SNAKES 



205 



Material.- — Twenty-one specimens from tliese four localities. 

Variation. — The loreals are 1 — 1 in all. The preoculars are 
1 — 1 in all but one which has 1 — 2. The postoculars are 3 — 3 
in all but three which have 3 — 4. The temporals are 1+2 — 
1+2 in fourteen, 1+2 — 1+3 in three, 1+3 — 1+3 in three, 
and 2+3 — 2+3 in one. The supralabials are 8 — S in twenty, 
and 8 — 9 in one. The infralabials are 10 — 10 in seventeen, 
11 — 11 in two, 10 — 11 in one, and 9 — 10 in one. The scale- 
rows are 19 — 19 — 17 in all but one which has 21 — 19 — 17. 
The gastrosteges vary in number from 164 to 175, males having 
from 166 to 175, females from 164 to 171 ; the average in thir- 
teen males is 170.6, in seven females, 168. The urosteges vary 
from 77 to 97, males having from 85 to 97, females from 77 to 
88; the average in twelve males is 91.7, in six females. 83.5. 

The series is too small to show the real limits of variation. 
The scale-counts are given in full in the following table. 









Gastro'- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


17543 


9 


19—17 


164 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


\ 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


1 


t7544 


c? 


19—17 


172 


47 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


1 


17545 


cf 


19—17 


172 


93 


8—9 


11—11 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


1 


34169 


9 


19—17 


167 


77 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


3 


34170 


d' 


19—17 


167 


85 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 2 


i—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


3 


34277 


cf 


19—17 


167 


97 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+3 


4 


34278 


d' 


19—17 


174 


93 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


4 


34279 


9 


19—17 


171 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


2 +3—2 +3 


4 


34280 


cf 


19—17 


173 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


4 


34281 


9 


19—17 


166 


55 + 


8—9 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


4 


34282 


cf 


19—17 


166 


48 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


J ^ 


1+2—1+2 


4 


35256 


cf 


19—17 




92 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 1 


1 +2 — 1 +3 


2 


35257 


cf 


19—17 


170 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


2 


35258 


cf 


21—19—17 


166 


88 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 I 


1 +2 — 1 +2 


2 


35259 


d" 


19—17 


173 


96 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 J 


1+2—1+2 


2 


35260 


cf 


19—17 


175 


92 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


\ 1 


1+2—1+2 


2 


35261 


9 


19—17 


168 


88 


8—8 


10—11 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


2 


35262 


9 


19—17 


170 


88 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 1 


1+2—1+2 


2 


35263 


J 


19—17 


172 


97 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 — 1 +2 


2 


35264 


d" 


19—17 


171 


91 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


i—i 


1 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


2 


35265 


9 


19—17 


170 


86 


8—8 


11— u 


1 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +3 


2 



Remarks. — Specimens from Mexico and Central America 
seem to differ from those from Arizona and New Mexico in 
the frequent reduction in the number of supralabials to seven. 
Since our material is all from Arizona we are unable to form an 
opinion as to whether the snakes from these distant localities 
are really identical in other respects. 



206 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

THE ELEGANS GROUP 

Tlie second great group of our garter-snakes includes all 
those snakes which show an apparent relationship with the 
form which Baird and Girard named Euta'uiia clcgons. The 
satisfactory classification of the snakes which group themselves 
about this central form long has been regarded as one of the 
most difficult problems in North American herpetology. Only 
the large material at hand has induced us to study this problem 
again. The difficulties are such that we shall feel that the very 
great labor involved has been justified if even a little better 
understanding of the facts result from this study. 

As a result of former study of this group five species and 
subspecies were recognized, as follows : — 

1. T. Icptoccphala (or onibioidcs), a dwarf fonn from the 
coast region of Washington and Oregon. 

2. T. cli'gaiis, a striped fomi, from the coast and Sierra 
Nevada of California. 

3. T. vagrans, a spotted form, from both sides of the Sierra 
Nevada and a vast country farther east. 

4. T. z'agrans biscittatiis, a subspecies with an increased num- 
ber of preoculars, from the Klamath Lake region and the 
Pacific Northwest. 

5. T. haminondii, a form without dorsal light line, from the 
San Diegan Fauna and the San Joaquin Valley. 

Brown, in 1903, adopted these views and recognized these 
same forms, but reduced elegans and vagrans to subspecific 
rank, and regarded Icptoccphala as a subspecies of sirfalis which 
ranged along the coast south to San Francisco. 

Ruthven, in 1908, divided the snakes which, in "The Reptiles 
of the Pacific Coast," had been called T. elcgaus, into 
two groups, those from the coast and those from the 
Sierra Nevada. Following Brown, he united the former 
with leptocephala under the name T. ordinoidcs. The snakes 
from the Sierra Nevada, together with the forms T. vagrans 
and T. vagrans biscutatus, were merged by him in a single sub- 
species under the name T. ordinoides elegans. T. hammondii 
was recognized by Ruthven. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 207 

General Discussion 

Before proceeding to set forth in detail the results of 
the present investigation, it may be well to state that the views 
maintained in 1897 have been, in the main, confirmed. The five 
forms then recognized, are still recognized, with the same 
limits, except that the forms then called T. clcgans and T. ham- 
mondii are each divided into two, and all of the forms are re- 
duced to subspecific rank. 

Each of these sub.species occupies its own particular geo- 
graphic area, where it alone represents the group ; but the area 
occupied by each meets or overlaps that of one or more of 
the other members of the group. Thus, T. ordinoidcs vagraus 
is the only garter-snake of the clcgans type throughout a vast 
area, where it adheres to its particular color characters with 
remarkable constancy, but in various places in the far west its 
range meets or overlaps the ranges of other fomis and at 
these points specimens are found in which the instability of 
these same characters is quite as notable. Such specimens may 
defy definite subspecific identification. They are to be regarded 
as showing intergradation between the subspecies. All of the 
subspecies recognized are linked one to another by such inter- 
gradation. 

Some conclusions reached from the present study are : — 

1. T. ordinoidcs ordinoidcs is the most distinct of these sub- 
species. 

2. The range of T. ordinoidcs ordinoidcs is the coast region 
of British Columbia, Washington and Oregon. Tn California 
it is limited to the extreme northwestern corner of the state. 
We are unable to follow Brown in referring to T. ordinoidcs 
ordinoidcs the snakes of the coastal strip of California : or Ruth- 
ven, in extending the range of this form south to Tehachapi 
and east to the Sierra Nevada. 

3. The garter-snakes of the immediate coast region of Cali- 
fornia represent a distinct race or subspecies. 

4. This race may be called T. ordinoidcs atratus. 

5. Intergradation between T. ordinoidcs ordinoidcs and T. 
ordinoidcs atratus occurs in Del Norte and Humboldt counties. 

6. T. ordinoidcs atratus is more closely related to T. ordinoi- 
dcs elegans than to the other subspecies. 



208 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEMCES tPnoc. '■th Ser. 

7. T. ordiiwides clcgans is confined to the Sierra Nevada 
and the mountains of southern California, excluding the lower 
levels. 

8. T. ordiiwides clcgans in the mountains of southern Cali- 
fornia remains true to type. No specimens showing signs of 
intergradation have been taken. 

9. In the Sierra Nevada, however, intergradation occurs and 
one may be in doubt whether to refer a particular specimen to 
clcgans or to I'agraiis or couch ii. 

10. The Sierra Nevada snakes of pure clcgans type seem not 
to occur at the lower altitudes, but material is insufificient for 
proof. 

11. The snakes from the lower Sierra Nevada and the San 
Joaquin Vallej', which have been referred sometimes to vagrans, 
sometimes to hammondii, are neither. 

12. They combine characters of both 7'agrans and bani- 
mondii in varying proportion. 

13. They may best be regarded as a separate, though inter- 
mediate, subspecies. 

14. This may be called T. ordinoidcs coucJiii. 

15. The range or T. o. couchii extends from Shasta County 
south through the San Joaquin Valley, and, east of the Sierra 
Nevada, from Owen's Lake to Lake Tahoe, and Pyramid Lake. 

16. Snakes of this type occur also in the warmer parts of 
Monterey County. 

17. TJiamnophis ordinoidcs haimnondii, of pure type, ranges 
north to the Mohave River and to southern .San Luis Obispo 
County. 

18. T. 0. hammondii may have a nuchal spot, put has no dor- 
sal line, not even a rudimentary one. 

19. In the mountains of southern California elegaiis and 
hammondii may be found together: but only hammondii has 
been taken at lower altitudes. 

20. No intergradation between hammondii and clcgans has 
been found in southern California. 

21. Farther north such intergradation occurs through 
couchii. 

22. The snakes of the Klamath and Modoc region usually 
have more than one preocular. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— CARTER-SNAKES 209 

23. They .should be recognized as a separate subspecies, 
Thamnophis ordinoides biscutatus. 

24. In coloration biscutatus is intermediate between clcgans 
and -c'agraits, but more hke vagraiis. 

25. Snakes of the z'agrous type reach the coast, or nearly 
there, in British Columbia and northern Washing-ton and in 
southern Oregon and Del Norte County, California. 

26. Since a majority of these snakes have two preoculars. it 
seems best to call these also biscutatus, as was done in "The 
Reptiles of the Pacific Coast." 

27. Two snakes from the San Pedro Martir Mountains, 
Lower California, Mexico, which were formerly recorded as 
hammondii (Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., Ser. 2, Vol. V. p. 1007) are 
typical vagraiis. 

We are thus led to the recognition of eight members of the 
elegaiis group of garter-snakes, as follows : — 

1. Thamnophis ordinoides ordinoides 

2. Thamnophis ordinoides atratus 

3. Thamnophis ordinoides elegans 

4. Thamnophis ordinoides biscutatus 

5. Thamnophis ordinoides vagrans 

6. Thamnophis ordinoides couchii. 

7. Thamnophis ordinoides hammondii 

8. Thamnophis marcianus 

The curves of scale-counts shown in Figures 2 to 6 will serve 
to show the differences and relationships of these subspecies as 
regards these characters. The curves show the percentage of 
specimens having each number of scales. Each subspecies is 
represented by a separate line. In all these charts the 

( 1 ) line of crosses represents, ordinoides 

(2) continuous line, atratus 

(3) dotted line, ^MT/z/a/zM- (Klamath Lake) 

(4) broken line with longest 

segments, elegans (Sierra Nevada) 

(5) broken line with shortest 

segments, elegans (San Bernardino Mts.) 

(6) broken line with intemie- 

diate segments, vagrans (Utah, Idaho, Nevada) 

(7) line of oooooooooooooo, haiiiiiioiidii 

(8) line of vvvvvvwvvvvvv, couchii 



210 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4tii Se«. 

These charts represent the counts in about 262 specimens of 
T. 0. ordinoides, 387 of T. o. atratiis, 37 T. o. elegaiis from the 
Sierra Nevada and 41 from the San Bernardino mountains, 
108 T. 0. vagrans, 235 T. o. biscutatus, 75 T. o. hammondii, 
and 40 T. o. coiichii. The numbers vary slightly for the differ- 
ent charts. The chart of gastrostege counts, however, is based 
upon smaller numbers, since it includes only male specimens. 





..u.:±;.:;x.:..-: -;-.-- ■ : . ■ • . - . :rrrir;::n .^ 


; ] 


.^-.l4._4 -|..|--|4.-Lf ;..;.-.j..f .-|-xj .:,-. 4...; .. :&: :.......i-.i...4-.j u-i-.^ 


, .■^.4._ 


.i..i.i .i_i -^-.s .,i -j- i...-i.4 i-.4-4*|*— t— r— — ij/\ . ■*-4~-r~^-rv ^r-^—i--^ 


" "^ 


i i • i 1 i ^ 4 ♦ .* . . . *f-\ - . 4-- i-i i~i...i..i...i...M 


1 1 


_,4-.-;-..-i -.- .4- -4-i"4-* t -U-- 4" -i--4-— ;--i-^-i-- -4— '^-4- ■ -; --*- .Jf - * ■ - 4-_i--; ; ^...4-.4.-*» 

.. ;.-.l...J-.-. 4-.I— 4 1--4-..4--4.— • — ,— ;- -3^-' ...4. ---A -j • Jy . Ol - ..*. .-1— .»-^--.4.— --. i— 4--4 -JW 


-t"*"' 




....i-i... 






..li- i.-i-l.-i. ... ..l.-.i L.L.i--J-4ii--X^:---i. 4 -♦-■•-■i* 4«-4--l----- -i------ ^i-..i..4.-~-...4-i~4-t -*!l 


■ 1 


; ! i : 1 ; i - i ' : i ■ i ^ ■- ' ' ■K ■ i ■ ^- ', L , ~./ill/ 






kir 


*i-r jr-t «-« iT >-/ ^.P *-* »'■> 1-1 ^ '0 



Figure 2 

Figure 2 shows the counts of the supralabial plates. It 
brings out very clearly the distinctness of T. ordinoides ordi- 
noides from all the other subspecies. The percentages shown 
for the various subspecies are : 

T. ordinoides 0.4, 2, 4, 86, 6, 2. 

T. o. atratus 8, 7, 85, 0.3, 0.3. 

T. 0. elegaus (Sierra Nevada) 86, 11. 3. 

T. 0. elegans (San Bernardino Mts.) 3, 97. 

T. 0. vagrans 3, 96, 1. 

T. o. biscutatus 2, 5. 92, 1. 

T. o. hannnondii 99, 1. 

T. 0. couchii 100. 



Vol. \'II1] VAN DENBURCH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 



211 



'IT I 



■\-r 



4...44-i- 



i—fi 



•■-■■■•-:—?— T ^-? r"^t : )»• :^r ? -• i.-.*..j.....f~.i.-. 

v..4..,-.4,.....i..|..^u.K.f.U,f..f:|.4...t-..f..^ 

»....i...+...^-..i...,...,j^ j.....f.,j V...j_.i.._,...,.j...,,....i..... 

:....i....|-.4.._Lj...,j»i |..,4.4.,.f....4..j..4.,..i_.i....; 



..;....i..,,j...i...>... 



^i^tttt'' 



4.,...-.+........,....!jp.^...,|... 



«-7 



T^ 



^F 



■f^ 







Figure 3 



Figure 3 shows the counts of the infralabial plates. It 
again emphasizes the distinctness of T. o. orduioidcs, and 
also shows the strong tendency in T. o. coiicliii to increase 
to 1 1 the number of these plates. The percentages shown for 
the various subspecies are : 

T. 0. ordinoidcs \, 3, 5, 55, 15, 19, 2. 

T. o.atratus\,2, 10, 14,73, 1. 

T. 0. elcgans (Sierra Nevada) 5, 17, 74, 0.4. 

T. 0. clcgaiis (San Bernardino Mts. ) 10, 90. 

T. 0. vagrans 3, 6, 84, 5, 2. 

T. o. biscutatus 3, 5, 91, 1. 

T. 0. hammoudii 3, 4, 92, 1. 

T. 0. coiichii 7.5, 56, 7.5, 25. 



212 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser 






■..■i-—* ■ — •*" ••-■"• ■ ■ -i/A ' • — *• ■4-— •.;— 4 — { — f — !•— -4"— ;—•*■— 4— -4 — 4 — • — j..-^-- 4—- ♦■•■"f — •■ 

..i....4. 4 -•- - ■ 'l^i ' \ i^y i * \ — ♦ k — *.-.*--4'*-^— •*-"T™i—4—4""4-— ♦ — 1—4 — 1—4—^-^ 



.........|....V'-f-j- |\i"i — • — \....i..X...^....\....X...fl^, 



6-1 




Figure 4 represents tlie number of preocular plates. It 
sliows r. 0. bisciitatiis is entitled to recognition, and that 
T. 0. hauimondii also has a strong tendency toward an 
increase in the number of these plates. The other subspecies 
all agree in having but one preocular as the normal condition. 
The percentages shown for the various subspecies are : — 

T. 0. ordinoides 87, 8, 5. 

T. 0. atratiis 94, 2, 4, 0.3. 

T. 0. clegans (Sierra Nevada) 97, 0.3. 

T. 0. elegans (San Bernardino Mts.) 34, 12, 5. 

T. 0. vagrans 77, 11, 11, 1 . 

T. 0. biscittatiis 23, 11, 66, 0.4. 

T. 0. hammondii 36, 18, 42, 1, 3. 

T. o. couchii 85, 2.5, 12.5. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEyiN— GARTER-SNAKES 



213 




Figure 5 



Figure 5 represents the greatest number of scale-rows. 
It shows that all of the subspecies except T. o. ordinoides 
and T. o. atratiis agree in having normally 21 rows of 
scales. It indicates the right of T. o. atratiis to recognition 
as a subspecies distinct from T. o. ordinoides on the one hand 
and from all of the other subspecies on the other. The per- 
centages shown for the various subspecies are : — 

T. 0. ordinoides 76, 24. 

T. o. atratiis 79. 21. 

T. 0. elegans (Sierra Nevada) 13, 87. 

T. 0. elegans (San Bernardino Mts.) 5, 95. 

T. 0. va grans 2, 98. 

T. 0. biscutatus 1, 95, 4. 

T. 0. hammondii 1, 99. 

T. 0. couchii 5, 90, 5. 



214 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 




Figure 6 



Figure 6 represents tlie variation in the number of gas- 
trosteges, in males only. It shows that T. o. atratiis differs 
from both T. o. ordinoidcs and T. o. elcgans. All of the other 
races agree closely with T. o. elcgans in the number of their 
gastrosteges. T. o. ordinoidcs is very distinct from all except 
the intermediate T. o. atratus. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIII 



[VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN ] Plate 8 




Tlitiinnat'lus ordinoidcs ordinokics. Puget Gartcr-Siiake : — Photograph 
from Hviiig specimen collected at Portland. Oregon, in Octol)er, 1916. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 215 

Thamnophis ordinoides ordinoides (Baird & Girard) 
Puget Garter-Snake. 

Diagnosis. — Normally with fewer than eight supralabials 
and fewer than ten infralabials. Scales usually in seventeen, 
sometimes in nineteen, rows. Gastrosteges fewer than in the 
more southern races. Coloration very variable, striped, spotted 
or unicolor, often with some red. Preoculars usually single. 
Size small. 

Type Locality. — Puget Sound. 

Synonyms.— Eutccnia Icptocephala Baird & Girard, 1853; 
type locality, Puget Sound. Eittcenia coopcri Kennicott, 1860; 
type localities Cathapoot'l and Willopah valleys. Thamnophis 
rnbristriata Meek, 1899; type locality Olympic Mountains, 
Washington. Thamnophis leptocephalus olympia Meek, 1899; 
type locality Olympic Mountains, Washington. 

Range. — This garter-snake seems nowhere to range far from 
the coast. It occurs in southwestern British Columbia, on the 
mainland and on Vancouver Island, and ranges thence south 
across Washington and Oregon to the northwestern corner of 
California, where it seems to be confined to Del Norte County. 

We have examined specimens from the following locali- 
ties : — 

1. Lillooet River Valley, British Columbia. 

2. Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound, B. C. 

3. Golden Eagle Mine, Mt. Saunders, B. C. 

4. Tahsis Canal, Nootka Sound, B. C. 

5. Alberni Valley, Vancouver Island, B. C. 

6. San Juan Islands, Washington. 

7. New Whatcom, Wash. 

8. Port Orchard, Kitsap Co., Wash. 

9. Darrington, Snohomish Co., Wash. 

10. Montesano, Chehalis Co., Wash. 

11. Melbourne, Chehalis Co., Wash. 

12. Pierce Co., Wash. 

13. Lebam, Pacific Co., Wash. 

14. Trapp Creek, Pacific Co., Wash. 

15. Astoria, Clatsop Co., Oregon. 



216 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Puoc. 4th Ser. 

16. Gearheart, Clatsop Co., Ore. 

17. Portland, Multnomah Co., Ore. 

18. Garibaldi, Tillamook Co., Ore. 

19. Trask River, Tillamook Co., Ore. 

20. Tillamook, Tillamook Co., Ore. 

21. Nestucea River Road, Tillamook Co., Ore. 

22. Road to Nestucea between Grandronde and Dolph, Yam- 
hill Co., Ore. 

23. Siletz, Lincoln Co., Ore. 

24. Toledo, Lincoln Co., Ore. 

25. Junction Little Elk andVaquina River, Benton Co., Ore. 

26. Between Chitwood and Siletz River, Benton Co., Ore. 

27. Road between Pioneer and Siletz River, Benton Co., 
Ore. 

28. Philomath, Benton Co., Ore. 

29. Alsea River, near Alsea, Benton Co., Ore. 

30. Junction Lake and Deadwood Creek, Lane Co., Ore. 

31. Junction of Siuslaw River and Lake Creek, Lane Co., 
Ore. 

32. Elmira, Lane Co., Ore. 

33. Marshfield, Coos Co., Ore. 

34. South Fork Coos River, Coos Co., Ore. 

35. Sumner, Coos Co., Ore. 

36. Coquille, Coos Co., Ore. 

37. South Fork Coquille River, 20 miles above Myrtle Point, 
Coos Co., Ore. 

38. Myrtle Point, Coos Co., Ore. 

39. Camas Mountains, Douglas Co., Ore. 

40. Sixes River, Curry Co., Ore. 

41. Port Orford, Curry Co., Ore. 

42. Elk Creek, Curry Co., Ore. 

43. Flores Creek, Curry Co., Ore. 

44. Between Flores Creek and Rogue River, Curry Co., Ore. 

45. Vicinity mouth of Rogue River, Curry Co., Ore. 

46. Corbin, Curry Co., Ore. 

47. Goldbeach, Curry Co., Ore. 

48. Harbor, Curry Co., Ore. 

49. Smith River, Del Norte Co., California. 

50. Gasquet, Del Norte Co., Cal. 

51. Crescent City, Del Norte Co., Cal. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 217 

52. Requa, Del Norte Co., Cal. 

53. Union Bay, Bayne Sound, B. C. 

54. Mt. Rainier, Pierce Co., Wash. 

55. Drain, Douglas Co., Ore. 

56. Cow Creek, Douglas Co., Ore. 

Material. — About three hundred and twenty-five snakes of 
this subspecies have been examined by us in the preparation of 
this paper. 

Variation. — Three specimens have no loreal plates; one has 
a loreal on one side only; the others have the normal loreal 
1 — 1. The preoculars are 1 — 1 in two hundred and seventy- 
nine, or 86% ; 1 — 2 in twenty-six, or 8%' ; and 2 — 2 in twenty, 
or 6%. The postoculars are 3 — 3 in two hundred and eighty- 
four, or 877c ; 2—3 in twenty-four, or 7% ; 2—2 in sixteen, or 
5%; and 1 — 2 in one. The temporals are l-f-2 — \+2 in two 
hundred and eighty-nine, or 897^ ; l-|-2— l-fl in eighteen, or 
6% ; i_|-2— 1-1-3 in eight, or 27c ; 1-|-1— 1 + 1 in four, or 1% ; 
and 3-f3— 3-1-3 in three, or 1%. The supralabials are 7—7 in 
two hundred and eighty-three, or 85% ; 7 — 8 in twenty, or 6%o ; 
7_6 in nine, or 3%. ; 8—8 in five, or 2%p ; 6 — 6 in four, or l%o ; 
5 — 5 in one, and 8 — 6 in one. The infralabials are 8 — 8 in one 
hundred and seventy-nine, or 557o ; 8 — 9 in fifty-eight, or 187o ; 
8—9 in fifty-four, or 177r; 7—8 in sixteen, or 57o; 7—7 in 
nine, or 37^; 9—10 in six, or 2%-; and 6—7 in two. The 
scale-rows are 17—17—15 or 17—15—15 in two hundred and 
thirty-six, or 727o ; the other 287o all have 19 rows, but the 
formula may be 17—19—17—15, 17—19—17, 19—19—17. 
19_19_15, 17_19_17, or 17—18—19—17. The gastro- 
steges vary in number from 135 to 162, males having from 138 
to 162, females from 135 to 154; the average in one hundred 
and eighteen males is 149.2, in one hundred and fifty-eight 
females, 144.8. The urosteges vary from 50 to 81, males hav- 
ing from 56 to 81, females from 50 to 72; the average in 
ninety-six males is 70.2, in one hundred and twenty-eight 
females, 60.9. 

This variation is shown in full in the following table of 
scale-counts. 



218 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Scale counts in Thamnophis ordinoides ordinoides 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


S5170 


!J 17—19—17—15 


148 


59c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+3 


1 


C2466 


9 17—17—15 


142 


58c 


7—8 


9—10 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


2 


C2468 


9 


17—17—15 


141 


58c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +3 


3 


C2469 


9 


17—17—15 


145 


63c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


2—2 


I — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+1 


4 


C2470 


9 


17—17—15 


145 


62c 


7—7 


9—9 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+3 


4 


C2296 


9 


17—19—15 


143 


56c 


7—7 


8—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


5 


C2299 


9 


17—19—15 


144 


49 + 


7—8 


9—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


5 


C2308 


9 


17—17—15 


143 


58c 


6—7 


7—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


S 


C2309 


9 


17—17—15 


141 


61c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


5 


C2310 


9 


17—17—15 


152 


58c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


5 


C2311 


9 


17—17—15 


140 


55c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


5 


C2312 


9 


17—17—15 


146 


57c 


7—7 


8—8 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


5 


C2313 


9 


17—17—15 


147 


60c 


7—7 


8—9 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


3 


C2467 


9 


17—17—15 


141 


58c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


5 


S6515 


9 


17—19—17—15 


142 


56c 


8—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


6 


S4269 


d" 


17—17—17—15 


156 


67c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1—2 


7 


30400 


cf 


17-18-19-19-17 


148 


71c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


8 


30S08 


9 


17-17-15 


143 


55c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 


9 


30511 


9 


17—17—15 


149 


47 + 


6—7 


9—9 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


9 


24101 


d" 


17—17—15 


151 


68c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


10 


24102 


9 


17—19—15 


147 


58c 


7—7 


7—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


10 


24103 


9 


17—19—15 


150 


5 9c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1-1+2+2 


10 


29930 


d' 


17—17—15 


146 


66c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


11 


29931 


9 


17—19—17—15 


144 


63c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2+2 


11 


29932 


d" 


17—19—17—15 


149 


64c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


11 


29933 


9 


17—17—15 


146 


61c 


8—6 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


11 


29934 


9 


17—19—17—15 


148 


58c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 l+I 


11 


29935 


9 


17—17—15 


142 


37 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+3+2—1+2+2 


11 


29936 


9 


17—19—17—15 


143 


48 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


11 


29937 


d' 


17—17—15 


149 


62c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


11 


29938 


d' 


17—17—15 


145 


64c 


5—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1- — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


U 


29939 


9 


19—19—17 


145 


63c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+3 


11 


29940 


d' 


17—17—15 


145 


39 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+1+1 


11 


S5152 


d" 


17—17—15—15 


150 


64c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


12 


S5153 


9 


17—17—15—15 


143 


48 + 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


12 


29922 


d" 


17—19—17—15 


147 


62 + 


7—7 


8—8 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


13 


29923 


9 


17—17—15 


149 


50c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


14 


29924 


d" 


17—19—17—15 


146 


72c 


7—7 


8—8 


2 — 1 


3-3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 


14 


29925 


d 


17—19—17—15 


146 


57 + 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+1 


14 


29925 


9 


17—19—17—15 


147 


53 + 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


14 


29862 


9 


17—17—15 


145 


59c 


7—7 


7—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


15 


29863 


& 


17—17—15 


149 


69c 


8—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+2 


IS 


29864 


d» 


17—17—15 


155 


66c 


7—7 


7—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


15 


29865 


d" 


17—17—15 


147 


62c 


7—7 


8—7 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


IS 


29866 


9 


17—17—15 


144 


48 + 


7—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+2—1+2+1 


IS 


29867 


d" 


17—17—15 


151 


68c 


7—7 


9—9 


I — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


IS 


29868 


d" 


17—17—15 


149 


55c 


7—7 


7—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


IS 


29869 


9 


17—19—15 


145 


61c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


15 


29810 


9 


17—17—15 


147 


27 + 


7—7 


7—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


16 


29811 


d- 


17—17—15 


150 


51 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2 


16 


20401 


d" 


17—17—15 


152 


73c 


6—7 


7—8 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


17 


20402 


9 


17—17-15 


153 


64c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


20403 


d' 


17-17-15 


152 


71c 


7—8 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


20404 


d' 


17—19—15 


149 


76c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


20405 


d' 


17—17—15 


151 


67 + 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


20406 


9 


17—19—17 


147 


64c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


20407 


9 


17—17—15 


142 


63c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


20408 


9 


17—19—17 


152 


64c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


20409 


9 


17—17—15 


146 


51 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


20410 


d" 


17—19—15 


148 


72c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


20411 


d" 


17—17—15 


ISO 


70c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


29711 


9 


17—17—15 


152 


63c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


18 


29712 


9 


17—17—15 


147 


50c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


18 


29713 


9 


17—19—15 


144 


57c 


7—8 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


18 


29714 


9 


17—17—15 


154 


42 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


18 


29742 


9 


17—17—15 


151 


58c 


6 — 6 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


19 


29743 


9 


17—17—15 


145 


60c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — I 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


19 


29688 


d" 


17—17—15 


146 


62c 


7—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


20 


29689 


d" 


17—17—15 


154 


63c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+1+2 


20 


29690 


d" 


17—17—15 


152 


72c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


i +2 +2— 1+2+2 


20 


29691 


9 


17—17—15 


148 


36 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


0—0 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


20 


29692 


9 


17—17—15 


144 


59c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+1+2 


20 


29693 


d' 


17—17—15 


148 


70 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


20 


29694 


9 


17—19—17 


148 


56c 


6—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


20 


29695 


d" 


17—17—15 


154 


71 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


20 



Vol. VIII] VAN DBNBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 



219 







Scale counts in Thamnophis 


ordinoides ordinoides — Continued 










Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


29697 


9 


17—17—15 


152 


62c 


7 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


20 


S4534 


d" 


17—19—17—15 


152 


56c 


7 — 7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


21 


SS308 


cf 


17—17—17—15 


144 


65c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


2 — 2 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


22 


29687 


cf 


17 — 17 — 15 


153 


67c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


23 


29643 


cf 


17-17-15 


148 


62c 


7 7 


8—8 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29644 


9 


17—17-15 


148 


58c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29645 


cf 


17—17—15 


153 


67c 


7 7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+1 


24 


29646 


cf 


17-17—15 


147 


67c 


7 — 7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1+2—1+2+2 


24 


29647 


cf 


17—17—15 


151 


63c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


24 


29648 


tf 


17—17—15 


153 


66c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29649 


9 


17-17—15 


145 


59c 


7—6 


6—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1+2—1+1+2 


24 


29650 


cf 


17—17—15 


151 


67c 




9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29651 


cf 


17—17—15 


146 


60c 


7 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29652 


9 


17—17—15 


144 


61c 


7 — 7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2+2 


24 


29653 


9 


19— 19— a 7 


147 


56c 


8—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29654 


9 


17—17—15 


147 


59c 




8—8 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29655 


cf 


17—17—15 


148 


69c 


7 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29656 


d» 


17—17—15 


151 


67c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1+2—1+2+2 


24 


29657 


9 


17—17—15 


149 


64c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


I+l 1+1 


24 


29658 


d" 


17—17—15 


148 


17 + 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2-J+2+2 


24 


29659 


cf 


17—17—15 


150 


61 + 


7 — 7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29660 


cC 


17—17—15 


147 


67c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


0— I 


1+2 1+2 


24 


29661 


9 


17—19—15 


144 


59c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29662 


9 


17—17—15 


149 


60c 


7 — 8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2 1+2 


24 


29663 


cf 


17—17—15 


151 


18 + 


7 — 7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29664 


(f 


17—17—15 


150 


66c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


2966S 


9 


17—17—15 


149 


57c 


7 7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2-1+2+2 


24 


29666 


<f 


17—17—15 


153 


55 + 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29667 


cf 


17—17-15 


ISO 


72c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2-1+2+2 


24 


29668 


cf 


19—19—15 


152 


68c 


7 — 7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29669 


cf 


17—17—15 


154 


74c 


7 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29670 


cf 


17—17—15 


153 


28 + 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29671 


cf 


17—17—15 


148 


'50 + 


7 — 7 


7—8 


1—1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29672 


9 


17—17—15 


152 


57c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29673 


9 


17—17—15 


147 


24 + 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


'+2 — ^ii^-, 


24 


29674 


9 


17—17—15 


151 


63c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29675 


9 


17—17—15 


148 


37 + 


7 7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


29676 


9 


17—17—15 


149 


58c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2 1+2 


24 


29677 


9 


17—17—15 


150 


58c 


7 — 7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2-1-1-2+2 


24 


29678 


9 


19—19—17 


144 


64c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


S4506 


cf 


17—17—15—15 


148 


65c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


25 


S4507 


9 


17-19—17-15 


154 


63c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


25 


S4508 


9 


17—17—17—15 


143 


58 + 


7 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2 


25 


S4509 


9 


19-19-17-15 


153 


58c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


25 


S4510 


cf 


17—17—17—15 


153 


69c 


7 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


25 


S4511 


9 


17—17—17—15 


146 


37 + 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


25 


S4528 


cf 


17—19—17—15 


148 


72c 


7 7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


26 


S4S29 


cf 


17—17—17—15 


149 


67c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4S30 


9 


17—19—17—15 


151 


55 + 


7 7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4531 


cf 


17—17—15—15 


151 


67c 


8 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


26 


S4S32 


9 


17—19—17—15 


144 


45 + 


7 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4514 


9 


17—19—17—15 


152 


63c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4S15 


9 


17—19—17—15 


152 


56c 


7 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4516 


9 


17—17—17—15 


149 


60c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


26 


S4517 


9 


17-19-17—15 


154 


60c 


7—6 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4518 


9 


17—19—17—15 


151 


58c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4519 


9 


17—17—17—15 


145 


63c 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


26 


S4520 


9 


19—19—17—15 


152 


58c 


7 — 7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


26 


S4521 


9 


17—19—17—15 


145 


60c 


7 — 7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4522 


9 


17—17—15—15 


151 


6Ic 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4523 


9 


17—17—15—15 


149 


59 + 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4524 


9 


17—19—17—15 


154 


61c 


7 — 7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4525 


9 


19-19-17-15 


151 


50 + 


7 — 8 


8—9 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


26 


S4526 


9 


17—19—17—15 


150 


63c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4527 


9 


17—19—17—15 


152 


61c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


26 


S4513 


9 


17—17—17—15 


148 


62c 


7 — 7 


8—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


27 


S4427 


9 


19—19—17—15 


151 


41 + 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


28 


S4428 


cf 


17—19—17—15 


159 


72c 


7 — 7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


28 


S4S02 


cf 


17—17—15—15 


150 


54 + 


7 — 7 


8—8 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


29 


S4503 


cf 


17—19—17—15 


153 


68c 


7 — 7 


9—9 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


29 


S4505 


cf 


17—17—17—15 


149 


38 + 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


29 


S4500 


cf 


17—19—17—15 


145 


73c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2 


30 


S4498 


9 


17—19—17—15 


145 


62 + 


7 — 7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


31 


S4499 


9 


17—17—17—15 


146 


65c 


7 — 7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


31 


29626 


d" 


17—17—15 


156 


71c 


7 — 7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


32 



220 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Scale counts in Thamnophis ordinotdes ordinoides — Continued 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Se:j 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


S4447 


9 


17—19—17—15 


147 


63c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


33 


S4482 


9 


17—19—17—15 


142 


61c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


34 


S4483 


9 


17—17—17—15 


146 


61c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+2 


34 


S4445 


9 


17—17—15—15 


146 


58c 


7—7 


7—8 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2 


35 


S4481 


9 


17—17—15—15 


145 


72c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


36 


S4470 


9 


17—17—15—15 


148 


59c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


37 


S4472 


9 


17—17—15—15 


148 


59 + 


7—7 


7—8 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


37 


S447 5 


9 


17—17—15—15 


148 


S7c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


37 


S447 7 


a" 


17—17—17—15 


147 


67c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


37 


S4478 


9 


17—17—15—15 


148 


63c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


37 


S4217 


9 


17—19—17—15 


151 


35 + 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


38 


29419 


9 


17—17—15 


139 


57c 


6—6 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29420 


<f 


17—17—15 


153 


70c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — I 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29421 


cf 


17—17—15 


145 


71c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29422 


d- 


17—19—15 


150 


47 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29423 


d» 


17—17—15 


151 


77 + 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29424 


9 


17—17—15 


151 


S8c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29425 


9 


17—17^15 


149 


66c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


38 


29426 


cf 


17—19—15 


151 


71c 


8—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


0—0 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


19427 


9 


17—17—15 


145 


63c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29428 


9 


17—17—15 


149 


61c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29429 


d' 


17—17—15 


144 


69c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29430 


9 


17—17—15 


144 


61c 


7—7 


8—8 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+1 


38 


29431 


d' 


17—17—15 


149 


67c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+1+2 


38 


29432 


cf 


19—19—15 


155 


72c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


38 


29433 


9 


17—17—15 


143 


56c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29434 


9 


17—19—15 


149 


58c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29435 


9 


17—17—15 


145 


63c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29436 


(f 


17—17—15 


152 


72c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29437 


d- 


17—17—15 


147 


75c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29438 


9 


17—17—15 


142 


62c 


7—7 


8—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+1+2 


38 


29439 


cC 


17—17—15 


152 


72c 


7—7 


7—7 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29440 


9 


17—17—15 


144 


60c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


— 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


29493 


d' 


17—17—15 


162 


71c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


39 


S4448 


9 


17—17—17—15 


143 


65c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


40 


29375 


9 


17—17—15 


143 


58c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


41 


29376 


9 


17—17—15 


145 


63c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


41 


29377 


9 


?— 17— 15 


135 


64c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


41 


29378 


9 


17—17—15 


149 


63c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


41 


29379 


d" 


17—17—15 


151 


68c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1+2—1+2+2 


41 


29380 


9 


17—17—15 


140 


63c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


41 


29381 


a" 


17—17—15 


147 


62 + 


6 — 6 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


41 


29382 


9 


17—17—15 


146 


65c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


41 


29383 


d" 


17—17—15 


139 


66c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


41 


29384 


d 


17—17—15 


146 


72c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


41 


2938S 


9 


17—17—15 


145 


70c 


7—7 


9—9 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


41 


29386 


9 


17—17—15 


142 


62c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +2—1 +2 +2 


41 


29387 


9 


17—17—15 


139 


59c 


7—6 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


41 


29388 


9 


17—17—15 


146 


57c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


41 


29389 


9 


17—17—15 


145 


57c 


7—7 


9—9 


2 — 1 


3—3 


? — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


41 


29397 


d" 


19—19—15 


151 


78 + 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


41 


S4444 


cf 


17—17—15—15 


149 


68c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+1 


42 


S4452 


9 


17—17—17—15 


143 


62c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


43 


S4453 


9 


17—17—15—15 


142 


65c 


7—7 


8—8 


1—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


43 


S44S4 


9 


17—17—17—15 


149 


62c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


43 


S44S5 


d" 


17—17—15—15 


149 


69c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


43 


S4456 


9 


17—17—17—15 


144 


64c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2 


43 


S4457 


d" 


17—17—15-15 


151 


66c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


44 


S4458 


9 


17—19—17—15 


147 


62c 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


44 


S4459 


9 


17—17—17—15 


141 


51 + 


6—6 


8—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


44 


S4460 


9 


17—17—17—15 


139 


61c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


44 


S4461 


d' 


17—17—15—15 


147 


70c 


6—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


44 


S4462 


d' 


17—17—17—15 


150 


68c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


44 


S4464 


9 


17—17—17—15 


145 


59c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


44 


S4465 


d 


17—17—15—15 


140 


40 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


44 


S4466 


9 


17—17—17—15 


139 


56 + 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


44 


S4467 


9 


17—17—15—15 


143 


59c 


7—8 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


44 


S4468 


d" 


17—17—15—15 


151 


64c 


7—7 


8—8 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 — 1 +2 


44 


S4436 


9 


17—19—17—15 


142 


50 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


45 


29373 


9 


17—17—15 


139 


61c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+3 


46 


29366 


9 


17—17—15 


147 


64c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+1+2 


47 


29268 


d" 


17—17—15 


155 


78c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


29269 


9 


17—17—15 


144 


67c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


29270 


o" 


17—17—15 


144 


71c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


29271 


9 


17—17—15 


147 


59c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 



221 







Scale counts in Thamnophis 


ordinoides ordinoides — Continued 










Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


29272 


cf 


17—17—15 


142 


72c 


7—7 


8—9 


J J 


3—3 


J J 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


29273 


9 


17—17—15 


144 


41 + 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


29274 


cf 


17—17—15 


147 


77c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


29275 


(f 


17—17—15 


151 


78c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


29276 


9 


17—17—15 


144 


66 + 


7—7 


8—8 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


29277 


9 


17—17—15 


143 


65c 


8—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


29278 


9 


17—17—15 


144 


45 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


48 


29279 


9 


17—17—15 


145 


65c 


7—7 


7—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


48 


29213 


9 


17—17—15 


141 


63c 


5—5 


6—7 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


49 


29214 


9 


17—17—15 


137 


60c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


49 


29215 


9 


17—17—15 


142 


59c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


49 


29216 


9 


17—17—15 


143 


64c 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


49 


S4265 


tf 


17—17—17—15 


143 


72c 


8—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


50 


S4267 


9 


17—17—15—15 


144 


48 + 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 —1+2 


50 


S6315 


9 


17-17—15—15 


137 


65c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


51 


29236 


cf 


17—17—15 


143 


73c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


51 


29237 


9 


17—17—15 


144 


65c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


51 


29238 


9 


17—15—15 


151 


68c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


51 


29239 


9 


17—15—15 


141 


61c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


51 


29240 


9 


17—17—15 


141 


67c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


51 


29241 


9 


17—17—15 


144 


60c 


7—7 


7—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


51 


29242 


9 


17-17-15 


140 


62c 


7—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


51 


29243 


cf 


17—17—15 


142 


72c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+2 


51 


29244 


9 


17—17—15 


140 


69c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


51 


29245 


9 


17—17—15 


139 


60c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


51 


29246 


9 


17—17—15 


137 


58 + 


7—7 


7—8 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


51 


29247 


<? 


17-17—15 


144 


52 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


51 


29248 


cf 


17—17—15 


140 


38 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


51 


29249 


J 


17—17—15 


143 


70c 


7—7 


7—8 


1 — 1 


3^3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


51 


29250 


d" 


17—17-15 


138 


65c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


51 


29093 


cf 


17-17—15 


142 


72c 


7—7 


7—7 


1 — 1 


2—1 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


52 


29091 


9 


17—17—15 


148 


-58c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


52 


S7211 


o» 


17—17—15 


148 


63c 






1 — 1 


—I 


— 1 


1+2 1+2 


53 


30002 


9 


17—17—15 


145 


64 


7—7 


9—9 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


54 


29578 


9 


19—19—17 


154 


63 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


i—i 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+2 


55 


29579 


d' 


17—17—15 


162 


77 


6—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


55 


S4485 


d' 


17—19—17—15 


156 


80c 


7—7 


9—9 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


56 


S4486 


9 


17—19—17—15 


143 


62c 


7—7 


9—9 


2 — 1 


S— 3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


56 


S4487 


d' 


17—17—17—15 


150 


42 + 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


56 


S4488 


d' 


17—19—17—15 


156 


81c 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


56 


S4490 


d" 


17—19—17—15 


149 


70c 


7—7 


8—8 


2—2 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


56 


S4491 


d- 


17—19—17—15 


154 


76c 


7—7 


8—8 


2—1 


3-3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


56 



222 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pboc. 4th Sek. 



Very interesting from the standpoint of scale variation are 
the following counts showing, in each group, — first, the counts 
for the adult female and then those for the well-developed 
embryos taken from her. In the case of No. S4427 the series is 
not complete, for only six of the twenty-one embryos of this 
brood could be counted. 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


stcges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


S4S09 


9 


19—19—17—15 


153 


S8c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1-1-2 


25 


S4509 (') 




17—17—15 


159 


69c 


7—7 


8—8 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2-1+2 


25 


S4509 (') 




17—19—17 


150 


55c 


7—7 


8—8 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


25 


S4509 (•) 




19—19—17 


155 


68c 


7—7 


8—9 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


25 


S4509 («) 




19—19—17 


151 


62c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


25 


S4509 h) 




19—19—17 


150 


63c 


7—7 


8—8 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


25 


S4509 (•) 




19—19—17 


157 


69c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


25 


S4S09 (') 




19—19—17 


154 


66c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


25 


S4509 (') 




19—19—17 


154 


68c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


25 


S4517 


9 


17—19 — 17—15 


154 


60c 


7—6 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


845 17 0) 




17-17-15 


151 


62c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84517 {') 


d» 


17—17—15 


151 


70c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84517 C) 




17—17—15 


150 


68c 


7—7 


7—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84517 («) 


c? 


17—17—15 


150 


7Ic 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


84517 (>) 


tf 


17—17—15 


153 


66c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84517 (') 


c? 


17—17—15 


146 


71c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


S45I7 (') 


rfi 


17—17—15 


148 


75c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84517 (•) 




17—17—15 


147 


61c 


8—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


84517 (•) 




17—17—15 


150 


59c 


7—7 


8—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


84517 (i») 




17—17—15 


149 


62c 


7 — 7 


7—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84517 (") 




17—17—15 


149 


63c 


7—7 


7—7 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


$4517 (") 


(f 


17—17—15 


149 


64c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


S4526 


9 


17—19—17—15 


150 


63c 


7—7 


8—8 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


84525 (•) 




17—17—15 


148 


60c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


84526 (') 




17—17—15 


156 


76c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


S4526 (') 




17—19—17—15 


151 


74c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


S4526 {<) 




19—19—17—15 


145 


64c 


8—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84526 (•) 




17—17—15 


145 


58c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84526 (•) 




19—19-17-15 


148 


56c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


—1+2 


26 


84526 (') 




17—17—15 


154 


73c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84526 («) 




17—17—15 


149 


76c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


84527 


9 


17—19—17—15 


152 


61c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84.527 (1) 




17-19—17-15 


154 


S9c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84527 («) 




17—19—17—15 


149 


60c 


8—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


84527 (') 


if 


17—19—17—15 


150 


67c 


8—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84527 C) 




17—19—17—15 


156 


57c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84527 (S) 




17—19—17—15 


151 


58c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1 +2—1 +3 


26 


84527 (•) 




17—19—17—15 


154 


64c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


S4527 (') 


'cf 


17—19—17—15 


149 


67c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


84527 (•) 




17—19—17—15 


151 


60c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1 +2—1 +1 


26 


S4527 (•) 




17—19—17—15 


152 


57c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


S4527 (1°) 


'(f 


17—19—17—15 


155 


61c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


S4527 (") 


cf 


17—17—15—15 


148 


42c 


7—7 


9—8 


2 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+1—1+1 


26 


84527 (") 




19—19—17—15 


149 


59c 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


84427 


9 


19-19-17-15 


151 


41 + 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


28 


S4427 (■) 




19—19—17 


153 


65c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


28 


S4427 («) 




17—19—17 


158 


70c 


7—7 


8 — 8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


28 


84427 (1) 




19—19—17—15 


154 


56c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


28 


84427 (') 




19—19—17 


157 


59c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1 +2—1 +2 


28 


84427 (") 




17—19—17 


153 




7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


28 


S4427 (") 




19—19—17 


152 


58c' 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


28 


84447 


9 


17—19—17—15 


147 


63c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


33 


84447 (') 




17—17—15 


144 


58c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


33 


S4447 (') 




17—17—15 


140 


55c 


7—7 


9—8 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


33 


84447 (') 




17—17—15 


144 


65c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


33 


84447 (•) 




17—17—15 


142 


54c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


33 


84447 (>) 


tf 


17—17—15 


142 


60c 


7—7 


8—8 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


33 


84447 («) 




17—17—15 


141 


58c 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


33 


84447 (•) 




17—17—15 


150 


67c 


7—7 


8—8 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


33 


84447 (•) 




17—17—15 


141 


63c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


33 


84447 (•) 




17—17—15 


144 


S9c 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


33 


S4447 W 




17—17—15 


147 


5Sc 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


33 


84447 (U) 




17—17—15 


147 


61c 


7—7 


8—8 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


33 


S4447 C") 




17—17—15 


142 


57c 


7—7 


8—8 




3—3 




1+2—1+2 


33 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 223 

Remarks. — This is tlie common garter-snake of tlie north- 
west coast. It is of small size. The largest specimen exam- 
ined measures 590 luiii. to base of tail. The head is small, not 
so distinct from the neck as in other races, and the labials are 
reduced in number. 

The coloration is very variable. The dorsal line frequently 
is absent or developed only on the neck. The lateral lines also 
may be absent. Specimens may be heavily spotted or without 
any marking, either lines or spots. The dorsal line usually is 
yellow but may be red, and there often is red elsewhere in the 
coloration, as on the gastrosteges. The lower surfaces often 
are dark, and the coloration everywhere may be very dusky. 

Specimens with heavy spotting and dark pigmentation of the 
gastrosteges resemble T. o. vagrans, but usually may be easily 
distinguished by their scale characters. 

Specimens showing no dorsal line resemble T. o. couchii, but 
here again the scale characters are quite different. 

The closest relationship of this subspecies undoubtedly is 
with T. 0. atratiis. yet there can be no doubt as to the subspecific 
distinctness of the two forms. The differences in the number 
of superior and inferior labials, scale-rows and gastrosteges 
should be sufBcient aid toward their correct determination, and 
the general appearance usually is quite different. Certain 
specimens, however, are so nearly intermediate in one or more 
of their characters that students might differ in opinion as to 
their identity. Such specimens, as set forth under head of T. 
0. atratiis, show real geographic intergradation. So far as 
specimens examined by us show, this intergradation occurs 
only in Del Norte County, California, where the ranges of the 
two forms meet and perhaps overlap slightly. Many of the 
specimens from this county are typical of either one or the other 
subspecies, — ordiiioidcs or atratus, — and most of the inter- 
grades seem to be nearer to the latter type than to the former. 
South of Del Norte County no tendency toward T. o. ordinoidcs 
has been observed in T. o. atratus, unless it be that the rather 
frequent absence of the dorsal line in specimens from Hum- 
boldt and Mendocino counties may be so regarded. 

Ruthven considered two preoculars to be a character of 
much importance in T. o. ordinoidcs. Our figures show that 



224 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEXCES [Peoc. 4th Sek. 

fourteen per cent only of the specimens have two preoculars on 
one or both sides of the head. Snakes of the T. a. vagrans 
type occur in portions of the area occupied by T. o. ordinoidcs, 
and often have two preoculars. There seems to be no good 
reason for calling them T. o. orduioidcs. It appears much 
more logical to consider them T. o. biscutatus, as was done in 
1897, although specimens to show the continuity of range from 
the Klamath Lakes to Puget Sound are not at hand. 



Thamnophis ordinoides atratus (Kennicott) 
Coast Garter-Snake. 

Diagnosis. — Normally with eight supralabials and ten infra- 
labials. Scales usually in nineteen, sometimes in twenty-one, 
rows. Gastrosteges average more numerous than in T. o. 
ordinoidcs, but fewer than in the other subspecies. Coloration 
very variable, striped, spotted, or (rarely) unicolor, often with 
some red. Preocular usually single. Size larger than T. o. 
ordinoides. 

Type Locality. — California. (Brown states that the same 
specimens served as the types of Cope's E. i. vidua, and that 
they are labeled San Francisco.) 

Synonyms. — Eutcenia infernalis of many authors but not of 
Blainville. Eutcenia infernalis vidua Cope, 1892; type locality 
San Francisco, California. 

Range. — This subspecies occupies the coast region of Cali- 
fornia from Del Norte to Santa Barbara counties. So far as 
known, the area inhabited by it includes the coast ranges and 
their valleys but not the great valleys of the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin. It occurs in both the Transition and Upper 
Sonoran zones. 

We have examined specimens from the following locali- 
ties : — 

1. Near Siskiyou, Jackson Co., Oregon. 

2. Gasquet, Del Norte Co., California. 

3. Trinidad, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

4. Eureka, Humboldt Co., Cal. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIII 



[VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN | Plate 9 




'1 Iniiiiiiot^his ordiiioidcs ulratus. Coast Garter-Snake; — Phutograph from 
living specimen collected at Gilroy Hot Springs, Santa Clara Co., Cali- 
fornia. July 5, 1915. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 225 

5. Ferndale, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

6. Alton, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

7. Carlotta, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

8. Cuddeback, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

9. Maltole River, White Thorn, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

10. South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt Co., Cal. 

11. Anderson, Shasta Co., Cal. 

12. Bald Hill, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

13. Irishes, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

14. Covelo, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

15. Ten Mile River, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

16. Sherwood, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

17. Mendocino, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

18. Near Mendocino City, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

19. Big River, 7 miles from mouth, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

20. Comptche, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

21. Albion River, 2 miles below Comptche. Mendocino Co., 
Cal. 

22. Roberts Creek, near Ukiah, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

23. Navarro River, near Philo Crossing of Elk on Ukiah 
Stage Road, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

24. Garcia River, J4 to 10 miles above mouth, Mendocino 
Co., Cal. 

25. Point Arena, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

26. Pieta, Mendocino Co., Cal. 

27. Gualala. Mendocino Co., Cal. 

28. Middleton, Lake Co., Cal. 

29. Rumsey, Yolo Co., Cal. 

30. Wheatfield Fork, Gualala R., Sonoma Co., Cal. 

31. Near Skaggs Springs, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

32. Skaggs Springs, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

33. Cazadero, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

34. Duncan Mills, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

35. Austins Creek, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

36. Kidd Creek, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

37. Guerneville, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

38. Freestone, Sonoma Co., Cal. 

39. Berryessa Creek, Napa Co., Cal. 

40. St. Helena, Napa Co., Cal. 

41. Vacaville, Solano Co., Cal. 



226 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

42. Inverness, Marin Co., Cal. 

43. Point Reyes, Marin Co., Cal. 

44. Tocaloma, Marin Co., Cal. 

45. Olema, Marin Co., Cal. 

46. Mill Valley, Marin Co., Cal. 

47. Walnut Creek, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

48. Berkeley, Alameda Co., Cal. 

49. Oakland, Alameda Co., Cal. 

50. San Leandro, Alameda Co., Cal. 

51. Calaveras Valley, Alameda Co., Cal. 

52. San Francisco, San Francisco Co., Cal. 

53. San Bruno, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

54. Portola, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

55. Summit Searsville Road above Woodside, San Mateo 
Co., Cal. 

56. Mountains between Stanford University and Spanish- 
town, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

57. Corte Madera Creek, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

58. Butano Basin, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

59. La Honda, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

60. Pescadero, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

61. Near Stanford University, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

62. Corte Madera Canyon, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

63. Stevens Creek, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

64. Santa Clara, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

65. San Jose, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

66. Smith Creek, Mount Hamilton, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

67. Uvas Creek, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

68. Upper Coyote Creek, near head, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

69. Gilroy Hot Springs, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

70. Waddell Creek, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 

71. Near Swanton, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 

72. Felton, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 

73. Soquel, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 

74. Salinas River, near Blanco, Monterey Co., Cal. 

75. Seaside, Monterey Co., Cal. 

76. Pacific Grove, Monterey Co., Cal. 

77. Carmel, Monterey Co., Cal. 

78. San Macento, Monterey Co., Cal. 

79. Garapatos Creek. Monterey Co., Cal. 

80. Mill Creek, Monterey Co., Cal. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 227 

81. Little Sur River, Monterey Co., Cal. 

82. Partington Canyon, Monterey Co., Cal. 

83. Morro, San Luis Obispo Co., Cal. 

84. Oceano, San Luis Obispo Co., Cal. 

85. Santa Ynez River, Santa Barbara Co., Cal. 

Ma/cr/fl/.— Three hundred and sixty-three specimens from 
these localities have been studied by us. 

Variation. — The variations shown by these specimens are as 
follows : 

The loreal is 1 — 1 in all specimens. Preoculars are 1 — 1 in 
three hundred and thirty-nine, or 93% ; 2—2 in fifteen, or 4% ; 
1—2 in seven, or 1% ; and 2—3 in one. Postoculars are 3—3 
in three hundred and twenty-one, or 88% ; 3 — 4 in fifteen, or 
4% ■ 2_3 in ten, or 2% ; 2—2 in eight, or 2%. ; A — 4 in six, or 
1% ; 4 — 5 in one, and 1 — 2 in one. Temporals are 14-2 — 1-|-2 
in two hundred and eighty, or 777c ; l-|-2— 1-|-3 in forty-four, 
or 12% ; 1+3—1+3 in sixteen, or 4% ; 1+1—1 + 1 in ten, or 
2%; 14-1—1+2 in five, or 1%; 1 + 1—2+2 in two, 1+2— 
2+2 in two, 1 + 1—1+3 in one, and 1+3—2+2 in one. The 
supralabials are 8 — 8 in three hundred and nine, or 85% ; 7 — 7 
in twenty-six, or 7% ; 7 — 8 in twenty-five, or 6% ; 8 — 9 in one, 
and 9—9 in one. The infralabials are 10 — 10 in two hundred 
and seventy-two, or 75% ; 9—10 in forty-four, or 12% ; 9—9 
in thirty-two, or 8%.; 10—11 in five, or 1%; 8—9 in three, 
8 — 10 in three, 11 — 11 in two, and 8 — 8 in one. The scale- 
rows are 19 — 19 — 17 in two hundred and fifty-five, or 71%); 
19_21_17 in twenty-seven, or 7%; 21 — 21—17 in twenty- 
two, or 67c; 19—21—19 in twenty-one, or 6%; 21—21—19 
in nine, or 27o ; 21—19—17 in six, or 1% ; 17—19—17 in four, 
or 1% ; 19—19—19 in three, 19—20—19 in three, 20—21—19 
in one, 17— 18— 17 in one, 19— 19— 15 in one, and 20— 21— 17 
in one. The gastrosteges vary in number from 140 to 172, 
males having from 146 to 172, females from 140 to 168; the 
average in one hundred and fifty males is 158, in two hundred 
and four females, 153. The urosteges vary from 52 to 93, 
males having from 63 to 93, females from 52 to 98 ; the aver- 
age in one hundred and thirty-one males is 81, in one hundred 
and sixty-eight females, 74. These variations are shown in 
full in the following table of scale-counts. 



228 



CAUFOR\'IA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pboc. 4th Se«. 









Scale counts 


in Thamnophis 


ordinoides alratus 












Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sen 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


S4440 


9 


19—21—19—17 


159 


75c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


I 1 


1+2 1+2 




S4442 


d' 


19—21—19—17 


161 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 




S4266 


9 


19—20—19—17 


157 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +3 




29055 


9 


19—19—17 


149 


53 + 


7—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




29056 


9 


17-18-17-15 


151 


68 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2+2 




C2320 


9 


21—19—17 


150 


50 + 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




C2322 


9 


19—19—17 


153 


69 


7—7 


8—8 


1 — 1 


3—3, 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +3—2 +2 +2 




C2323 
C2367 


9 
9 


19—19—17 
21—21—17 


153 
154 


64 
70 


7—8 
8—8 


9—9 
10—9 




3—3 
3—3 




1 I T 1 1 




J J 


1 I 


1+2+3—1+3 




28829 


d» 


19—19—17 


161 


84 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28830 


9 


19—19—17 


153 


50 + 


7—8 


10—10 


I — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


I +3 1 +3 




28831 


9 


19—19—17 


151 


72 


7—7 


10—10 


I — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28832 


9 


19—21—17 


155 


67 


7—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28833 


cf 


19—19—17 


156 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +2—1 +2 +2 




28834 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


70 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28837 


d* 


19—19—17 


157 


85 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28839 


9 


19—19—17 


155 


70 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3-3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28840 


9 


19—19—17 


146 


69 


8—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


I +2 1 +2 




28841 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


73 


7—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+3—1+3+3 




28842 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


80 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 










28843 


d" 


19—19—17 


159 


84 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28844 


cf 


19—19—17 


158 


83 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28845 


9 


19—21—17 


153 


75 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28846 


9 


19—19—17 


155 


68 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28847 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


74 


8—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 




28848 


9 


19—19—17 


152 


79 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 




28849 


9 


19—19—17 


155 


80 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—i 


J 1 


1 +2 1 +2 




28850 


9 


19—19—17 


154 


71 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28851 


d" 


19—19—17 


165 


85 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 




28852 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


77 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 




28853 


d" 


19—19—17 


163 


84 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28854 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


77 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 










28855 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


71 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


2+2+2—1+1+3 




28856 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


74 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28857 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


77 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28858 


9 


19—19—17 


155 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+3 




28859 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


68 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 




28860 


(f 


19—19—17 


160 


84 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28861 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


66 + 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 




28862 


9 


19—19—17 


154 


75 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 




28863 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


77 


7—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28864 


d" 


19—19—17 


156 


85 


8—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 




28865 


9 


21—21—17 


161 


72 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28866 


9 


19—19—17 


151 


74 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28867 


d" 


19—19—17 


166 


86 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28868 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


67 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28869 


9 


19—19—17 


154 


26 + 


8—8 


Ifr— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 




28870 


d" 


19—19—17 


160 


84 


7—7 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28871 


d- 


19—19—17 


157 


90 


8—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 




28872 


d' 


19—19—17 


165 


81 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28873 


d- 


19—19—17 


155 


88 


7—7 


9—10 


1 I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28874 


9 


19—19—17 


153 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 




28875 


d- 


19—19—17 


156 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+2 




28876 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


9 + 


8—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 




28877 


d- 


19—21—17 


165 


87 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28878 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


42 + 


8—8 


10—9 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 




28879 


9 


19— ?— 17 


154 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28880 


d' 


19—19—17 


160 


83 


7—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28881 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


72 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


2+2+2—1+2+3 




28882 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


71 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28883 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


74 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


\ \ \ 111 








28884 


9 


19—21—17 


156 


71 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 




28885 


d- 


19—19—17 


157 


80 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 




28886 


9 


19—19—17 


149 


74 


8—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 




28887 


d' 


19—19—17 


158 


57 + 


7-7 


10—10 


I \ 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 




28888 


e 


19—19—17 


159 


28 + 


8—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28889 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


82 


8—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 — - — 1 +2 




28890 


d" 


19—19—17 


155 


83 


8—8 


9—9 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28891 


& 


19—19—17 


158 


71 + 


7—7 


10—10 


1 I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 




28892 


9 


19—19—17 


155 


73 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1^1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28893 


9 




156 


75 


8—8 


10—10 


J 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28976 


d" 


19—19—17 


159 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 




28977 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


6 


28978 


d- 


19—19—17 


155 


84 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


6 


28979 


d" 


19—19—17 


162 


84 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1-1 


1 +2 1 +2 


6 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 



229 







Scale counts 


in Thamnophis ordinoides atratus — Continued 












Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


C2366 


9 


19—19—17 


161 


77 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


8 


C2368 


cT 


19—19—17 


154 


79 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


8 


S4228 


9 


19—19—17—15 


153 


75c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1 +3 1 +2 


9 


S4221 


& 


19—19—17—15 


155 


77c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


10 


S4242 


& 


19—19—17—17 


159 


79c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


10 


S4243 


9 


19—19—17—15 


150 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


10 


S4313 


d' 


20—21—19—17 


170 


91c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


11 


S4434 


9 


21—19—17—17 


166 


38 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


2 2 


11 


CI 165 


d' 


19—19—17 


161 


65 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


12 


C1166 


d" 


19—19—17 


157 


75 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


12 


S179S 


cf 


19—19—17—15 


158 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


13 


C5323 


d" 


19—19—17 


163 


83 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+3+3 


14 


S4240 


9 


19—19—17—17 


145 


71c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3~i 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


IS 


C1163 


d" 


19—19—17 


158 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+2 


16 


C1167 


d' 


19—19—17 


161 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3-3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


16 


C1168 


9 


19—19—17 


154 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


I — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


16 


Si 760 


9 


19—19—17—17 


149 


79c 


8—8 


10—8 


1 — 1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


16 


28620 


d" 


19—19—17 


152 


6 + 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


17 


C5315 


d" 


19—21—17 


153 


54 + 


7—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


C5317 


9 


19—19—17 


151 


75 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +2—1 +3 +3 


17 


S4247 


d" 


19—21—19—17 


155 


80c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +3 


18 


S4248 


d' 


19—19—17—15 


161 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


18 


S4249 


9 


19—19—17—15 


144 


71c 


8—8 


10—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


19 


28302 


& 


19—19—17 


155 


75 


8—8 


10—10 


I — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


20 


28303 


d' 


19—19—17 


158 


85 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


i—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


20 


28304 


<f 


19—19—17 


155 


78 


8—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


20 


28305 


9 


19—19—17 


149 


76 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


20 


28306 


d 


19—19—17 


160 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


20 


28307 


9 


21—21—17 


151 


71 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


20 


28308 


0" 


19—19—17 


152 


83 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1-1+2+2 


20 


S4237 


d" 


19—19—17—17 


150 


79c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


21 


S4238 


d- 


19—19—17—17 


150 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


21 


S4233 


& 


19—19—17—17 


161 


85c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


22 


S4234 


9 


19—19—17—17 


147 


81c 


9—9 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +3 


22 


S4241 


9 


19—19—17—17 


145 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


23 


S42S0 


d' 


19—19—17—17 


153 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


23 


S42S1 


9 


19—19—17—17 


143 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


23 


S4252 


9 


19—19—17—17 


144 


77c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+1 


23 


S4236 


9 


19—19—17—17 


148 


73c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


24 


S4244 


9 


19—19—17—15 


ISO 


79c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


24 


S4245 


9 


19—19—17—15 


147 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


24 


S4253 


9 


19—19—17—17 


147 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


24 


C5313 


9 


19—19—17 


144 


71 


7—7 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+3 


25 


CS3I4 


9 


19—19—17 


150 


62 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


25 


S6440 


d" 


19—19—17—17 


163 


85c 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


26 


S4130 


9 


19—19—17—17 


155 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


26 


C5301 


9 


19—19—17 


152 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 -1+1 


27 


CS302 


9 


19—19—17 


151 


77 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2+2 


27 


C5303 


9 


19—19—17 


155 


38 + 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — t 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


27 


C5304 


9 


19—19—17 


154 


73 


8—8 


-10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


27 


CS30S 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


29 + 


8—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


27 


C5306 


9 


19—19—17 


148 


71 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+3—1+2+2 


27 


C5307 


d' 


19—19—17 


153 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+3 


27 


C5308 


9 


19—19—17 


150 


61 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


+27 


C5309 


d" 


19—19—17 


161 


77 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


27 


C5310 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


27 


C53U 


9 


19—19—17 


152 


64 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


27 


C5312 


d' 


19—19—17 


154 


85 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+3+2 


27 


CS336 


9 


19—19—17 


149 


71 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


27 


C5337 


d 


19—19—17 


151 


83 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


27 


CS338 


9 


19—19—17 


140 


65 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


27 


S4131 


d' 


19—19—17—17 


166 


84c 


8—8 


10—10 


J — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+3 


23 


C4005 


9 


19—19—17 


162 


75 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


29 


S4219 


9? 


19—19—17—17 


152 


9 + 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


30 


S4229 


d 


19—19—17—15 


164 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


30 


S4230 


d' 


19—19—17—17 


159 


90c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


30 


S4231 


9 


19—19—17—17 


152 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


I — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+2 


30 


S4256 


9 


19—19—19—17 


150 


76c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


I +2 1 +2 


31 


S4257 


9 


19—19—17—15 


154 


72c 


8—8 


10—11 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


31 


S4258 


9 


19—19—17—17 


143 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


I — 1 


3—3 


\ 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


32 


28019 


9 


19—19—17 


152 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+1 


32 


28020 


9 


19—19—17 


155 


78 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


32 


28021 
28024 


d- 
9 


19—19—17 
19—19—17 


159 
152 


93 
72 + 


8—8 
8—8 


10—10 
10—10 




3—3 

3—3 




11? 11"!'^ 


32 
32 


\ J 


J J 


1+2+2—1+2 


28025 


d- 


19—19—15 


161 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


?— ? 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2 


32 



230 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Scale counts in Thamnophis ordinoides atratus — Continued 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


28029 


d- 


19—19—17 


164 


88 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


32 


C5298 


9 


21—21—17 


158 


54 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3 — 4 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


CS299 


9 


19—19—17 


155 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


33 


C5300 


9 


19—21—17 


149 


68 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


33 


2V938 


d- 


19—19—17 


162 


84 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


34 


27939 


9 


19—19—17 


150 


24 + 


?— 8 


9—10 


1—1 


?— 3 


1 I 


1+2 1+2 


34 


27940 


o" 


19—19—17 


159 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 +3—1 +2 +3 


34 


27941 


d- 


19—19—17 


159 


49 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 +3—1 +2 +3 


34 


28010 


9 


19—19—17 


145 


25 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


35 


27982 


d" 


19—19—17 


159 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +2—1 +2 +2 


36 


C4913 


9 


19—19—17 


150 


75 


8—8 


10— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2 


37 


C4914 


d" 


19—19—17 


154 


83 


8—8 


10—9 


1—1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+3 2+2 


37 


S4323 


d- 


19—19—17—17 


158 


87c 


7—8 


9—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+3 1+2 


37 


C5295 


d" 


19—19—17 


165 


71 


8—8 


10—10 


I— 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


C5296 


d- 


19—19—17 


161 


77 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 +2—1 +2 +2 


38 


C5297 


d" 


19—19—17 


165 


79 


8—8 


9—10 


1— I 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


38 


S6310 


d" 


19—19—17—17 


157 


88c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


39 


S6311 


9 


19—19—17—17 


154 


76c 


8—8 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


39 


S6312 


9 


19—19—19—17 


152 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+3 1+2 


39 


S6313 


d" 


19—19—17—17 


164 


82c 


8—8 


10—9 


1—1 


3 — 3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


39 


S6314 


d" 


19—19—17—17 


156 


80 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4—3 


J I 


1+1 1+1 


39 


13178 


d" 


19—21—17 


160 


84 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 1+2 


40 


C4006 


9 


19—19—17 


154 


27 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3 — 4 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


41 


C40O7 


9 


19—19—17 


154 


79 


8—8 


10—9 


1—1 


3 — 3 


1 1 


1+3 1+2 


41 


C4008 


d" 


19—19—17 


160 


81 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


41 


C5290 


d' 


19—19—17 


159 


60 + 


8—8 


9—9 


1—1 


3 — 2 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


42 


C5292 


d" 


19—19—17 


165 


64 


8—8 


10—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +3—1 +2 +3 


42 


C5293 


9 


19—19—17 


153 


69 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


42 


C5287 


d" 


19—19—17 


157 


81 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


43 


C5288 


d' 


19—19—17 


155 


79 


8—8 


9—9 


1—1 


3 — 3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +3—1 +2 +3 


43 


C5291 


9 


21—21—17 


153 


71 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +2—1 +2 +2 


43 


27814 


9 


19—19—17 


151 


74 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


44 


27816 


d" 


19—19—17 


156 


85 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


44 


27817 


d- 


19 — 19—17 


158 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


44 


27818 


9 


19—21—17 


159 


65 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


44 


27819 


9 


19—21—17 


156 


74 


8—8 


lO— 10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


44 


S5181 


d' 


19—19—17—17 


160 


78c 


8—7 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


45 


C2438 


d» 


19—19—17 


167 


48 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+2 


46 


C4009 


9 


19—19—17 


148 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


47 


C843 


d" 


19—19—17 


164 


85 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C844 


9 


19—19—17 


164 


72 


8—8 


9—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+3 


48 


C84S 


d' 


19—19—17 


171 


88 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C846 


9 


21—21—17 


161 


72 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+3+2 


48 


C1527 


9 


19—21—17 


160 


76 


8—8 


11—11 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C1628 


9 


19—19—17 


165 


73 


»— 8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2 


48 


C1629 


9 


19—19—17 


152 


80 


8—8 


10—11 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+2 


48 


C1630 


d" 


19—19—17 


172 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 


48 


C1634 


9 


21—21—17 


156 


79 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +3—1 +2 +3 


48 


C2439 


9 


19—21—17 


164 


74 


8—8 


10— 10 


2—3 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C2440 


d' 


19—17 


170 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +2—1 +2 +2 


48 


C2441 


9 


19—21—17 


161 


70 


8—8 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +3 


48 


C2442 


<f 


19—19—17 


168 


86 


8—7 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2+2—1+2+3 


48 


C2443 


d' 


19—21—17 


164 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C2444 


9 


21—21—17 


156 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


48 


C244S 


9 


19—21—17 


161 


54 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+1+1 


48 


C2446 


9 


21—21—17 


163 


77 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


48 


C2448 


d" 


19—19—17 


169 


72 


8—8 


10— 10 


1— I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+1 


48 


C2449 


d- 


19—19—17 


166 


86 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


48 


C2450 


9 


21—21—17 


155 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C2451 


9 


21—21—17 


163 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +3—1 +2 +3 


48 


C2452 


d' 


19—21—17 


167 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C2453 


9 


19—21—19 — 17 


160 


77 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


48 


C2454 


9 


21—21—17 


161 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


48 


C2455 


d' 


19—19—17 


164 


85 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +3—1 +2 +3 


48 


C2456 


d" 


19—21—17 


170 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C2457 


d" 


19—19—17 


159 


81 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C2458 


9 


19—19—17 


165 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C2459 


9 


19—19—17 


168 


50 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


2—2 


1 — I 


1+3 1+3 


48 


C2461 


d' 


19—21—17 


163 


81 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+3—1+2+3 


48 


C2462 


d" 


—19—17 


152 


74 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C3757 


9 


19—19—17 


148 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


48 


C4314 


9 


21—21—17 


158 


52 


8—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — I 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C5417 


9 


19—21—17 


159 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +2—1 +2 +2 


48 


CS418 


d" 


19—21—17 


164 


81 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 


C5419 


9 


19—19 — 17 


159 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


48 



Vol. VIII] yAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 



231 







Scale counts in The 


mnophis 


ordinoides atratus — Continued 












Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






;>ocal- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


C55SS 


9 


21—21—19—17 


159 


77c 


8—8 


11—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


'+^ •t:5,_. 


48 


C2437 


d' 


21—21—17 


167 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


49 


C2460 


0' 


19—21—17 


164 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


49 


13223 


cf 


21 — 21 — 17 


165 


79 


8—8 


9—9 


1—1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


50 


C2435 


d" 


19—19—17 


153 


81 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+2+2 


50 


S4161 


9 


19 — 19 — 17 — 15 


148 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


51 


39565 


9 


19—21—19—17 


157 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +3—1 +2 +3 


52 


39566 


9 


19 — 21 — 19 — 17 


153 


72 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


27286 


cf 


19 — 19—17 


157 


82 


8—8 


10—8 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


52 


33350 


9 


21 — 21 — 17 


154 


67 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


52 


33351 


rfi 


21—19—17 


153 


80 


8—8 


9—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1+2—1+2+2 


52 


33352 


9 


19 — 19 — 17 


157 


75 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


52 


33353 


9 


19—19—17 


159 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


52 


33354 


cf 


21 — 21 — 17 


158 


76 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1+2—1+2+2 


52 


33355 


9 


21-21-17 


155 


69 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


52 


33356 


cf 


19—19—17 


162 


82 


8—8 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


52 


38943 


9 


21—21—17 


152 


53 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


52 


39200 


9 


19—21—17 


155 


50 + 


8—8 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


52 


39557 


9 


19—21—19—17 


153 


74 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


39558 


cf 


19—21—19—17 


157 


63 


8—8 


lO— 10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


39559 


9 


19—21—17—15 


148 


66 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


39560 


cf 


19—21—17 


154 


78 


8—8 


9—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


13225 


9 


21—19—17 


159 


76 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


13226 




19—21—19—17 


157 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


13227 




19—19—17 


157 


68 


7—8 


9—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


13228 




19—19—17 


157 


77 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


13229 




19—19—17 


157 


70 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


52 


13231 




19—19—17 


157 


66 


8—8 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


13235 


■? 


19—19—17 


157 


70 


8—8 


9—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


13239 


cf 


19—19—17 


161 


61 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


13247 


9 


19—19—17 


154 


68 


8—8 


9—10 


1—1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


52 


14498 


9 


19—19—17 


160 


74 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1- — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


14499 


cf 


19—19—17 


163 


-83 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


52 


14500 


cf 


19—21—17 


158 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


52 


S.R.22 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


164 


93c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


53 


S.R.21 


9 


19—19—17—17 


150 


70 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+1 


54 


S1123 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


149 


79c 


8—8 


10—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


55 


S1654 


9 


19—19—17—17 


146 


69 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+3 


55 


S1655 


9 


19—19—17—15 


144 


71c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


55 


S4322 


cf 


19—19—17—15 


146 


77c 


8—8 


9—9 


1—1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


56 


S5180 


9 


19—19—17—15 


151 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+2 


57 


S5184 


9 


19—19—17—15 


143 


66c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+1 


58 


S.R.68 


9 


19—19—17—17 


150 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


59 


S1198 


9 


19—19—17—15 


143 


59 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


59 


S4149 


cf 


19—19—19—17 


153 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


59 


S4155 


<f 


17—19—17—15 


155 


86c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


59 


S1136 


9 


19—21—19—17 


152 


68c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


60 


S1137 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


161 


67c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


60 


Si 139 


9 


19—21—19—17 


158 


73 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


60 


S1200 


9 


19—19—17—15 


145 


21 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+2 


60 


S1201 


9 


19—19—17—17 


148 


71c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


60 


S1202 


9 


19-19-17-15 


146 


38 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 142 


60 


S1203 


cf 


19—19—17—15 


153 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


60 


S1204 


9 


17—19—17—15 


146 


70 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


60 


S120S 


9 


19—19—17—15 


149 


65c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


60 


S1209 


cf 


21—21—19—17 


167 


75 + 


8—8 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+3 


60 


S1671 


cf 


19—21—17—17 


163 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


60 


S1672 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


158 


84c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+2 


60 


S4154 


cf 


21—21—17—17 


162 


80c 


8—7 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +3 


60 


S5182 


9 


21—21—19—17 


1S2 


71 + 


8—8 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


60 


S5183 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


154 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


60 


S518S 


9 


19—21—17—17 


151 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


60 


S.R. 7 


tf 


19—19—17—15 


153 


43 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


61 


S.R.53 


9 


19—21—17—17 


163 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+1 2+2 


61 


S4101 


3 


19—19—17—15 


165 


3 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


61 


S4157 


9 


19—19—17—15 


147 


71 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


61 


S4225 


9 


19—21—19—17 


162 


71c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+1 


61 


S6378 


9 


19—19—17—15 


153 


73c 


8—7 


10—10 


1—1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


61 


S6380 


cf 


17—19—17—15 


155 


75e 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


61 


S.R.69 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


157 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


62 


S.R.64 


cf 


19-19-17-15 


155 


80c 


9—8 


lO— 11 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


63 


S.R.65 


9 


19—19—17—15 


147 


74c 


8—7 


10—10 


1—1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


63 


S.R.66 


cf 


21—21—19—17 


161 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


63 


S.R.67 


cf 


19-19-17-15 


154 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


63 


S4135 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


156 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


63 



232 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Scale counts in Thamnophis ordinoides airatus — Continued 



Number 



Sex 



S1743 
S1744 
S1745 
41661 
41662 
41663 
S4091 
S6520 
S58S2 
39653 
39652 
S167S 
S4150 
S4151 
S4152 
S4153 
S.R.71 
84186 
S1652 
S1674 
S1679 
S1774 
S4144 
S4148 
S4319 
S427S 
13764 
13765 
S.R.61 
S.R.62 
S1682 
S168S 
Si 696 
S5143 
S5144 
S5145 
S5146 
S5147 
S5148 
S5149 
S5150 
13756 
13757 
13758 
13759 
13760 
13761 
S4306 
S4307 
S4308 
S4309 
S4310 
S4311 
S5189 
S5193 
S5194 
85191 
85195 
85190 
43372 
43366 
43367 
C4317 



Scale rows 



-19—17—17 
-21—19—17 



19—19—1 
19—19—1 
19—19—1 



19—21—19—17 



19—19—1 
19—19—1 
19—19—1 
19—19—1 
19—19—1 
19—19—1 
17—19—1 
19—19—1 
19—19—1 
19—19—1 
19—19—1 
21—21—19 



17 

15 

—17 



17 

15 

—15 

—17 

—17 

—15 

—15 

17 

15 

—15 

—15 

17 



19—21—19—17 

21—21—19—17 

19—19—17—17 

19—21—19—17 

19—19—17—17 

19—19—17—17 

21—21 — 19 — 17 

19—21—19—17 

19—19—17 

19—19—17 

19—21—19—17 

21—21—19—17 

19—20—19—17 

19—19 — 17—17 

21—21—17—17 

19—19—17—15 

19—19—17—17 

19—21—19—17 

19—19—17—17 

19—19—17—17 

19—19—17—17 

19—19—17—17 

21—21—19—17 

19—20—19—17 

19 19—17 

20—21—17 

19—19—17 

19—19—17 

19—19—17 

19—19—17—15 

19—19—17—17 

19—19—17—15 

19—19—17—15 

19—19—17—15 

19—19—17—17 

21—21 — 17—17 

19—21—19—17 

21—19—17—17 

19—19—17—17 

19—19—17—17 

21—19—17—17 

19—19—17—17 

19—21—19—17 

19—19—17—17 

19—21—17 



Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 




steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


152 


75c 


8—8 


9—9 


I J 


3—3 


J I 


162 


77c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


154 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


164 


79c 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — -2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


163 


58 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


159 


87c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


156 


7Sc 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


4—3 


1 — 1 


153 


23 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


161 


79 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — I 


159 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


156 


36 + 


8-8 


lO— 9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


150 


71c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


151 


79c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


142 


75c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I — 1 


147 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


143 


66c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


148 


72c 


8—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


153 


68c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


157 


73c 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


158 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


149 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


156 


86c 


8—8 


10—10 




3—3 


1 — 1 


158 


84c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


147 


73c 


8—8 


11—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


153 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


156 


67c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


149 


76 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


157 


59 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


154 


67 + 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


154 


66 + 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


1—2 


1 — 1 


158 


81c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


146 


64c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


156 


44 + 


8—8 


10—9 


1 — I 


3—3 


1—1 


143 


67 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


153 


62c 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 1 


S— 4 


1^1 


155 


67c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


155 


69c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3-3 


1 — 1 


140 


69 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


159 


79c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


147 


66c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


154 


58 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


160 


67 


8—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


145 


66 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


157 


69 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


149 


71 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


154 


79 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


153 


47 + 


8—8 


10—10 


I — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


150 


73c 


8—8 


11—11 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


152 


75c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


150 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


151 


71c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


144 


67c 


8-8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


151 


77c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


159 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


159 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


156 


21 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


154 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


159 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


153 


40 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


153 


61 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


155 


67c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


163 


81c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


159 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 



Temporals 



Local- 
ity 



1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+3- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+1- 
1+2- 
1+1- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+3- 
1+2- 
1+1- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+1- 
1+1- 
1+3- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+3- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 
1+2- 



-1+3 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+3 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+3 
-1+2 
-1+3 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+1 
-1+3 
-1+1 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+3 
-1+2 
-1+1 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+1 
-1+1 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 
-1+2 



64 
64 
64 
65 
65 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
69 
70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
71 
72 
73 
73 
73 
73 
73 
73 
73 
74 
75 
7S 
76 
76 
76 
76 
76 
76 
76 
76 
76 
76 
76 
76 
76 
77 
77 
77 
77 
77 
77 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
78 
79 
80 
80 
81 
81 
82 
83 
84 
84 
85 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEV IN— GARTER-SNAKES 233 

Remarks. — The large series at hand shows that this sub- 
species, which one of us formerly confused with T. o. elcgaiis, 
and which Brown and Rutiiven confused with T. o. ordinoidcs, 
really should be separated from both. From T. o. clcgaiis it 
differs in the smaller average number of its scale-rows and ven- 
tral plates, as well as in coloration. The dorsal line usually is 
wider than in T. o. elegans and there often is more or less red 
in the coloration, which so far as we know is not the case in 
the mountain snakes. 

T. 0. atratus differs from T. o. ordinoidcs in being of larger 
size and in usually having a greater number of upper and 
lower labials, scale-rows, and gastrosteges. The coloration 
also is different, although a wide range in pattern and shade 
is to be seen in both subspecies, and both often show some red 
coloring. 

As regards scale characters, T. o. atratus may be considered 
intermediate between T. o. ordinoidcs and T. o. elegans. 

The two specimens from Siskiyou, Jackson County, Oregon, 
and two others (Nos. S4313 and S4434) from Anderson, 
Shasta County, California, probably might best be regarded as 
showing intergradation between this coast form and the T. o. 
elegans of the Sierra Nevada, since they all have twenty-one 
rows of scales and somewhat intermediate coloration. The 
material is inadequate to make this conclusion a positive one 
but it is in this region that one would expect to find these sub- 
species merging. 

Five specimens (Nos. S4471, S4473, S4474, S4476, and 
S4479) from South Fork, Coquille River, twenty miles above 
Myrtle Point, Coos County, Oregon, are listed in this paper as 
T. 0. biscutatus. They, however, are not typical of that fonn 
in that they have only nineteen rows of scales. They thus 
resemble T. o. atratus in this character and might well be re- 
garded as intergrades. Additional specimens are needed from 
this general region. The coloration of these specimens is simi- 
lar to that of T. 0. couchii in the indistinctness of the dorsal 
line and presence of dark pigmentation on the gastrosteges. 
Two specimens from Gasquet, Del Norte County, California, 
resemble these but are so puzzling that one (No. S4264) has 
been referred to T. o. biscutatus and the other (No. S4266) 
to T. 0. atratus. Both have more than nineteen scale-rows, a 



234 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pboc. 4th Sei. 



fairly large number of gastrosteges, and indistinct dorsal lines. 
More material is needed to clear up their status. 

Certain specimens from Requa and Crescent City in Del 
Norte County, California, show intergradation between T. o. 
atratiis and T. o. ordinoidcs. This is apparent in the reduction 
in the number of upper and lower labials, and, sometimes, of 
the gastrosteges. Some of the specimens from these localities 
are fairly typical T. o. atratiis, and nearly all are closer to that 
form than to T. o. ordinoidcs. The scale-counts in these two 
series of specimens are given below. Nos. 29076 to 29091 are 
from Requa and Nos. 29219 to 29230 were collected at Cres- 
cent City. 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- Pre- 


Post- 






Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporal<i 


29076 


d" 


19—19—17 


158 


79 


8—8 


10—10 


\ 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2+2—1-1-2-1-2 


29077 


» 


19—19—17 


160 


70 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


29078 


9 


19—19—17 


159 


69 


8—8 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2 1+2 


29079 


9 


19—19—17 


153 


67 


8—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


29080 


9 


19—19—17 


147 


66 


8—8 


9—9 


I — I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+2+2 


29081 


d' 


19—19—17 


158 


80 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


29082 


9 


19—19—17 


156 


69 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


2908S 


9 


19—19—17 


153 


71 


7—7 


lO— 9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


29090 


d" 


19—19—17 


157 


76 


7—7 


8—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+1—1+2+2 


29091 


9 


19—19—17 


147 


60 


7—7 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


29219 


9 


19—19—17 


148 


74 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


29220 


<f 


19—19—17 


154 


34 + 


7—7 


7—8 


1 — 1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


29221 


9 


19—19—17 


151 


72 


8—8 


10—9 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+1—1+2+2 


29223 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


74 


8—8 


9—8 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


29224 


d" 


19—19—17 


163 


97 


7—7 


10— to 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1+2-1+2+2 


29225 


9 


19—19—17 


157 


65 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


29225 


9 


19—19—17 


158 


64 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+3—1+3+3 


29227 


9 


19—19—17 


151 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


29228 


9 


19—19—17 


153 


70 


8—8 


9—10 


I — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


29229 


9 


19—19—17 


149 


69 


8—8 


10—10 


I — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


29230 


9 


19—19—17 


150 


63 


8—7 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 



It now is well known that variation in the coloration of the 
snakes of this subspecies is very great. Certain types of colora- 
tion may be pointed out as occurring in groups of specimens. 
The best known of these color types, perhaps, is that in which 
the general color is dark olive, lateral lines absent, dorsal line 
yellow and very broad, throat bright yellow, and belly deep 
olive or slate with or without a median yellow streak. This is 
the coloration of the types of this subspecies, which types Cope 
redescribed as Eutcenia infernalis vidua. It is not a common 
style of coloration in this subspecies since we find it more or 
less well marked in only Nos. SR.21, S1654, S1655, S4322, 
S5180, SR.68, S1198, S4149, S4155, S1200, S1201, 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— CARTER-SNAKES 235 

S1202, S1203, S1204, S5183, SR.7, S4157, S6378, S6380, 
SR.69, SR.64, SR.65, SR.67, S6520, S5852, S4151, 
S4152, S4153, and S4307, or in twenty-nine of three hundred 
and sixty-three specimens, or 8%. All of these specimens are 
from the San Francisco peninsula, that is to say, from San 
Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Monterey counties. They, 
however, share this area with snakes of various other styles of 
coloration, and all sorts of intermediate specimens are to be 
found, so that this seems to be merely a peculiar color phase, 
although restricted geographically to a small portion of the 
range of the subspecies. 

In certain specimens the dorsal line is lacking, or very faint 
or short. This is found most frequently in specimens from 
Humboldt and Mendocino counties. 

Specimens from San Francisco and Marin counties usually 
may be recognized as such by their coloration, which is of a 
style not peculiar to these areas, but certainly most frequent 
there. There are three lines, the dorso-lateral region is largely 
red with dark spots, and the belly often is more or less sufifused 
with bright brick red. 

Perhaps the most frequent style of coloration is that which 
shows three light lines on a brown or olive ground, with the 
belly yellow or olive. But, as we have said, individual varia- 
tion in color is enormous. 

One specimen (No. C2452) contained a Bascanton vetustum. 
This is the only instance we recall of a snake having been eaten 
by Thamnophis. 



Thamnophis ordinoides elegans (Baird & Girard) 
Mountain Garter-Snake. 

Diagnosis. — Normally with eight supralabials ; twenty-one, 
or sometimes nineteen, rows of scales ; dorsal line very distinct, 
narrow ; dorsal spots lacking or not evident, being hidden by 
the dark ground color, not invading the edges of the dorsal 
line ; gastrosteges rarely marked with black or slate ; preocular 
almost always single ; infralabials very rarely more than ten. 

Type Locality. — El Dorado County, California. 



236 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Synonyms. — Tropidonotus trivittatus Hallowell, 1853; type 
locality Cosumnes River, California. Entania clegans hnmnea 
Cope, 1892; type locality Fort Bidwell, California. Eutania 
elegans lineolata Cope, 1892, (part) ; no type given. 

Range. — Thamnophis ordiiioidcs elegans, as here defined, 
is a mountain fomi which appears to be confined to the Sierra 
Nevada and San Bernardino mountains. In the Sierra Nevada 
it has been taken on both the east and west slopes. It seems 
not to occur at the lower levels. 

We have examined specimens from the following locali- 
ties: — 

1. Onion Valley, Inyo Co., California. 

2. Oroville, Butte Co., Cal. 

3. Strawberry Valley, Yuba Co., Cal. 

4. Soda Springs Station, Placer Co., Cal. 6,500 feet. 

5. Fyffe, El Dorado Co., Cal. 

6. Tuolumne Meadows, Tuolumne Co., Cal. 

7. Tuolumne Meadows, Yosemite National Park, Cal. 
at 8,600 feet. 

8. Tamarack Flat, Mariposa Co., Cal. 

9. Yosemite Valley, Mariposa Co., Cal. 

10. Yosemite National Park, Cal., at 7,700 feet. 

11. Kings River, Fresno Co.. Cal., at 5,000 feet. 

12. Sierra Nevada Mountains, Tulare Co., Cal. 

13. Little Truckee River, Sierraville, Sierra Co., Cal. 

14. Fallen Leaf Lake. El Dorado Co., Cal. 

15. Lake Tahoe, El Dorado Co., Cal. 

16. Tallac, El Dorado Co., Cal. 

17. Glenbrook, Douglas Co., Nevada. 

18. Farrington's, Mono Lake, Cal. 

19. San Bernardino Mountains, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

20. West Fork Deep Creek, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

Of the specimens from the San Bernardino Mountains, num- 
ber C761 is from Seven Oaks, altitude 5.000 feet; number 
C4316 is from Santa Ana Canyon, altitude 5,900 feet; number 
C758 is from the South Fork of the Santa Ana River, altitude 
6.200 feet; numbers C759, C965 and C966 are from Fish 
Creek, altitude 6,500 feet; number C760 is from Bear Lake, 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURCH AND SLEVIN— CARTER-SNAKES 237 

altitude 6,700 feet ; and number C967 is from the south side of 
Sugar Loaf, altitude 6,700 feet. 

Three of the specimens from Tulare County (Nos. C2810, 
C2811 and C2812) were collected at Jackass Meadow, at an 
altitude of 7,750 feet. The other specimen (C2813) was 
secured at Monache Meadow, altitude 8,000 feet. 

Material. — We have studied ninety-seven specimens from 
these localities. 

Variation. — These specimens show the following varia- 
tions : 

The loreal is 1—1 in all. The preoculars are 1—1 in eighty- 
nine, or 937c ; 1—2 in five, or 5% ; and 2—2 in two, or 2%. 
The postoculars are 3 — 3 in ninety-two, or 95% ; 3 — 4 in four, 
or 4% ; 2—3 in one, or 1%. The temporals are l-|-2— 1+2 in 
seventy-one, or 75%; H-2— 1+3 in sixteen, or 17%; 1+3— 
1+3 in seven, or 7%; and 1 + 1 — 1 + 1 in one, or 1%. The 
supralabials are 8—8 in ninety-one, or 94% ; 7—8 in two, or 
2% ; 8—9 in one, or 1% ; 9—9 in one, or 1% ; and 7—6 in one, 
or 1%. The infralabials are 10 — 10 in eighty-two, or 85%; 
9_10 in ten, or 10% ; 9—9 in two, or 2%> ; 8—10 in one, or 
1%; 10—11 in one, or 17o; and 11—11 in one, or 1%. The 
scale-rows are 19 — 19 — 17 in twenty-two, or 23%; all the 
others (777o) have 21 rows of scales, but the formula varies, 
being 19—21—19—17 in thirty, 21—19—17 in seventeen, 21 

21 17 in twelve, 19 — 21 — 17 in twelve, and 20 — 21 — 17 in 

two. The gastrosteges vary from 151 to 179, males having 
from 159 to 179, females from 151 to 175 ; the average in fifty 
males is 171, in forty-six females, 163.4. The urosteges vary 
from 70 to 101, males having from 78 to 101, females froin 70 
to 88, the average in forty males is 86.4, in thirty females, 78.5. 

This variation is shown in full in the following table of 
scale-counts. 



238 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



Scale counts in Thamnophis ordinoides elegans 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local. 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


ociilars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


C3717 


« 


19—19—17 


166 


27 + 


8—8 


9—10 


1— I 


3—3 


1 J 


1+2—1+2 


1 


C4002 


cf 


19—19—17 


169 


86c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J 1 


1+2—1+2 


2 


C40O3 


cf 


21—21—17 


176 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 J 


1+2—1+2 


2 


C4004 


cf 


19—19—17 


170 


86c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 I 


1+2—1+2 


2 


S6308 


<f 


19—21—19—17 


170 


85c 


8—8 


10—11 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


3 


C5345 


cf 


19—21—17 




87c 


—8 


10—10 


1—1 


i—3 


1 I 


1+2 


* 


S4370 


cf 


20—21—17—17 


i69 


84 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


S 


S4371 


S 


19—21—17—17 


157 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


I J 


1 +3—1 +2 


5 


S1664 


9 


19—19—17—17 


170 


35 + 


8—8 


9—9 


X— X 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


6 


C5905 


(f 


19—19—17—17 


174 


89c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J I 


1 +2—1 +2 


7 


C5907 


9 


19—19—17—17 


172 


64 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


7 


CS908 


d- 


19—19—17—17 


173 


90c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


7 


CS909 


d- 


19—19—17—17 


176 


91c 


8—8 


10—10 




J— 3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


7 


C59JO 


9 


19—19—17—17 


164 


77c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


j 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


7 


S4222 


<f 


19—21—19—17 


167 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


J 1 


1+2—1+2 


8 


SI 689 


tf 


19—19—17—17 


170 


90c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2—1+2 


9 


C6087 


9 


19—19—17—17 


167 


70c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


10 


C6265 


<f 


19—19—17—17 


174 


87c 


7—8 


8—10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


J I 


1+2—1+2 


11 


C6267 


d" 


19—19—17—17 


179 


101c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I J 


1+2 


U 


C6268 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


174 


88c 


7—6 


lO— 10 


1—1 


3—3 


J J 


1 +2—1 +2 


11 


C6269 


d" 


19—19—17—17 


163 


89c 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 J 


1 +2—1 +2 


U 


C6270 


d" 


19—19—17—17 


173 


87c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1—1 


3—3 


J I 


1+2—1+2 


11 


C6271 


d- 


19—21—19—17 


170 


92c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2—1+2 


11 


C6272 


9 


19—21—19—17 


168 


83c 


8—8 


lO— 10 


1—1 


3—3 


J 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


11 


C6273 


9 


19—21—19 — 17 


165 


76 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 J 


1 +2—1 +2 


11 


C6274 


d" 


19—19—17—17 


177 


90c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 J 


1 +2—1 +2 


11 


C627S 


d- 


19—19—17—17 


179 


81c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J I 


1+2—1+2 


11 


C2810 


d" 


19—21—17 


174 


84c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


>— 3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


12 


C2811 


d- 


21—21—17 


168 


84c 


8—8 


9—10 


1— I 


3—3 


1 I 


I +2—1 +2 


12 


C2812 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1-1 


3—3 


] 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


12 


C2813 


d' 


19—21—17 


168 


88c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J 1 


1+2—1+2 


12 


S6305 


9 


21—21—19—17 


168 


88c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I 1 


1+2—1+3 


13 


S5312 


d" 


19—19—19—17 


178 


56 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 I 


1 +2—1 +2 


U 


S5546 


9 


21—21—19—17 


168 


78c 


9—9 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


IS 


S6531 


9 


19—21—19—17 


165 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


S5533 


9 


19—21—19—17 


167 


78c 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


S6534 


9 


19—21—19—17 


164 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 J 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


S6535 


9 


19—21—19—17 


164 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 I 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


S6S36 


9 


19—21—19—17 


169 


89 + 


8—8 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J J 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


S6537 


d" 


19—21—19—17 


172 


59 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 I 


1 +2—1 +3 


16 


S5538 


9 


19—21—19—17 


169 


66 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +3 


16 


S6540 


9 


19—21—19—17 


169 


78c 


8—8 


11—11 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


16 


S6547 


d- 


19—21—19—17 


171 


88c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


J 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


S6S49 


9 


19—21—19—17 


164 


75 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J J 


1 +2—1 +3 


16 


S6550 


d- 


19—21—19—17 


170 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


] 1 


1+2—1+2 


16 


S6551 


d" 


19—21—19—17 


170 


89c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


S65SS 


d" 


19—19—19—17 


166 


42 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


J J 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


S55S6 


9 


19—21—19—17 


164 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J I 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


S6557 


d' 


19—21—19—17 


175 


95c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


S5552 


9 


19—21—19—17 


163 


88 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 I 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


S6573 


9 


19—21—19—17 


163 


82c 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


S6574 


9 


19—21—19—17 


165 


69 + 


8—9 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


I 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


16 


38000 


9 


19—21—19—17 


173 


87c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


17 


38001 


d" 


19—21—19—17 


168 


54 + 


8—8 


10—9 


1—1 


3—3 


J 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


17 


38002 


9 


19—21—19—17 


166 


84c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+1—1+1 


17 


C6084 


9 


19—21—19 — 17 


165 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J J 


1 +2—1 +2 


18 


S4379 


d' 


19—21—17—17 


165 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


S4380 


d- 


19 — 19—17—17 


162 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


S4381 


9 


21—21—19—17 


159 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


S4382 


9 


19—19—19—17 


159 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


S4383 


9 


19—21—19—17 


162 


"2c 


8—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 \ 


1+2—1+3 


19 


S4384 


d" 


19—21—17—17 


161 


84c 


8—8 


10—9 


1—1 


3—3 


J 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


19 


S4385 


d- 


19—21—17—17 


170 


80 + 


8—8 


ia-10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 \ 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


S4386 


9 


19—21—17—17 


165 


76c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J J 


1+2—1+3 


19 


S4387 


9 


19—21—19—17 


157 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


S4388 


9 


19-21-17—17 


158 


69 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


S4389 


d" 


19—21—17—17 


166 


88c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


S5218 


d" 


21—21—19—17 


161 


84c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—4 


\ I 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


S5219 


d- 


21—21—19—17 


159 


75 + 


8—7 


9—9 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


19 


S5220 


9 


21—21—19—17 


156 


72 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 I 


1+2—1+2 


19 


S5221 


d- 


21—21—19—17 


162 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


S5222 


d" 


21—21—19—17 


166 


86c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


J I 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


S5223 


d- 


21—21—19—17 


169 


84 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


19 


S5224 


9 


21—21—19—17 


162 


86 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


S5225 


d" 


21—21—19—17 


168 


80 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 

Scale counts in Thamnophis ordinoides elegans — Continued 



239 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


S5226 


cf 


21—21—19—17 


161 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


I 1 


3—3 


J 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


S5227 


d' 


21—21—19—17 


168 


86 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


S5228 


9 


19—21—19—17 


160 


33 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


19 


S5229 


9 


21—21—19—17 


151 


61 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


19 


S5230 


9 


21—21—19—17 


153 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


S5231 


cC 


21—21—19—17 


164 


84c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


19 


S5232 


9 


21—21—19—17 


155 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


I — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


C710 


cf 


21—21—17 


166 


84c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3—1+3 


19 


C711 


9 


20—21—17 


159 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


19 


C712 


d- 


21—21—17 


163 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


19 


C713 


9 


21—21—17 


159 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 2 


i—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


C758 


d- 


19—21—17 


168 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


C759 


9 


21—21—17 


175 


88c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3—1+2 


19 


C760 


9 


21—21—17 


157 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


C761 


9 


21—21—17 


161 


73c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — i 


1 +3—1 +3 


19 


C965 


cf 


19—21—17 


169 


86c 


8—8 


10—9 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


19 


C966 


9 


19—21—17 


164 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+3—1+2 


19 


C967 


(f 


21—21—17 


164 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — I 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


C958 


d' 


19—21—17 


164 


70 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


i—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


C969 


9 


21—21—17 


159 


29 + 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


i—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


C4316 


d 


21—21—17 


164 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


S5166 


9 


21— ?— 17 


165 


50 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +3 


20 



Remarks. — Thamnophis ordmoidcs elegans is a dark, dis- 
tinctly striped form with no, or but little, evident spotting, and 
usually without dark pigmentation of the gastrosteges. It is 
closely related to T. o. vagrans and to T. o. couchii, agrees 
closely with both in most scale characters, and, at certain 
points, intergrades with both. Thus, some of the specimens 
from the Warner Mountains, Modoc County, California, ap- 
proach the elegans type of coloration in varying degrees, while 
others are fairly typical of vagrans, under which heading they 
are listed. Apparently the type of Cope's Eutcenia elegans 
brunnea from Fort Bidwell, Modoc County, was such an in- 
termediate specimen. Certain specimens from the Yosemite 
Valley, Kings River, and Jackass Meadow, are more or less 
intermediate between T. o. elegans and T. o. couchii. A few 
of the specimens from the east slope of the Sierra Nevada also 
seem to be intergrades. However, the snakes from the higher 
altitudes in the Sierra Nevada seem to be constantly true to 
type. Those from the San Bernardino Mountains also show 
no departure from this type, although their range is in part 
overlapped by that of T. o. hammondii. No one could ques- 
tion the validity of this race as it occurs in these southern 
mountains, and the fact that intergrades between it and other 
races occur in the more northern portion of its range should 
not cause us to refuse it recognition. 



240 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES tPnoc. 4th Ser. 

We formerly confused this form and the striped race from 
the coast of California, describing both as T. elcgans. Al- 
though they are rather similar in appearance, they differ in a 
number of respects. The mountain form usually has twenty- 
one rows of scales, while the coast subspecies usually has nine- 
teen. The average number of gastrosteges in T. o. elegans also 
is greater, the dorsal line is narrower, and we have never seen 
any red in the coloration of T. o. elegans. Just where and how 
these two forms meet has yet to be worked out. So far as we 
now know the one is confined to the interior mountains and 
the other to the coast region. Between them lies the area 
occupied by T. o. coiicliii in the north and T. o. hammondii in 
the south. T. o. couchii and T. o. hammondii are mainly to be 
found in the Lower and Upper Sonoran zones while the striped 
snakes are more characteristic of the cooler zones of the moun- 
tains and coast. 



Thamnophis ordinoides vagrans (Baird & Girard) 
Wandering Garter-Snake. 

Diagnosis. — Normally with eight supralabials ; twenty-one 
rows of scales ; dorsal line distinct ; ground color light with 
distinct dorsal spots which invade the edges of the dorsal line ; 
gastrosteges marked with black or slate along their anterior 
edges and medially; preocular single. 

Type Locality. — California. 

Synonyms. — This race seems to have sensed as the basis of 
no other names. 

Range. — This subspecies, in typical form, is found over 
eastern Washington and Oregon, ranging thence east across 
Idaho to Utah, south across Nevada to eastern California in 
the vicinity of Mono Lake, and to northern Arizona, where it 
has been taken at Oak Creek, Fort Verde, Fort Whipple, San 
Francisco Mountains, Mineral Spring and Prescott. Typical 
specimens are at hand also from the San Pedro Martir Moun- 
tains in northern Lower California, Mexico. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIII 



I VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN | Plate 10 




'flhiiiiiiiipliis ordiiioUics z-aoniiis, \\'aii(kTing Garter-Snal'Ce : — Phntograph 
from living .specimen collected in Provo Canyon. Wasatch Mountains, 
Wasatch Connty. Utah, in June, 1913. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 24 1 

We have examined specimens from the following locali- 
ties : — 

1. Diamond Lake, Stevens Co., Washington. 

2. Prescott, Walla Walla Co., Wash. 

3. W^illula, ^^^^l!a Walla Co., Wash. 

4. Humpeg Falls, Columbia Co., Wash. 

5. Buck Creek, Lake Co., Oregon. 

6. Bridge Creek, Lake Co., Ore. 

7. Silver Creek, Harney Co., Ore. 

8. Burns, Silvies River, Harney Co., Ore. 

9. Umatilla, Umatilla Co., Ore. 
10. Wallowa, Wallowa Co., Ore. 

IL Mono Lake, Mono Co., California. 

12. Walker Lake, Mono Co., Cal. 

13. Winnemucca Lake, Washoe Co., Nevada. 

14. Pine Forest Mountains, Humboldt Co., Nev. 

15. Quinn River Crossing, Humboldt Co., Nev., at 4,100 
feet. 

16. Virgin Valley, Humboldt Co., Nev. 

17. Smoky Valley, Nye Co., Nev. 20 miles north of Round 
Mountain. 

18. Near Palisade, Eureka Co., Nev. 

19. Elko, Elko Co., Nev. 

20. Blue Lake, Twin Falls Co., Idaho. 

21. Wardner, Shoshone Co., Idaho. 

22. Potlatch Creek, 2 miles above mouth, near Lewiston, 
Nez Perce Co., Idaho. 

23. Clearwater River, 7 miles above Lewiston, Nez Perce 
Co., Idaho. 

24. Weiser, Washington Co., Idaho. 

25. Boise, Ada Co., Idaho. 

26. Payette Lake, Boise Co., Idaho. 

27. Near head of Malad River Canyon, Blaine Co., Idaho. 

28. Near Ketcham, Blaine Co., Idaho. 

29. Guyer Hot Springs, Blaine Co., Idaho. 

30. Near Shoshone Falls, Lincoln Co., Idaho. 

31. Plains south side Snake River near Salmon Falls, Twin 
Falls Co., Idaho. 

32. Cottonwood Creek, Cassia Co., Idaho. 

33. Arco, Blaine Co., Idaho. 



242 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

34. Fort Hall, Bingham Co., Idaho. 

35. Bear River, Logan, Cache Co., Utah. 

36. Woods Cross, Morgan Co., Utah. 

37. Oak Creek, Coconino Co., Arizona. 

38. San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California, 
Mexico. 

Material. — One hundred specimens have been included in 
the present study. 

Variation. — The variations shown by these specimens are as 
follows : 

The loreal is 1 — 1 in all specimens. Preoculars 1 — 1 in 
eighty-one, or 81% ; 2 — 2 in thirteen, or 13% ; 1 — 2 in five, or 
5% ; and 2 — 3 in one, or 1%. Postoculars are 3 — 3 in eighty- 
eight, or 887c ; 2—3 in four, or 4% ; 3 — 4 in four, or 4% ; 4 — 4 
in three, or 3% ; and 2 — 2 in one, or 1%. Temporals are \-\-2 
— 1-|-2 in sixty-seven, or 67% ; 1+2 — 1+3 in twenty, or 20% ; 
and 1+3 — 1+3 in thirteen, or 13%. The supralabials are 
8—8 in eighty-nine, or 89% ; 7—8 in eight, or 8% ; and 7—7 
in three, or 3%. The infralabials are 10 — 10 in eighty-six, or 
86% ; 9—10 in seven, or 7% ; 10—11 in four, or 4% ; 9—8 in 
one, or 1%; and 11 — 11 in one, or 1%. The scale-rows are 
21—21—17 in fifty-five, or 55%); 21—19—17 in thirty-three, 
or 33%; 19—21—19—17 in four, or A%; 19—21—17 in 
three, or 3% ; 19—19—17 in one, or 1% ; 20—21—19—17 in 
one, or 1% ; and 20—21—17-17 in one, or 1%. The gastro- 
steges vary in number from 148 to 182, males having from 
159 to 182, females from 148 to 177; the average in fifty-three 
males is 174.2, in forty-seven females, 169. The urosteges 
vary from 67 to 95, males having from 79 to 95, females from 
67 to 83 ; the average in forty-four males is 86, in thirty-five 
females, 76. 

This variation is shown in full in the following table of 
scale-counts. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN—GARTER-SNAKES 



243 









Scale counts in Thamnophis ordinoides vagrans 












Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


S2664 


9 


19—21—19—17 


163 


74c 


—8 




1—1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2—1+2 


1 


C5584 


cf 


21—21—19—17 


174 


S4c 


8—8 


io^io 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


2 


C5583 


d' 


21—21—19—17 


173 


89c 


7—7 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


3 


C5582 


9 


21—21—19—17 


172 


83c 


7—7 


10—10 


1—1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


3 


C5585 


d' 


21—21—19—17 


166 


85c 


7—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


4 


S6317 


9 


21—21—17—17 


172 


77c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


5 


S5261 


& 


21— 21— X— X 


X 


X 


8—8 


10—9 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3—1+3 


6 


S6502 


9 


21— 21— X— 17 


170 


71 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


6 


S6503 


d" 


21—21—17—17 


179 


85c 


8—7 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


6 


S6504 


9 


21—21—17—17 


172 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +3 


6 


S5234 


tf 


21—21—17—17 


175 


90c 


8—8 


9—8 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


7 


S6316 


9 


21—21—17—17 


172 


70 + 


8—7 


9—10 


1—1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


8 


SI 660 


9 


21—21—19—17 


166 


76c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


9 


S4063 


9 


19—21—17—17 


164 


75c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


10 


C6085 


9 


21—21—19—17 


166 


76c 


8—8 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


11 


C6086 


rf" 


19—19—17—17 


175 


79c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


11 


C6083 


<f 


19—21—19—17 


174 


92c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+3 


U 


C5958 


9 


21—21—19—17 


162 


52 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


12 


S6525 


9 


21—21—19—17 


166 


74c 


8—8 


11—11 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


13 


C1520 


9 


21—21—17 


176 


55 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1-1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+3 


14 


CJ521 


6' 


21—21—17 


178 


27 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


14 


C1522 


d" 


21—21—17 


182 


81c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


14 


C1523 


9 


21—21—17 


173 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


3—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


14 


C1524 


cf 


21—21—17 


177 


86c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


14 


C152S 


cf 


21—21—17 


180 


93c 


8-8 


lO— 10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


14 


C1517 


cf 


21—21—17 


178 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


15 


C1S18 


d' 


21—21—17 


179 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


15 


Ct519 


d' 


19—21—17 


178 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


4 — 4 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


15 


C1526 


9 


21—21—17 


175 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


15 


C1527 


9 


21—21—17 


171 


72c 


7—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


15 


C1271 


9 


21—21—17 


174 


81c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


16 


47995 


9 


21—19—17 


166 


68 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


17 


S6530 


9 


21—21—19—17 


177 


77 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


14 2—1+2 


18 


S6SS8 


9 


21—21—19—17 


175 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


I — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


18 


S6559 


d" 


21—21—21—17 


174 


73 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +3 


18 


S6565 


9 


20— 21— 19— 17 


173 


58 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


18 


S6S66 


9 


21—21—19—17 


171 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3—1+2 


18 


S6S67 


9 


21—21—19—17 


170 


75c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


-3—2 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


18 


S6568 


d" 


21—21—19—17 


173 


87c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


la 


S6S69 


d" 


21—21—21—17 


175 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


18 


S6570 


9 


21—21—21—17 


169 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


18 


S6572 


9 


21—21—21—17 


174 


78c 


8—8 


11—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


18 


37829 


d" 


21—21—17—17 


179 


51 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


37830 


9 


21—21—17—17 


171 


45 + 


8—8 


11—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


19 


37831 


d" 


21—21—17—17 


177 


88c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


19 


37832 


9 


21—19—17—17 


173 


77c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


19 


37833 


<? 


21—21—17—17 


177 


47 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3—1+2 


19 


37834 


9 


21—21—17—17 


161 


44 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1- — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


19 


37835 


d' 


21—21—17—17 


173 


88c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


!• — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


37836 


d" 


21—21—17—17 


176 


87c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1—1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


37837 


d 


21—21—17—17 


181 


8Sc 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


37838 


cf 


21—21—19—17 


179 


95c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3 — 3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


19 


37839 




21—21—17—17 


169 




8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


19 


37840 


cf 


21—21—19—17 


182 


88c' 


8—7 


10—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


40936 


d" 


21—21—17—17 


177 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3—1+3 


19 


40937 


d" 


21—21—17—17 


172 


80c 


8—8 


10—11 


1—1 


3—3 


1- — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


19 


40938 


d' 


21—21—17—17 


180 


86c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1- — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


40939 


9 


21—21—17—17 


174 


79c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1^1 


1+2—1+3 


19 


40940 


d' 


21—21—17—17 


179 


91c 


8—8 


10— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


19 


40941 


d' 


21—21—17—17 


177 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+3 


19 


40942 


d" 


21—21—17—17 


181 


86c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


40943 


d" 


21—21—17—17 


180 


89c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


19 


40944 


d" 


21—21—17—17 


177 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


19 


40945 


9 


21—21—17—17 


177 


66 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


19 


S2665 


9 


19—21—17—17 


160 


70c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


20 


S2665 


9 


21—21—17—17 


161 


71c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


20 


S2667 


d" 


19—21—19—17 


159 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


20 


S1658 


d" 


19—21—19—17 


166 


82 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


21 


S1661 


d' 


21—21—17—17 


157 


87c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


22 


S1659 


cf 


21—21—17—17 


172 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


23 


S1687 


d' 


20—21—17—17 


172 


89 + 


7—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


24 


SI 688 


d' 


21—21—19—17 


172 


91c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


24 


41364 


& 


21—21—19—17 


172 


68 + 


8—8 


lO— 10 


1—1 


- 3—2 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


25 


41365 


9 


21—21—19—17 


171 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1^1 


1 +3—1 +2 


2S 


43531 


9 


21—21—17—17 


169 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4—4 


1-1 


1+2—1+2 


25 



244 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 







Scale counts 


n Tha 


mnophis 


ordinoides vagrans^ContixmeA 












Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Ses 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


41576 


tf 


21—21—19—17 


170 


79 + 


8—8 


10—10 


J J 


3—3 


1 J 


1+2—1+2 


26 


41577 


cf 


21—21—17—17 


171 


79 + 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2-1+2 


26 


41578 


d' 


21—21—19—17 


167 


89c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


26 


41579 


9 


21—21—19—17 


167 


79c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


26 


S4066 


9 


21—21—17—17 


172 


86c 


8—8 


10—11 


1 — 1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


27 


S4067 


9 


21—21—19—17 


167 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


27 


S4060 


9 


21—21—17—17 


165 


71c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


28 


S4061 


cf 


21—21—17—17 


164 


87c 


8—8 


10—10 


2 2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+3—1+2 


28 


41582 


9 


21—21—19—17 


170 


77c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


29 


41583 


9 


21—21—19—17 


165 


77c 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1 +2—1 +2 


29 


S4055 


d" 


21—21—17—17 


170 


87c 


8—8 


10—10 


J 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


30 


S40S6 


9 


21—21—19—17 


172 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


30 


S4057 


0" 


21—21—17—17 


168 


84c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 I 




1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


30 


S4051 


0- 


21—21—21—17 


170 


88c 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


31 


S40S8 


d' 


21—21—17 


175 


9Ic 


8—8 


10—10 


1 J 


3—3 


\ 1 


1+3—1+3 


32 


S4054 


9 


21—21—17—17 


176 


75c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


I — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


33 


41271 


d" 


21—21—19—17 


174 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


34 


41272 


9 


21—21—19—17 


169 


71c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 J 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3—1 +2 


34 


41273 


d' 


21—21—19—17 


175 


90c 


8—8 


10—10 


1^1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


34 


41274 


9 


21—21—19—17 


175 


80c 


8—8 


10—9 


J I 


3—3 


\ 1 


1 +2—1 +3 


34 


S1779 


9 


21—21—19—17 


170 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


35 


40402 


9 


21—21—17—17 


168 


73c 


8—8 


9—10 


2 — -2 


3—3 


1 — ! 


1 +2—1 +2 


36 


35266 


9 


21—19—17 


148 


76c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 \ 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2—1 +2 


37 


S1721 


d- 


19—21—17 


160 


80c 


7—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


38 


S1722 


9 


21—19—17 


150 


67c 


8—7 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1+2 


38 



Remarks. — This subspecies remains remarkably true to its 
peculiar color characters throughout the vast area which con- 
stitutes the greater portion of its range. It is only along the 
western edge of this area that much variation occurs. Speci- 
mens from western Nevada and from eastern California vary 
towards T. o. biscutattis, T. o. couchii and T. o. elegans, so that 
it may be said that intergradation with all these forms occurs. 
Thus, specimens from Humboldt County, Nevada, frequently 
have two preoculars as in T. a. bisaitatiis, and certain speci- 
mens from near Lake Tahoe leave one in doubt as to whether 
they might best be referred to T. o. vagrans, T. o. couchii or 
even T. o. elegans. 

The two specimens from the San Pedro Martir Mountains 
in northern Lower California, which formerly were referred 
to T. hammondii, are very typical vagrans in coloration, but 
have low gastrostege counts. They constitute by far the most 
southern record for this subspecies and ofifer an interesting 
problem in distribution, for T. o. Z'agrans has never been taken 
in southern California. 

The snakes taken at Elko, Nevada, had been feeding on the 
larvae of Rana pipiens. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIII 



I VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1 Plate 11 




TIiiiiiiiKiphis ordiiwidcs bisculatus. Klamath Gartcr-Siiake : — Photograph 
from living specimen collected at Klamath Falls, Klamath County, Oregon, 
June 14. 191,S. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— CARTER-SNAKES 



245 



The specimens from the Pine Forest Mountains, Nevada, 
were collected at altitudes of 4300, 6000, 7800, and 8400 feet. 

Eleven specimens from the Warner Mountains, Modoc 
County, California, collected at altitudes of from 5000 to 7300 
feet on Parker Creek and Squaw Peak (Nos. C2164 to 
2179) have not been included in the analysis given above. 
No. 2164 has the coloration of nearly typical T. o. vagrans. 
The others show various degrees of approach to the coloration 
of T. 0. elcgans. No. C2166 is very close to the elegans style. 
No. C2168 is similar in coloration to the Klamath Falls snakes, 
but all of these Warner Mountain specimens have single pre- 
oculars. It is probable that the type of Cope's Eutcsnia elegans 
hriinnea, from Fort Bidwell, Modoc County, is such a speci- 
men. Scale-counts of the Warner Mountain specimens are as 
follows : 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 




Number 


Se» 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


C2164 


9 


21—21—17 


171 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


J J 


i—3 


1 J 


C2I65 


'f 


21—21—17 


176 


84 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


02 166 


o" 


21—21—17 


178 ■ 


94 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


C2167 


rC 


21—21—17 


188 


59 + 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


02 1 68 


9 


21—21—17 


171 


79 


8—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


02169 


9 


21—21—17 


172 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


02170 


W 


19—19—17 


175 


77 


8—7 




1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


02171 


rf" 


21—21—17 


177 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


1 \ 


3—3 


1 1 


02172 


9 


21—21 17 


171 


79 


8—8 


lO— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


02173 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


02179 


9 


21—21—17 


171 


81 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1—1 



Temporals 



1+2+3 
1+2+3 
1+2+3 
1+2+3 
1+2+3 
1+2+2 
1+2+2 
1+2+3 
1+2+3 



1 +2 +3- 
1+2+3- 
1+2+3- 
1 +3 +3- 
1+2+2- 
1 +2 +2- 
1+2+3- 
1+2+3- 



Thamnophis ordinoides biscutatus (Cope) 

Klamath Garter-Snake. 

Diagnosis. — Normally with eight supralabials ; twenty-one 
or twenty-three rows of scales ; dorsal line distinct ; dorsal spots 
invading edges of dorsal line but often not showing by reason 
of the dark ground color; often with dark markings on the 
gastrosteges ; usually more than one preocular. 

Type Locality. — Klamath Lake, Oregon. 

Synonyms. — It is probable that Yarrow's Eutcenia Henshawi 
from Fort Walla Walla, Washington, may have been based 
upon a specimen of this subspecies. Ruthven included these 
snakes under the name T. o. elegans. 



246 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. ■tiH Ser. 

Range. — This subspecies is or was exceedingly abundant 
about the Klamath lakes. Thence it ranges east to Goose Lake, 
Modoc County, California, west to Josephine County, Oregon, 
and Del Norte County, California. Farther north it occurs 
near Puget Sound, W'ashington, and in British Columbia. 

We have examined specimens from the following locali- 
ties: — 

1. Lillooet River Valley, British Columbia. 

2. San Juan Islands, San Juan Co., Washington. 

3. Rogue River, Grants Pass, Josephine Co., Oregon. 

4. South Fork, Coquille River, 20 miles above Myrtle Point, 
Coos Co., Ore. 

5. Gasquet, Del Norte Co., California. 

6. Klamath Falls, Klamath Co., Ore. 

7. Lower Klamath Lake, Siskiyou Co., Cal. 

8. Goose Lake, Modoc Co., Cal. 

9. Davis Creek, Modoc Co., Cal. 

Material. — More than two hundred and fifty specimens have 
been studied by us. 

Variation. — The variations shown by these specimens are as 
follows : 

The loreal is 1 — 1 in all specimens. Preoculars are 2 — 2 in 
one hundred and fifty-nine, or 63%; 1 — 2 in twenty-five, or 
10%; 1 — 1 in sixty-three, or 25%; and 2 — 3 in one. Post- 
oculars are 3 — 3 in two hundred and thirteen, or 80% ; 3 — 4 in 

twenty-six, or 10% ; 4 \ in five, or 2%' ; 2 — 3 in three, or 1% ; 

and 4 — 1 in one. Temporals are 14-2 — 1-|-2 in one hundred 
and ninety, or 77 Vc : 1+3 — H-3 in sixteen, or 6% ; l-|-2 — l-f-3 
in thirty-nine, or 15%. The supralabials are 8 — 8 in two hun- 
dred and thirty-two. or 92% ; 7 — 8 in eleven, or 4% ; and 7 — 7 
in four, or 1%. The infralabials are 10—10 in two hundred 
and twenty-two, or 88%; 9 — 10 in thirteen, or 5%; 9 — 9 in 
eight, or 3%; 10 — 11 in two, and 8 — 8 in one. The scale- 
rows are 21 — 21 — 17 in two hundred and sixteen, or 87%; 
21—19—17 in nine, or 3%o ; 21—23—17 in six, or 2%; 21— 
17_17 in three, or 1%; 19—17—17 in three, or 1%; 19— 
19—17 in two, 19—17—15 in two, 23—19—17 in two, 23— 
21 — 19 in one, 17 — 17 — 17 in one, and 20 — 21 — 17 in one. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— CARTER-SNAKES 



247 



The gastrosteges vary in number from 151 to 183, males hav- 
ing from 157 to 183, females from 151 to 176; the average in 
one hundred and twenty males is 171, in one hundred and 
twenty-three females, 166. The urosteges vary from 63 to 97, 
males having from 76 to 97, females from 63 to 91 ; the aver- 
age in one hundred and twelve males is 84, in one hundred and 
three females, 77. These variations are shown in full in the 
following table of scale-counts. 



Scale counts in Thamnophis ordinoides biscutatus (Cope) 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 








Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale row3 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


S5169 


^ 


19—17—15 


166 


86c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—2 


I 1 


1+2 


1+2 




85 172 


V 


21—17—17 


156 


71c 


8—8 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 




1+2 


1+3 




S5173 
S517S 
S6516 
S4059 


& 


21—19—17 
21—19—17 


169 


84 + 
31 + 
69c 
80c 


8—8 
8—8 
8—8 
8—8 


10—10 
10—10 
11—10 
10—10 


1—1 

2—2 


3—3 
3—3 
3—4 

4—3 


1—1 


1+2 

1 1 1 


1+2 
1+2 
1+3 
1+2 




9 


164 
158 




1 ? 




9 


23 — 21 — 19 




1 -to 

1 1 ? 


9 


21 — 19 — 17 


162 




1 i-J 




S4471 


cf 


19—17—17 


158 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2 


1+3 




S4473 


cf 


19—17—15 


157 


86c 


8—8 


8—8 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 


1+3 




S4474 


9 


17—17—17 


151 


77c 


8—8 


9—9 


1—1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1 1 ? 


1+3 




1 "t-J 




S4476 


9 


19—17—17 


156 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


» 1 ? 


1+2 




1 -|--> 


S4479 


9 


19—17—17 


159 


76c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 


1+3 




S4264 


cf 


21—19—17 


166 


S6c 


8—8 


10—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 


'+^ , , 




20161 


€' 


21—17 


170 


76 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20162 


d' 


21—21—17 


172 


89 


8—8 


10— 10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20163 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


79 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


4—3 


1 — 1 




1+3+3 


5 






20164 


cf 


21—21—17 


177 


91 


8—7 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20165 


d" 


21—21—17 


175 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3— 


1+3+3 


6 


20166 


d' 


21—21—17 


166 


23 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20167 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20168 


9 


21-21-17 


166 


44 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


4 — 4 


1 — 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20169 


9 




176 
164 


88 

77 


8—8 
8—8 


9—9 
10—10 


2—2 
2—2 


3—3 
3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+4— 
1+2+3— 


1+2+3 
1+2+3 


6 


20170 


2i— 17 


6 


20171 


9 


21—21—17 


163 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20172 


9 


21—23—17 


164 


78 


- 8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20173 


9 




172 
163 


76 
77 


8—8 
8—8 


9—9 
10—10 


2—2 
2—2 


l-l 


1—1 


1 +2 +3— 
1+2+3— 


1+2+3 
1+2+3 


6 


20174 


21—21—17 


6 


20175 


9 


19—19—17 


164 




7—7 


9—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2— 


1+2+2 


6 


20176 


cf 


21—21—17 


171 


73 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20177 


cf 


21—21—17 


168 


90 


7—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20178 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20179 


cf 


21—21—17 


175 


92 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 +3— 


1+2+4 


6 


20180 


cf 


21—21—17 


171 


63 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20181 


cf 


21—21—17 


171 


86 


8—8 


10— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


+2+3 


6 


20182 


cf 


21—21—17 


172 


91 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20183 


cf 


21—21—17 


175 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 +3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20185 


tf 


21—21—17 


172 


41 + 


8—8 


9—10 


2—3 


1—4 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20186 


<f 


21—21—17 


172 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 +2— 


1+2+3 


6 


20187 


d' 


21—21—17 


175 


88 


8—8 


9—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20189 
20190 




21—21—17 
21—21—17 


170 
173 


85 
79 


8—8 
8—8 


10—10 
10—10 


2—2 
2—2 


3—3 
3—3 


1—1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 
5 




1 -T^-VJ 






20191 


cf 


21—21—17 


173 


83 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20192 


cf 


21—21—17 


167 


92 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20193 


d- 


21—21—17 


171 


93 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20194 


d' 


21—21—17 


168 


86 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 +3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20195 


(f 


21—21—17 


169 


88 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +3 +3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20197 


d' 


21—21—17 


174 


95 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+3+3 


6 


20198 


d" 


21—21—17 


170 


88 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 




1+3 


6 


1 -r-' 




20199 


d' 


21—21—17 


172 


91 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20200 


d' 


21—21—17 


173 


75 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2— 


1+2+3 


6 


20201 


rf' 


21—21—17 


170 


86 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+3+3— 


1+3+3 


6 


20202 


d" 


21—21—17 


174 


93 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 +3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20203 


9 


21—21—17 


161 


77 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


4—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20204 


d' 


21—21—17 


175 


86 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 +3— 


1+2+3 


6 


20205 


9 


21—21—17 


163 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3— 


1+2+3 


6 



248 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se». 



Scale counts in Thamnophis ordinoides biscutatus (Cope) — Continued 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


20206 


c? 


21—21—17 


177 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20207 


tf 


21-21-17 


174 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+3+3 


6 


20208 


cf 


21—21—17 


172 


91 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+3 1+2 


6 


20209 


c? 


21—21—17 


173 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


i—i 


1 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20210 


tf 


21—21—17 


168 


86 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+3+3 


6 


20216 


cf 


21—21—17 


169 


93 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20217 


cf 


21—21—17 


165 


92 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20218 


d" 


21—21—17 


170 


92 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3-1+2+3 


6 


20219 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20220 


d" 


21—21—17 


173 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20221 


cf 


21—21—17 


168 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20222 


d" 


21—21—17 


171 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1^1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20223 


cf 


21—21—17 


169 


79 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20224 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


79 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


i—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20225 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


73 


8—8 


9—9 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20226 


tf 


21—21—17 


170 


91 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20227 


cf 


21—21—17 


168 


88 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20228 


9 


23—19 


169 


63 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20229 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


77 


8—8 


10— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20230 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


88 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20231 


9 




162 


86 


7 — 7 


9 10 


2 2 


3 3 




1+2+3—1+2+3 
1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 
6 


20232 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


79 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


20233 


<f 


?— 21— ? 


173 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


6 


20234 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


84 


8—8 


9—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20235 


9 


21—21—17 


163 


74 


8—8 


9—9 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20236 


9 


21—19—17 


161 


80 


8—8 




2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20237 


c? 


21—21—17 


175 


34 + 


8—8 


lO^lO 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20238 


d" 


21—21—17 


174 


85 


8—8 


10— 10 


2—2 


3 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20239 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


75 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+1—1+2+3 


6 


20240 


9 


21—21—17 


161 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20241 


9 
9 




176 
170 


91 

85 


8—? 
8—8 


10—10 
10—10 


i— i 


2—2 






6 


20242 


ii— 21— 17 


i +2 +3^1+2+3 


6 


20243 


& 


21—21—17 


175 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+3+3—1+3+3 


6 


20244 


c^ 


21—21—17 


180 


69 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+3+3 


6 


20245 




21 — 21 17 


168 
175 


74 + 
90 


8—7 
8—8 


9—10 
10—10 


2—2 
2—2 


i—i 
2—3 






6 
6 


20246 


21—21—17 


1 1 


1 -f-i -f-J 

1+2+3—1+2+3 


20247 


d" 


21—21—17 


171 


85 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20248 


d" 


21—21—17 


173 


92 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20249 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


72 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 I 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20250 


d" 


21—21—17 


172 


90 


8—8 


9—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20251 


d" 


21—21—17 


165 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20252 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


76 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+3+3 


6 


20253 


& 


21—23—17 


173 


94 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


4 — 4 


1 1 


1+3+3—1+2+3 


6 


20254 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20255 


d' 


21—21—17 


171 


84 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+3+4—1+2+3 


6 


20256 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


73 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+3+3—1+3+3 


6 


20257 


d' 


21—21—17 


174 


53 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


I— 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20258 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


58 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20259 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


81 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


i—i 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20260 


d" 


21—21—17 


173 


63 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+4—1+2+3 


6 


20261 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


84 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20262 


d" 


21—21—17 


169 


93 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20263 


d" 


21—21—17 


171 


88 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+3 


6 


20264 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


70 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2+3—1+3+4 


6 


20265 


d' 


21—21—17 


171 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20266 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


76 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


6 


20267 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


79 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 




1 1 


1+2+3—1+3+3 


6 


20268 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


79 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+4—1+3+3 


6 


20269 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


47 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1^1 


1 +3 +3—1 +2 +3 


6 


20270 


d' 


21—21—17 


173 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20271 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


81 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20272 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20273 


9 


21—21—17 


160 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20274 


d" 


21—21—17 


175 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20275 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


75 


8—8 


1&— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20276 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


77 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20277 


d- 


21—21—17 


171 


96 


7—7 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20278 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4—3 


1 — I 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20279 


d- 


21—21—17 


169 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


6 


20280 


d" 


21—21—17 


175 


89 


8—7 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+3+3 


6 


20281 


9 


21—21—17 


163 


75 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20282 


d" 


21—21—17 


174 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+3+3 


6 


20283 


d' 


21—21—17 


167 


84 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20284 


d" 


21—21—17 


173 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20285 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


76 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 



Vol. VIII] FAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 



249 







Scale counts in Thamno 


phis ordinoides biscutatus (Cope) 


— Contii 


lued 










Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


20286 


9 


21—21—17 


173 


81 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


6 


20287 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


86 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20288 


d- 


21—21—17 


173 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20289 


cf 


21—21—17 


169 


93 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+3+3 


6 


20290 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


6 


20291 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


79 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20292 


9 


21—21—17 


171 


93 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+3—1+2+3 


6 


20293 


c? 


21—21—17 


171 


97 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20294 


cf 


21—21—17 


172 


88 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20295 


9 


21—21—17 


162 


81 


8-8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20296 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+4—1+3+3 


6 


20297 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+3—1+2+3 


6 


20298 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+3+4 


6 


20299 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20300 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


7S 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20301 


d" 


21—21—17 


168 


96 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+3—1+2+3 


6 


20302 


9 


21—21—17 


172 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20303 


tf 


21—21—17 


172 


91 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+3—1+3+3 


6 


20304 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


83 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20305 


tf 


21—21—17 


178 


91 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1^1 


1+3+3^1+2+3 


6 


20306 


d" 


21—21—17 


173 


94 


7—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+3+3 


6 


20307 


d" 


21—21—17 


170 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20308 


d" 


21—21—17 


176 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20309 


d" 


21—21—17 


174 


92 


7—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1- — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20310 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+3+3 


6 


20311 


9 


21—21—17 


163 


75 


7—7 


10—9 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20312 


d' 


21—21—17 


172 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20313 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


63 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20314 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


84 


8—8 


10—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20315 


d' 


21—21—17 


173 


92 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20316 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


85 


8—8 


10—10 


2—3 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20317 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


70 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20318 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


76 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20319 


9 


21—21—17 


162 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20320 


d- 


21—19—17 


171 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20321 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20322 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20323 


d' 


21—21—17 


167 


92 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


« 


20324 


9 


21—21—17 


172 


73 


8—8 


10— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1^1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20325 


d" 


21—21—17 


172 


88 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20326 


9 


21—21—17 


163 


75 


8—8 


10— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20327 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


74 


8—9 


10—10 


2—2 


3—4 


1- — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20328 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20329 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


81 


8—8 


9—10 


2—2 


4 — 3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


6 


20330 


d' 


21—21—17 


176 


87 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20331 


d" 


21—21—17 


167 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


4 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


6 


20332 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


75 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


6 


20333 


d" 


21—23—17 


169 


90 


8—8 


lO— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20334 


d- 


21—21—17 


173 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20335 


9 


21—21—17 


160 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20336 


d' 


21—21—17 


166 


93 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20337 


d' 


21—21—17 


172 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20338 


<f 


21—21—17 


174 


94 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20339 


d" 


21—21—17 


171 


94 


8-8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20340 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+4—1+2+4 


6 


20341 


<f 


21—21—17 


170 


87 


8—8 


10— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20343 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+3 


6 


20344 


d' 


21—21—17 


169 


86 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20345 


if 


21—21—17 


170 


85 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+4—1+2+3 


6 


20346 


d- 


21—21—17 


171 


94 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


!■ — 1 


1+3+3—1+2+3 


6 


20347 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—4 


1- — 1 


1+2+4—1+2+3 


6 


20349 


d- 


21—21—17 


171 


93 


8—8 


10— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


d 


20350 


d" 


21—21—17 


174 


91 


8—8 


?— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3-1+2+1 


6 


20351 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


58 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1^1 


l+2+3-l+.i-)-i 


fr 


20352 


d- 


21—21—17 


168 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


y — 1 


1+2+3^1+2+3 


6- 


20353 


9 


21—21—17 


175 


60 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6' 


20354 


d" 


21—21—17 


174 


91 


8—8 


10— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 j 


1+3+3—1+2+3 


6' 


20355 


9 


21—21—17 


171 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1- — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6- 


20356 


9 


21—19—17 


171 


79 


8—8 


9—9 


2—2 


3—3 


\. J 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


fr 


20357 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


78 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1- — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+5 


6 


20358 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


79 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 J 


1+3+3—1+3+3 


6 


20359 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


76 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20360 


9 


21—17 


169 


70 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20361 


9 


21—21-17 


168 


66 


8—9 


10—10 


2—1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20362 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


43 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 



250 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [P«oc. 4th Ser. 

Scale counts in Thamnophis ordinoides biscutatus (Cope) — Continued 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labialj 


labials 


oculars 


ocuiars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


20363 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


74 


8—8 


9—10 


2—2 


3—4 


I I 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20364 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+3—1+3+3 


6 


20365 


d' 


21—21—17 


169 


57 + 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20366 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


82 


7—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20367 


d" 


21—21—17 


173 


88 


8—8 


10—9 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3-1+2+3 


6 


20368 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


82 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20369 


9 


21—21—17 


163 


79 


8-8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20370 


cf 


21—21—17 


177 


92 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20371 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


79 


8—8 


10— 10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20372 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


21 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+3 


6 


20373 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


75 


8—9 


10—10 


I — -1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20374 


9 


21—21—17 


162 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20375 


d- 


21—21—17 


171 


93 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20376 


d- 


21—21—17 


173 


91 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20377 


juv. 


21—17 


161 


79 


7—8 


10—10 


2 — -2 


i—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20378 




23—17 


161 


84 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+2 


6 


20379 




21 


171 


77 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20380 




23 


165 


75 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


4—4 


1—1 


1 +2 +3—1 +3 


6 


20381 




21—17 


172 


93 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


6 


20382 




21 


170 


90 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


6 


20383 




21—21—17 


166 


77 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 1 


4 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2 


6 


20384 




21—17 


173 


88 


8—7 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20385 




21—21—17 


163 


91 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


6 


20386 


9 


23 


165 


89 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20387 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


68 + 


7—8 


10—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20390 


& 


21—21—17 


170 


90 


8—8 


10—11 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+3—1+2+4 


6 


20391 


9 


21—21—17 


167 


81 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20392 


9 


21—21—17 


171 


40 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+4 


6 


20393 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


68 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


4 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20394 


9 


21—21—17 


171 


65 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20395 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20396 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


53 + 


8—8 


10—11 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 +3—1 +3 +3 


6 


20397 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


60 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+4—1+2+3 


6 


20398 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


19 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


4 — 3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


20399 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


75 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+4—1+3+4 


a 


20400 


9 


21—19—17 


162 


73 


8—7 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


6 


S1782 


cf 


23—19—17 


172 


86 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+2 


6 


S1783 


d" 


21—19—17 


172 


93c 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2 1+2 


6 


S1785 


9 


23—19—17 


168 


77c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+3 


6 


S4134 


9 


21—17—17 


165 


71 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2 2 


3—3 


1 1 


1+3 1+3 


6 


CS431 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


70 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


7 


C5432 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


69 + 


7—8 


10—10 


1 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


7 


C2147 


d' 


21—21—17 


177 


85 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


8 


C2149 


9 


19—19—17 
20—21—17 


173 
179 


82 
83 


8—8 
8—8 


10—10 
10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 
3—3 


1 — I 




8 


C2I52 


i+2+3— i+2+3 


8 


CZ153 


d' 


21—21—17 


183 


92 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2+3—1+2+3 


8 


C2158 


'■& 


21—21—17 


175 


91 


8—8 


9—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3+3—1+2+3 


8 


C2163 


;:9 


21—21—17 


171 


74 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 1 ? 


9 


1 -t-^ 



Remarks. — These snakes from the Klamath region are very 
similar to T. o. vagratis but the ground color of the dorso- 
lateral regions usually is much darker. For this reason the 
dark spots usually are inconspicuous. Occasional specimens 
show the spots very distinctly, and in most specimens they may 
be seen when looked for. These spots invade the dorsal line 
just as they do in typical T. o. vagrans. The chief point of 
distinction betw^een T. o. biscutatus and T. o. vagrans is the in- 
crease in the number of preoculars. Less than twenty-five per 
cent of the Klamath specimens do not show this increase on at 
least one side of the head, so that it must be regarded as a per- 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIII 



[VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN] Plate 12 




a. — Thamnopliis (irdiudklrs coinliii. Giant Garter-Siiake : — Plmtosraph 
from living specimen colkctcd at (iadwall, Mc-rccil Ciiunt\-. Californi.i. 
.May 12, 1918. 




b. — Thamnophis ordinoides couchii. Giant Garter-Snake: — Pliotograph 
from living specimen collected at Gadwall, Merced County, California, 
May 12, 1918. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 251 

fectly good subspecific character. A small number of the 
specimens also show an increased number of body scale-rows. 

Specimens from northwestern Nevada, as those from the 
Pine Forest Mountains, Virgin Valley, and Quinn River Cross- 
ing, in Humboldt County, appear to be intermediate between 
this form and true T. o. vagraus, the coloration being typical 
of the latter while a tendency toward an increase in the num- 
ber of preoculars is still present. These are listed with T. o. 
vagrans. 

In the region of Puget Sound snakes of the vagrans type, a 
majority of which have two preoculars, are again encountered. 
We can see no reason for not including them here. It seems 
best to include here also the snakes from Del Norte County, 
California, and from Josephine and Coos counties, Oregon, 
although the number of specimens from these localities is so 
small as to leave one in doubt as to the usual number of pre- 
oculars, and the coloration is more like that of T. o. couchii. 

Perhaps nowhere else in the world are snakes so abundant 
as near Klamath Falls. We counted a hundred and eighty on 
a small rock about a yard in diameter in Link River, and, at 
another point on the same river, caught fourteen with one grab 
with both hands.- They feed upon small fish and toads. Most 
of these snakes are of this subspecies, but a few are Thamno- 
phis sir talis infernalis. 



Thamnophis ordinoides couchii (Kennicott) 

Giant Garter-Snake. 

Diagnosis. — Nonnally with eight supralabials ; twenty-one 
rows of scales ; no red in coloration ; dorsal line absent or indis- 
tinct posteriorly, usually distinct on neck; usually some dark 
markings on gastrosteges, preocular usually single ; infralabials 
often more than ten. 

Type Locality. — Pitt River, California. 



"In June, 1918, some nine years later, they were not especially abundant here. 



252 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th See. 

Sy>wnynis. — No other names have been based upon indi- 
viduals of this race. Specimens have been referred sometimes 
to hammondii, sometimes to vagrans, or elcgans. 

Range. — This subspecies is the common water-snake of the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys of California from Shasta 
to Kern counties. It ranges west into Monterey County, where 
it has been taken in the valleys of the Carmel River and San 
Antonio and Nacimiento creeks. It ascends the valley of the 
Kern River to an altitude of some 6000 feet, and, doubtless, 
crosses through Walker Pass to the east side of the Sierra 
Nevada where it occurs in Owens Valley and about Pyramid 
Lake and Lake Tahoe. Its range lies chiefly in the Lower and 
Upper Sonoran zones. 

We have examined specimens from the following locali- 
ties : — 

\. Carmel Valley, Monterey Co., California. 

2. San Antonio Creek, near Mission San Antonio, Mon- 
terey Co., Cal. 

3. Nacimiento Creek, Monterey Co., Cal. 

4. Long's Ranch, Battle Creek, Shasta Co., Cal. 

5. Cottonwood, Shasta Co., Cal. 

6. Orland, Glenn Co., Cal. 

7. Stoney Creek, Glenn Co., Cal. 

8. Strawberry Valley, Yuba Co., Cal. 

9. Red Point, Placer Co., Cal. 

10. Fyffe, El Dorado Co., Cal. 

11. Riverton, El Dorado Co., Cal. 

12. Priest Hill, Tuolumne Co., Cal. 

13. Pleasant Valley, Mariposa Co., Cal. 

14. Yosemite Valley, Mariposa Co., Cal. 

15. Los Banos, Merced Co., Cal. 

16. Merced Co., Cal. 

17. Gadwall, Merced Co., Cal. 

18. Raymond, Madera Co., Cal., at 940 feet altitude. 

19. Hume, Fresno Co., Cal. 

20. Fresno, Fresno Co., Cal. 

21. Trout Meadows, Tulare Co., Cal. 

22. Little Kern River Lake, Tulare Co., Cal. 

23. Trout Creek, 6000 feet. Sierra Nevada, Tulare Co., Cal. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 253 

24. Cannell Meadows, Sierra Nevada, Tulare Co., Cal. 

25. Walkers Basin, Kern Co., Cal. 

26. Kern Ri\er, near Bodfish, Kern Co., Cal., at 2400 feet. 

27. Buena Vista Lake, Kern Co., Cal. 

28. Mt. Tallac, El Dorado Co., Cal. 

29. Fallen Leaf Lake, El Dorado Co., Cal. 

30. Fallen Leaf Lake, El Dorado Co., Cal. 

31. Tahoe City, Placer Co., Cal. 

32. Lake Tahoe, El Dorado Co., (?) Cal. 

33. Glenbrook, Douglas Co., Nevada. 

34. Wadsworth, Washoe Co., Nev. 

35. Pyramid Lake, Washoe Co., Nev. 

36. Owens Valley, Inyo Co., Cal. 

37. Laws, Inyo Co., Cal. 

Material. — Sixty-seven specimens from these thirty-seven 
localities have been included in this study. 

Variation. — Si.xty-five specimens show the following varia- 
tions : 

Loreal 1 — 1 in all specimens. Preocuiars 1 — 1 in fifty-two, 
or 81%; 2 — 2 in eleven, or 17%; and 1 — 2 in one, or 2%. 
Postoculars 3 — 3 in fifty-six, or 89% ; 2 — 3 in six, or 9% ; and 
2 — 2 in one, or 2%. Temporals l-f2 — 1-|-2 in thirty-eight, or 
60%; l-f3— 1+3 in thirteen, or 20%; 14-2—1+3 in eleven, 
or 17% ; and 1+3 — 1+4 in one, or 2%. The supralabials are 
8—8 in sixty-two, or 95% ; and 8—9 in three, or 5%. The in- 
fralabials are 10 — 10 in forty, or 61%; 11 — 11 in twelve, or 
18%) ; 9—10 in six, or 9% ; 10—11 in five, or 8% ; 11—9 in 
one, or 2% ; and 9 — 9 in one, or 2%. The scale-rows are 21 — 
19 — 17 in thirty-one, or 48%; 21 — 21 — 17 in twenty-four, or 
38%; 19—21—19—17 in six, or 9%; 19—19—17 in two, or 
3%; and 23 — 21 — 17 in two, or 3%. The gastrostegcs vary 
from 153 to 181, males having from 160 to 181, females from 
153 to 177; the average in twenty-two males is 172.3, in forty- 
three females, 167. The urosteges vary from 65 to 99, males 
having from 77 to 99, females from 65 to 88 ; the average in 
fourteen males is 88.4, in thirty-eight females, 81.7. 

This variation is shown in full in the following table of 
scale-counts. 



254 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 
Scale counts in Thamnophis ordinoides couchii 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local. 


Number 


Sen 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


S4273 


9 


21—21—19—17 


164 


68c 


8—9 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1—1 


1+2 1+2 


1 


S4326 


9 


21—21—17—17 


165 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


I J 


1+3 1+3 


1 


S6S13 


9 


21—21—19—17 


166 


73 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


J 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


2 


S6S18 


9 


21—21—19—17 


162 


68c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


J 1 


1+2 1+2 


3 


S6519 


9 


21—21—19—17 


156 


71c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 J 


1+2 1+2 


3 


S6708 


9 


21—21—19—17 


171 


75c 


8—8 


11—11 




3—3 


J J 


1+2 1+3 


4 


S4432 


9 


19—19—17—17 


160 


8Ic 


8—8 


10—10 


J 1 


2—2 


J J 


1 +3 1 +2 


5 


S4433 


cf 


19—21—19—17 


170 


84c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


I 1 


1+2 —1+2 


5 


S4431 


cf 


19—19—17—17 


162 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3 1+3 


6 


S4430 


t? 


19—21—19—17 


167 


75 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 I 


1+2 1+2 


7 


S6309 


<f 


21—21—19—17 


177 


89c 


8—8 


11—11 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+3 1+3 


8 


Si 805 


9 


21—21—17—17 


169 


79c 


8—8 


11—11 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 1 +3 


9 


S4169 


9 


21—21—17—17 


175 


77c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 — 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


10 


S4376 


9 


21—21—19—17 


163 


83c 


8—8 


11—11 


1 J 


3—3 


1 J 


1+2 1+2 


11 


S4377 


9 


21 — 21 — 17 — 17 


168 




8—8 
8—8 


10—10 
9—10 




3—3 
3—3 




t 1 7 111 


11 
11 


39636 


21—21—19—17 


179 


99c' 


J J 


1—1 


1 +3 — — 1 +3 


S4132 


9 


21—21—19—17 


167 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


12 


C5893 


d- 


21—21—19—17 


170 


68 + 


8—8 


10—10 


] 1 


3—3 


J 1 


1+2 1+2 


13 


CS898 


9 


21—21—19—17 


163 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — I 


3—2 


I 1 


1+2 1+2 


13 


C5899 


9 


21—21—19—17 


167 


72 + 


8—8 


11—11 


1 I 


3—3 


j: 1 


1+2 1+3 


13 


C5897 


d" 


21—21—19—17 


176 


37 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2—1+2 


14 


C5904 


9 


21—21—19—17 


174 


85c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+3 


14 


C5902 


(f 


21—21—19—17 


181 


97c 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


14 


13635 


9 


21—21—17 


155 


71c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


15 


13636 


<f 


21—21—17 


160 


77c 


8—8 


X— 9 


2 — 2 


3—3 


I j 


1+2 1+2 


15 


13637 


9 


23—21—17 


159 


68c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


15 


13638 


9 


21—21—17 


159 


70c 


8—8 


11—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


J 2 


1 +2- 1 +2 


15 


17999 


9 


21—21—17 


157 


41 + 


8—8 


9—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


15 


36071 


9 


21—21—17 


157 


6Sc 


8—8 


11—9 


I 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


15 


13640 


9 


21—21—17 


156 


71c 


8—8 


11—11 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 1 +3 


16 


CS428 


9 


21—21—17 


159 


68c 


8—8 


10—10 


J I 


3—3 


J 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


17 


C2753 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


81c 


8—8 


11— 11 


2 2 


3—3 


] J 


1 +3 1 +3 


18 


C6265 


9 


21—21—19—17 


176 


88c 


8—8 


10— 10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


I I 


1+3 1+2 


19 


S1753 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


20 


S17S4 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


81c 


8—8 


10—10 


2 2 


3—3 


I I 


1+2 1+2 


20 


S17S6 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


59 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 1 


3—3 


J I 


1+2 1+2 


20 


S4127 


cT 


21—21—17 


172 


94c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2— 1+2 


20 


S1755 


9 


21—19—17 


168 


78c 


8-8 


10—10 


J J 


3—3 


1 J 


1 +2 1 +2 


20 


Si 665 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


J J 


1 +3— 1— 


21 


SI 666 


9 


21—21—17 


174 


85c 


8—8 


11—11 


1 — 1 


3—3 


J 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


22 


C2808 


J' 


21—21—17 


175 


51 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


23 


C2809 


9 


21—21—17 


166 


84c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


23 


C2806 


& 


19—21—17 


170 


88c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


24 


C2807 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


84c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 1 


3—3 


J I 


1+2+2—1+2+1 


24 


C2800 


9 


21—21—17 


173 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


25 


C2799 


cf 


21—21—17 


172 


31 + 


8-8 


11—11 


J 1 


3—3 


J 1 


1+2+2—1+2+2 


26 


43256 


9 


21—21—19—17 


155 


75c 


8—8 


11—11 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 J 


1 +2 1 +2 


27 


43257 


cf 


21—21—19—17 


162 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


J 1 


3—3 


J 1 


1+2 1+2 


27 


43258 


9 


21—21—19—17 


158 


69c 


8—8 


11—10 


I — 2 


3—2 


1 I 


1 +2 1 +2 


27 


43259 


9 


23—21—19—17 


153 


72c 


8—8 


10—11 


J I 


3—3 


J 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


27 


43260 


d" 


21—21—19—17 


167 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


27 


S6675 


9 


21—21—17 


170 


85c 


8 — 8 


11—10 


2 2 


3—3 


J I 


1+2 1+2 


28 


S5313 


9 


21—21—19—17 


167 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


2 — 2 


3—3 


I 1 


1+3 1+3 


29 


36320 


d" 


21—21—17 


179 


98c 


8—8 


10—9 


2 — 2 


2—3 


1 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


29 


36321 


cf 


19—21—17 


174 


79c 


8—8 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+2 1+2 


29 


36322 


9 


21—21—17 


162 


84c 


8—8 


9—9 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1+3 1+2 


29 


36324 


9 


19—21—17 


166 


78c 


8—8 


10— 10 


1 1 


3—3 


I I 


1+2^—1+2 


29 


S6S60 


9 


21—21—19—17 


176 


44 + 


8—8 


11— u 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +3^^1 +2 


31 


S6S61 


9 


19—21—19—17 


170 


77 + 


8—9 


10—10 


1 — 1 


3—2 


J 1 


1 +3 1 +4 


31 


SI 595 


d' 


21—21—19—17 


177 


92c 


8—8 


11—10 


1 — 1 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +2 1 +2 


3i 


S6532 


9 


21—21—19—17 


166 


77c 


8—9 


10—10 


1 — 1 


2—3 


1 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


32 


37999 


9 


21—21—19—17 


171 


88c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +3 1 +3 


33 


S6563 


d" 


21—21—21—17 


176 


96c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +3 1 +2 


34 


S6564 


9 


21—21—21—17 


177 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 1 


1 +3—1 +3 


35 


C6684 


9 


21—21—19—17 


170 




8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


J 1 


I +2^—1 +2 


36 


C6685 


9 


21—19—17—17 


169 


83c' 


8—8 


10—11 


1—1 


2—2 


1 1 


I +2 1 +2 


37 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— CARTER-SNAKES 255 

Remarks. — Garter-snakes from the San Joaquin Valley and 
Lower Sierra Nevada have been referred usually to T. vagrans 
or T. hammondii. This has never been satisfactory, for, 
although the San Joaquin snakes resemble both these sub- 
species, they are not like typical specimens of either, but rather 
may be said to combine characters of both. Certain specimens 
resemble T. o. Iianuuoiidii rather closely, but the presence of a 
dorsal line on at least a portion of the neck will usually serve to 
distinguish them from that form. Sometimes the line is con- 
tinued along the back, but it often is very indistinct. The gas- 
trosteges seem to be somewhat more numerous than in T. o. 
hammondii, and a similar tendency is apparent in the infra- 
labials, which often are eleven instead of ten. On the other 
hand, two preoculars are found much less frequently than in 
T. 0. hammondii. Intergradation between these two subspecies 
is shown by certain specimens from the San Joaquin Valley, 
but seems to be individual rather than geographic. It doubt- 
less will become more evidently geographic when specimens are 
secured from the proper areas. 

The relationship of T. o. couchii to T. o. vagrans is still 
closer than to T. o. hammondii. This is shown by the charac- 
ter of the spotting adjacent to the dorsal line when present, the 
frequent occurrence of more or less dark pigment on the gas- 
trosteges, and the fact that in many of the specimens of T. o. 
couchii some indication of a dorsal line is present. 

In typical T. o. vagrans, as it occurs in Idaho, Utah and 
eastern Nevada, the dorsal line is well marked, the dorsal spots 
are very evident and invade the edges of the dorsal line, and the 
gastrosteges almost always are rather heavily pigmented. T. o. 
couchii differs from this type of coloration in the shortness or 
indistinctness of its dorsal line, which may be only a half-inch 
in length, in the less frequent and less extensive pigmentation 
of the gastrosteges, and in the absence, indefiniteness, or less 
characteristic arrangement of the dorsal spots. Intergradation 
between T. o. couchii and T. o. vagrans is to be looked for in 
western Nevada. 

The relationship between T. o. couchii and T. o. elegans also 
is very close. Typical T. o. elegans seems to occur only at 
considerable elevations in the Sierra Nevada and in the moun- 
tains of southern California. T. o. couchii occupies the lower 



256 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4ih Ser. 

levels, but extends its range up in the Sierra Nevada so far, at 
certain points, that it overlaps that of T. o. elegans, just as the 
range of T. o. hammondn overlaps that of T. o. elegans in the 
San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. But, while 
T. 0. hammondn and T. o. elegans seem to remain perfectly 
distinct and true to character at the places where their ranges 
meet, specimens showing intermediate characters are found at 
the points where T. o. couchii and T. o. elegans come in contact, 
as at Jackass Meadows, 7,750 feet, Tulare County, and in the 
Yosemite Valley. At other places, as at Fallen Leaf Lake, El 
Dorado County, and at Glenbrook, Nevada, snakes of both 
types have been taken but no intermediate specimens have been 
secured. 

One specimen had eaten a young blackbird. Another had 
caught a six-inch trout. 

Where conditions are favorable these snakes often attain 
enormous size. No. 43256 measures fifty-five and a half inches, 
of which twelve and a quarter inches represent the tail. No. 
43259 has the same measurement to anus, but the tail is 
one and a quarter inches shorter. These snakes were secured 
at Buena Vista Lake, where they live in patches of tules out in 
the lake and doubtless eat fish. Although they may be seen in 
considerable numbers sunning themselves on the broken-down 
tules, they are hard to shoot, for they are very shy and slide 
into the water at the least alarm. Several were seen which 
appeared to be larger than any secured by us. The largest 
specimens sometimes show no lateral lines or other markings. 
Specimens of similar size occur in the marshes near Los Banos. 



Thamnophis ordinoides hammondii (Kennicott) 

California Garter-Snake. 

Diagnosis. — Normally with eight supralabials ; twenty-one 
rows of scales; no red in coloration; no dorsal line; no black 
on gastrosteges ; often with two preoculars; infralabials rarely 
more than ten. 

Type Locality. — San Diego and Fort Tejon, California. 

Synonyms. — The only other name which has been based 
upon individuals of this race seems to be Tropidonotus digueti 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIII 



I VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1 Plate 13 




a. — 'I luiiuiui/^liis nrdiiii'idcs luiiii iihiiiJii . California Gartor-Siiake : — 
Pliotograpli fnim liviny .spocimen cnllccted at Los Angeles, California. 
Mav 13, 1915. 




b. — Thamiii'pliis Drdiiioidcs liaiunioiidi'. California Garter-Snake: — 
Photograph of living young specimen collected at Los Angeles, May 
13, 1915. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIH— GARTER-SNAKES 257 

Mocquard, 1899; type localities Mulege and San Ignacio, 
Lower California, Mexico. 

Range. — This subspecies is the common water-snake of 
southern California west of the deserts. Where streams run 
from the western mountains down onto the desert this snake 
may follow them for some distance, as, to Victorville on the 
Mohave River, and Palm Canyon at the eastern base of the San 
Jacinto Mountains. It ranges at least from sea level to an 
altitude of 8000 feet. The most northern locality from which 
we have seen a typical specimen is Oceano, San Luis Obispo 
County. It occurs also in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los An- 
geles, San Bernardino, Riverside and San Diego counties, and 
northwestern Lower California. Its range is chiefly in the 
Upper Sonoran Zone but extends into the Lower Sonoran and 
Transition zones. 

We have examined specimens from the following locali- 
ties : — 

L Oceano, San Luis Obispo Co., California. 

2. Santa Inez River, Santa Barbara Co., Cal. 

3. Santa Paula, Ventura Co., Cal. 

4. W^est Fork of San Gabriel River, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 

5. Pasadena, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 

6. Los Angeles, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 

7. Rock Creek, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 

8. San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

9. Victorville, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

10. Santa Ana Canyon, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

11. Santa Ana River, San Bernardino Mountains, San Ber- 
nardino Co., Cal. 

12. San Bernardino Mountains, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

13. Ontario, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

14. Chino, San Bernardino Co., Cal. 

15. Riverside, Riverside Co., Cal. 

16. San Jacinto Valley, Riverside Co., Cal. 

17. Keen Camp, Riverside Co., Cal. 

18. Hemet Lake, Riverside Co., Cal. 

19. Base of San Jacinto Mountains, near Cabazon, Riverside 
Co., Cal. 



258 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIESXES [Pmc. 4th Ser. 

20. Mouth of Palm Canyon, San Jacinto Mountains, River- 
side Co., Cal. 

21. Tahquitz Valley, 8000 feet, San Jacinto Mountains, 
Riverside Co., Cal. 

22. San Diego Co., Cal. 

23. Agua Caliente, San Diego Co., Cal. 

24. Oak Grove, San Diego Co., Cal. 

25. Near Carlsbad, San Diego Co., Cal. 

26. Santa Isabel Valley, San Diego Co., Cal. 

27. Witch Creek, San Diego Co., Cal. 

28. Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego Co., Cal. 

29. Sweet Water Dam, San Diego Co., Cal. 

30. Dulzura, San Diego Co., Cal. 

31. Campo, San Diego Co., Cal. 

Material. — Seventy-five specimens from these thirty-one lo- 
calities in California have been included in this study. 

Variation. — These specimens show the following variations : 

Loreal 1 — 1 in all specimens. Preoculars 2 — 2 in thirty-one, 
or 42% ; 1 — 1 in twenty-seven, or 367c ; 2 — 1 in thirteen, or 
18% ; 3 — 3 in two, or 3% ; and 2 — 3 in one, or 1%. Postocu- 
lars 3 — 3 in sixty-six, or 92% ; 3 — 4 in three, or 4% ; 4 — 4 in 
two, or 3% ; and 3 — 2 in one, or 1%. Temporals 1+2 — 1+2 in 
forty-two, or 56% ; 1+2—1+3 in twenty-one, or 28% ; 1+3— 
1+3 in twelve, or 16%. The supralabials are 8 — 8 in all ex- 
cept one specimen which has 8 — 9. The infralabials are 10 — 10 
in sixty-nine, or 92% ; 10 — 9 in three, or 4% ; 9 — 9 in two, or 
3% ; and 10 — 11 in one, or 1%. The scale-rows are 21 — 21 — 
17 in sixty-two, or 83% ; 21—19—17 in eleven, or 15% ; 19— 
21—17 in one, or 1%; and 19—19—17 in one. or 1%.. The 
gastrosteges vary from 156 to 173, males having from 163 to 
173, females from 156 to 171 ; the average in thirty-seven 
males is 168.1, in thirty-four females, 162.6. The urosteges 
vary from 67 to 88, males having from 69 to 88, females from 
67 to 82; the average in twenty-five males is 81.2, in twenty- 
one females, 73.1. 

This variation is shown in full in the following table of 
scale-counts. 



Vol. VIII] yAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 
Scale counts in Thamnophis ordinoides hammondii 



259 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 








Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


43368 


9 


19—21—19—17 


160 


58 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— I 


+3 


1 


C4319 


9 


19—19—17 


170 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1 


+2 


2 


S4190 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


75c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1 


+2 


3 


C4318 


cf 


21—21—17 


169 


83 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1 


+2 


4 


27812 


cT 


21—21-17 


168 


82c 


8—8 


9—10 


2—2 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1+2—1 


+2 


4 


C757 


9 


21—21—17 


168 


76 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3—1 


+3 


5 


40031 


9 


21-21-19-17 


160 


39 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2—1 


+3 


6 


40032 


9 


21—21—19—17 


167 


70c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


+3 


6 


S564S 


tf 


21—21—17 


164 


88c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


+3 


7 


S4395 


9 


21—21—17 


169 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


+2 


8 


S4396 


6' 


21—21—17 


169 


45 + 


8—8 


9—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


+2 


8 


S4397 


9 


21—21—17 


163 


67c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—2 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


+3 


8 


S4398 


9 


21—21—17 


161 


72 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2— 


+2 


8 


S4399 


& 


21—21—17 


169 


33 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


+2 


8 


S4400 


& 


21-21—17 


172 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


2—2 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


+2 


8 


S4401 


cf 


21—21—17 


170 


61 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


+2 


8 


S4402 


9 


21—21—17 


156 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


+2 


8 


S4403 


cT 


21—21—17 


169 


81c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


+2 


8 


S6307 


d" 


21—21—17 


171 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


+2 


8 


C766 


d" 


21—21—17 


178 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


+3 


9 


CS388 


d" 


21—21—17 


164 


83 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+3 


9 


42850 


9 


21—19—17 


171 


X 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


+3 


9 


S5165 


<? 


21—21—17 


169 


38 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


10 


C742 


9 


21—21—17 


159 


59 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


+2 


11 


C640 


d' 


21—21—17 


168 


85 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


+2 


11 


C709 


d" 


21—21—17 


170 


85 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


11 


S4390 


d" 


21—21—17 


168 


76 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


+2 


12 


S4391 


d" 


21—21—17 


166 


60 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — i 


1+2— 


1+2 


12 


S4392 


9 


21—21—17 


162 


39 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


+2 


12 


S4393 


cf 


21—21—17 


170 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


4—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


12 


S4394 


rf' 


21—21—17 


166 


49 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+3 


12 


S5241 


cf 


21—21—17 


164 


50 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—i 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


12 


S431S 


9 


21—21—17 


160 


62 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


13 


S4316 


9 


21—21—17 


158 


.72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


13 


S4317 


9 


21—21—17 


161 


71 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


4—4 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+2 


13 


S4318 


9 


21—21—17 


161 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


13 


S4324 


cf 


21-21—17 


167 


87c 


8—8 


lO— 10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


14 


SS5I6 


d" 


21— X— 17 


173 


84c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


I — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


IS 


S6306 


cf 


21—21—17 


170 


82 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


+3 


15 


S1141 


d" 


21—21—17 


167 


72 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+3 


16 


S1142 


9 


21—21—17 


160 


67c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+2 


16 


SU76 


d" 


21—21—17 


165 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


16 


SH78 


d» 


21—21—17 


168 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


16 


S1179 


d" 


21—21—17 


164 


66 + 


8—8 


9—9 


1—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


16 


81180 


d" 


21—20—19—17 


165 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


16 


S1181 


d" 


21—21—17 


172 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3- 


1+3 


16 


S1182 


9 


21—21—17 


162 


72c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+2 


16 


S1211 


cf 


21—21—17 


167 


78c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+3 


16 


S4321 


cf 


21—21—17 


172 


83c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


16 


42876 


9 


21—21—19—17 


160 


54 + 


8—9 


10—11 


1—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+2 


17 


43100 


9 


21-21—19—17 


165 


41 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+3 


18 


C138 


d" 


21—21—17 


163 


88 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+2— 


1+3 


19 


C226 


& 


21—21—17 


171 


50 + 


8—8 


10—10 


3—3 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+3 


19 


C244 


9 


21—21—17 


165 


73 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


20 


C5SS 


cf 


21—21—17 


168 


83 


8—8 


10—10 






1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


21 


S1143 


9 


21—21—17 


159 


69c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+3 


22 


S1144 


9 


21—21—17 


162 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


23 


S1212 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+2 


23 


S1183 


& 


21—21—17 


173 


75c 


8—8 


10—9 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


24 


S1185 


9 


21—21—17 


164 


82c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+3 


24 


SI 186 


9 


21—21—17 


161 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+2 


24 


S5598 


9 


21—21—17 


158 


62 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


24 


S5S99 


d" 


21—21—17 


169 


86c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+3 


24 


S1184 


cf 


21—21—17 


172 


83 + 


8—8 


9—10 


3—3 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


25 


S1187 


d" 


21—21—17 


166 


80c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


26 


C625 


9 


21—21—17 


163 


74 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


27 


C624 


9 


21—21—17 


162 


58 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


28 


13632 


cf 


21—21—17 


167 


69 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—3 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


29 


CI 002 


d" 


21—21—17 


170 


59 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+3 


30 


CI 007 


9 


21—21—17 


162 


71 


8—8 


10—10 


2—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+2 


30 


40105 


9 


21—21—19—17 


164 


43 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+3 


31 


40106 


9 


21—21—19—17 


160 


73c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+2 


31 


40107 


9 


21—21—19—17 


164 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+2 


31 


40108 


d" 


21—21—19—17 


169 


65 + 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+3— 


1+2 


31 


40109 


9 


21—21—19—17 


168 


39 + 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2— 


1+2 


31 



260 CALIFORS'IA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se». 

Remarks. — Thamnophis ordi)widcs hammondii is a well dif- 
ferentiated subspecies. The dorsal line is completely lacking in 
all specimens we have examined — even the youngest ones — 
which had been taken in southern California. Some specimens 
show a nuchal spot, but none even a short line. Specimens 
from this area also show little or no black on the belly. The 
name hanimondii often has been applied to snakes collected 
farther north, as in the San Joaquin Valley, and the Sierra 
Nevada. These northern snakes, however, almost invariably 
have at least some trace of a dorsal line, and often show more 
or less black on the belly scutes, as in vagrans. Their status is 
discussed in this paper under the name T. ordinoides couchii. 
T. 0. hammondii often (62%) has two preoculars on at least 
one side of the head, while T. o. couchii shows no such ten- 
dency. T. 0. hammondii, however, shows no tendency toward 
an increase in the number of infralabials, while T. o. couchii 
does. 

The specimens from San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara and 
Ventura counties are perfectly typical hammondii. The locali- 
ties where intergradation with couchii occurs cannot yet be de- 
fined. They are, doubtless, in southern Kern County. Indi- 
vidual variation, in a very few specimens from the San Joaquin 
Valley, almost bridges the space between the characters of 
typical couchii and hammondii. 

In the San Bernardino Mountains T. o. hammondii occurs 
with T. 0. elegans at altitudes of 5000 to 7000 feet. Here the 
two forms seem to remain true to type, for no intermediate 
specimens have been taken. T. o. elegans seems to be a moun- 
tain form while T. o. hammondii occupies the lower country as 
well as higher elevations. 

The snakes which formerly were recorded as T. hammondii 
from San Pedro Martir Mountains, on reexamination, prove to 
be typical T. o. vagrans. T. o. hammondii has been recorded 
by others from San Antonio and La Guilla, Lower California. 

So far as known the ranges of T. o. hammondii and T. 
marcianns do not meet. 

This snake feeds on tadpoles, frogs and fish. 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIII 



VAN DENBURGH & SLEVINJ Plate 14 




Thciinnot'his imiiciiimts. Marcy's (iartiT-Siiakc- : — Plioidgraph t'rtini livinsj 
specimen ( Xo. 35159) cnllccted at I'airliank?, Cochise County. .\ri/<ina. in 
August. 1912. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 261 

Thamnophis marcianus (Baird & Giiaid) 
Marcy's Garter-Snake. 

Diagnosis. — Normally with eight supralabials ; twenty-one 
(or more) rows of scales; dorsal line distinct; lateral line an- 
teriorly on scales of third row only; large, distinct dorsal dark 
spots and dark nnchal blotches ; light postoral crescents ; pre- 
ocular single ; infralabials often eleven. 

Type Locality. — Red River, Arkansas^Cache Creek, Okla- 
homa, according to Ruthven. 

Synonyms. — Eutcenia nigrolaicris Brown, 1889; type local- 
ity, Tucson, Arizona. 

Range. — This garter-snake seems to occupy territory near 
the United States and Mexican border from the Gulf of Mexico 
to the Colorado River, extending its range north through 
Texas to Oklahoma. The details of its distribution through 
this area are yet to be worked out. As regards Arizona, au- 
thentic specimens have been recorded from the vicinity of 
Tucson and Yuma. At Yuma it occurs on both banks of the 
Colorado River, and the westernmost limits of its known range 
are along the banks of this river from Yuma north to River- 
side Mountain in Riverside County. 

We have examined specimens of Thaiunopltis marcianus 
from the following localities : — 

1. Riverside Mountain, Colorado River, Riverside Co., Cali- 
fornia. 

2. Colorado River, 8 miles east from Picacho, Imperial Co., 
Cal. 

3. Fairbanks, Cochise Co., Arizona. 

4. Tucson, Pima Co., Ariz. 

5. Yuma, Yuma Co., Ariz. 

Ma^fn'a/.— Eight specimens from the above localities in 
California and Arizona have been studied by us. They, of 
course, are too few to show the limits of variation. Some data 
given by Ruthven are added to our own. 



262 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Paoc. 4th Ser. 



Variation. — The loreal is 1 — 1 in all our specimens. The 
preoculars are 1 — 1 in all. The postoculars are 3—3 in two, 
3 — 4 in two, and 4 — 4 in two. The temporals are 1+3 — 1+3 
in four, 1+2—1+2 in three, and 1+3—2+3 in one. The 
supralabials are 8 — 8 in twelve, 7—8 in one. The infralabials 
are 10 — 11 in four, and 10 — 10 in two. The scale-rows are 
21—19—17 in ten, 21—21—17 in one, 23—23—17 in one, 
and 21 — 26 in one. The gastrosteges vary in number from 
149 to 162, males having from 157 to 162, females from 149 
to 159; the average in six males is 160.5, in eight females, 
154.9. The urosteges vary from 63 to 79, males having from 
77 to 79, females from 63 to 67 ; the average in two males is 
78, in four females, 64.7. These variations are shown in full 
in the following table of scale-counts. 



Scale counts in Thamnophis marciantis 



Number 


Sex 


C1821 


ff 


C1828 


9 


3S1.W 


9 


3S298 


9 


35299 


rf 


35300 
S 


9 


S 

Ruthven 


'o" 


Ruthven 


rr" 


Ruthven 


9 


Ruthven 


9 


Ruthven 


9 


Ruthven 


r^ 


Ruthven 


rf 


Ruthven 


9 


Ruthven 


9 



Scale 



Gastro- 


IJro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Pos 






steges s 


teges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


162 


79c 


8—8 


10—11 


1—1 


3—3 


1 1 


155 


Wc 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


157 


■)7c 


8—8 


10—11 


1—1 


3—3 


1 — 1 


149 


54c 


8—8 


10—10 


1—1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


162 


77c 


8—8 


10—11 


1—1 


3—4 


1 — 1 


156 


55c 


8—8 


10—11 


1 — 1 


4—4 


1 — 1 


159 


VSc 


8—8 










159 


i4 + 


7—8 












160 




8—8 












160 




8—8 












156 




8—8 












159 




8—8 
8—8 












157 
















162 
















151 
















156 

















Temporals 



Local- 
ity 



21- 
23- 
21- 
21- 
21- 
21- 
21- 
21- 
21- 
21- 
21- 
21- 
21- 



-21—17 

-23—17 

-19—17 

-19—17 

-19—17 

-19—17 

■19—17 

■26 

■19—17 

-19—17 

■19—17 

■19—17 

-19—17 



1-1-2- H-2 
1 -1-3—1 -1-3 
1 -f 3— 1 -1-3 
1 -1-3—2 -1-3 
1 -1-2—1 +2 
1 +3—1 +3 
1 -1-3—1 +3 
1-1-2-1-1-2 



Rciiiarlcs. — Marcy's Garter-snake may usually be distin- 
guished at a glance by its postoral crescents and the position of 
its lateral line. The dorsal spots of certain specimens resemble 
those of certain specimens of T. o. vagrans, but usually are 
larger. The gastrosteges ordinarily lack the dark markings 
which are so constant in T. o. vagrans, but frequently are 
marked with black laterally. The posterior genials usually 
are longer than the anterior. 

Our specimens from Tucson were caught in mud puddles on 
the desert a mile or more from the river. 



.-V 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIII 



[VAN DENBURGH & SLEVINl Plate 15 




riuiiiniiithis inci^iilol^s, Me.xican Garter-Snako : — Pliotogranh from living 
spvciiiK-n ( Xo. 35161 ) ccilU'cicd at Fairljanks, Cochi-io County. Arizona, in 
Align,!. 1912. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 263 

Thamnophis megalops (Kennicott) 
Mexican Garter-Snake. 

Diagnosis. — Normally with eight supralabials ; twenty-one 
(or more) rows of scales: dorsal line distinct; lateral line in- 
volving scales of the third and fourth rows ; no light postoral 
crescents ; preocular single ; inf raiabials ten. 

Type Locality. — Tucson and Santa Magdalena, Arizona. 

Synonyms. — It appears that no other names have been based 
upon specimens of this species taken in the United States. 
Mexican specimens have served as the types of Etitcrnia mac- 
rostemma Kennicott, 1860; type locality. City of Mexico; 
Eutcenia flavilabris Cope, 1866; type locality, tableland or 
Southern Mountains of Mexico ; and Eutcenia insigniarum 
Cope, 1885 ; type locality, Chapultepec, Mexico. 

Range. — The range of this snake apparently extends over 
most of the Mexican plateau region and north into southern 
Arizona and New Mexico. In Arizona, authentic specimens 
have been taken near Tucson and Fairbank. The species has 
been recorded also from Yuma, and Fort Whipple, but these 
records need confirmation. 

We have examined specimens of Thamnophis megalops from 
the following localities : — 

1. Tucson, Pima Co., Arizona. 

2. Fairbanks, Cochise Co., Ariz. 

Material. — Only six specimens from these localities are avail- 
able. 

Variation. — The loreal is 1 — 1 in all. The preoculars are 
1 — 1 in all. The postoculars are 3 — 4 in three, 3 — 3 in two, 
and 4 — 4 in one. The temporals are 1+2 — 1+2 in three, 
1+3 — 1+3 in two, and 1+2 — 1+3 in one. The supralabials 
are 8 — 8 in four and 8 — 9 in two. The infralabials are 10 — 10 
in all six. The scale-rows are 21 — 19 — 17 in five, 21 — 23 — 
21 — 19 in one. The gastrosteges vary in number from 154 to 
162; the average in five females is 158.8. The urosteges vary 
from 72 to 77 ; the average in four females is 74.5. 



264 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se». 
Scale counts in Thamnophis megalops 







Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- Post- 






Local- 


Number S 


ex Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


33876 


9 21—19—17 


162 


75c 


8—8 


10—10 


1- 


-1 3—4 


1—1 


1 -1-3—1 4-3 




33877 


9 21—19—17 


154 


38 + 


8—9 


10—10 




-1 3—4 


1—1 


1 -1-2—1 -t-3 




33878 


9 21—19—17 


157 


74c 


8—8 


10—10 




-1 3—3 


1—1 


1+3-1-1-3 




351S8 


9 21—23—21—19 


159 


77c 


8—8 


10—10 




-1 3—4 


1—1 


1+2—1+2 




35160 


? 21—19—17 


161 




8—8 


10—10 




-1 3—3 


1—1 


1+2—1+2 




35161 


9 21—19—17 


162 


72c 


8—9 


10—10 




-1 4 — 4 


1—1 


1+2—1+2 






. 21—19—17 






8—8 


10—10 












Ruthven 


. 21—19—17 








10—10 
















21—19—17 








10—10 














Ruthven 


21—19—17 








10—10 
















. 21—19—17 








10—10 














Ruthven 


. 21—19—17 








10—10 
















. 21—19—17 








10—10 
















. 21—19—17 


... 






10—10 

























Remarks. — Our specimens from Tucson were caught close 
to the Santa Cruz River. No. 33876 was caught at about 4 
p. M. in a pool near a ditch. It was swimming several inches 
below the surface of the water, seemingly in pursuit of small 
fish which were very numerous in the pool. The snake soon 
coiled up under some brush at the edge of the pool, and there 
we captured it. On the morning of March 30, 1912, we were 
walking along the banks of the Santa Cruz River hunting frogs 
when we heard a cry similar to that of a young kitten. As we 
drew nearer indistinct though loud croaking sounds could be 
heard at intervals interspersed with the kitten-like cries. Soon 
we discovered a garter-snake (No. 33877) of this species 
coiled up on shore a couple of feet from the edge of the water 
holding in its jaws a Ra)ia pipicns which it had seized by one 
hind leg and which was crying lustily. When we approached 
still closer, the snake dropped the frog and both made for the 
water, which the frog succeeded in reaching. 



Thamnophis angustirostris (Kennicott) 
Brown-spotted Garter-Snake. 



Diagnosis. — Normally with eight supralabials ; scales in 
twenty-one rows; dorsal line absent; dorsal spots numerous, 
prominent; lateral lines showing faintly on second and third 
rows of scales, or absent; no postoral crescents; usually two 
preoculars ; infralabials usually ten, often nine. 

Type Locality. — Parras, Coahuila, Mexico. 



Vol. VIII] I'AN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— CARTER-SNAKES 



265 



Synonyms. — Chilopoma rufopunctatum Cope, 1875; type 
locality "Southern Arizona." Atomarchus multimaculatus 
Cope, 1883; type locality San Francisco River. 

Range.— Th.\5 species occurs in the northern part of the 
Mexican plateau south to Coahuila and Durango and north to 
portions of southwestern New Mexico and southern and cen- 
tral Arizona. The original Arizonan specimen was labeled 
merely "Southern Arizona," and no definite locality in that 
state was recorded until our specimens were secured at 

1. Oak Creek, Coconino County, Arizona. 

Material. — We have eighteen snakes of this species from 
the above locality. 

Variation. — The loreals are 1 — 1 in seventeen and 1 — 2 in 
one. The preoculars are 2 — 2 in sixteen, or 89% ; 2 — 3 in 
two, or 117o. The postoculars are 3 — 3 in ten, or 56%; and 
3 — 4 in eight, or 44%. The temporals are 1 + 1 — 1 + 1 in nine, 
or 50% ; 1 + 1—1+2 in eight, or 44% ; and 1+2—2+2 in one, 
or 6%. The supralabials are 8 — 8 in thirteen, or 72% ; 7 — 8 in 
two, or 11% ; 8 — 9 in two, or 11% ; and 7 — 7 in one, or 6%. 
The infralabials are 10 — 10 in nine, or 53% ; 9 — 10 in four, or 
24% ; and 9 — 9 in four, or 24%i. The scale-rows are 21 — 19 — 
17 in all. The gastrosteges vary in number from 161 to 177, 
males having from 165 to 177, females from 161 to 170; the 
average in eleven males is 171.3, in seven females, 164.9. The 
urosteges vary from 69 to 87, males having from 80 to 87, 
females from 69 to 82 ; the average in eleven males is 84.2, in 
seven females, 73.9. These variations are shown in full in the 
following table of scale-counts. 









Gastro- 


Uro- 


Supra- 


Infra- 


Pre- 


Post- 






Local- 


Number 


Sex 


Scale rows 


steges 


steges 


labials 


labials 


oculars 


oculars 


Loreals 


Temporals 


ity 


35238 


cf" 


21—19—17 


175 


85 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 I 


1+1 1+1 




33239 


9 


21—19—17 


165 


69 


8—8 


9—9 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+1 




35240 


9 


21—19—17 


170 


82 


8—7 


9—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+1 




35241 


(f 


21—19—17 


170 


84 


8—9 


9—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+1 




35242 


9 


21—19—17 


166 


72 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+1 




35243 


9 


21—19—17 


165 


75 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+1 




35244 


d' 


21—19—17 


177 


87 


8—8 


9—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2 




35245 


<? 


21—19—17 


171 


85 


8—8 


10— X 


3—2 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2 




35246 


9 


21—19—17 


166 


73 


8—9 


9—10 


2—2 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2 




35247 


d- 


21—19—17 


172 


80 


8—8 


10— 10 


2—2 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+1 




35248 


9 


21—19—17 


161 


72 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+1 




35249 


d- 


21—19—17 


172 


83 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—4 


1 — 1 


2+2 1+2 




35250 


& 


21—19—17 


173 


86 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — I 


1+1 1+1 




35251 


d' 


21—19—17 


176 


87 


8—7 


9—9 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+2 




35252 


d" 


21—19—17 


167 


80 


8—8 


10—10 


2—2 


3—4 


I — 1 


1+1 1+2 




35253 


d" 


21—19—17 


165 


83 


8—8 


10—10 


2—3 


3—4 


1 — 1 


1+2 1+1 




35254 


d" 


21—19—17 


166 


86 


7—7 


9—9 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1 + 1 




35255 


9 


21—19—17 


161 


74 


8—8 


9—9 


2—2 


3—3 


1 — 1 


1+1 1+1 





266 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 

Remarks. — No. 35248 has the anal divided. The posterior 
genials are either equal to or longer than the anterior. 

Oak Creek is a mountain stream running through a deep 
canyon with many oak trees. Perhaps a thousand feet above 
the stream is the pine forest of the plateau of central Arizona. 
These snakes were found in the stream, either on rocks or in 
the water. Their general appearance is very different from 
that of most garter-snakes. The absence of lines, the heavy 
spotting, and the long, narrow head are not suggestive of 
Thamnophis. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES Kyi 

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Grinnell, Joseph. 

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Vol. VIII] VAN DENBURGH AND SLEVIN— GARTER-SNAKES 269 

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270 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pioc. 4th Se«. 

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National Museum. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VI, pp. 1S2-154. 



7^ 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIII 



[VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN] Plate 16 





Map showing the distribution of the garter-snakes of the sirtalis group in the states west of the Rocky Mountains. 



Round spots indicate T. sirtalis conciimiis 
Squares infernalis 



Triangles indicate T. sirtalis parietalis 



PROC. CAL. ACAD. SCI., 4th Series, Vol. VIM 



I VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN ] Plate 17 




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Map showing the distribution of garter-snakes, chiefly of the eUgans group, in the states west of the Rocky Mountains. 
Crescents indicate T. o. ordinoidM Half squares indicate T. o. fowdiii" 

Round marks " " " „„„,„, Squares " " " hammondii 

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Triangles ■■ -^ || ,;ag™«i T. " T. angusliroslris 

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PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. VIII, No. 7, pp. 271-308 October 18, 1918 



NEW SPECIES OF HEMIPTERA CHIEFLY FROM 
CALIFORNIA 

BY EDWARD P. VAN DUZEE 
Curator, Department of Entomology 

Of the 39 species described in this paper 26 were taken dur- 
ing my field work in southern California in May and June, 
1917. The principal places visited were Coachella, a little 
north of the Salton Sea, having a depression of 76 feet below 
sea level; Palm Springs at the northwestern edge of the desert 
near the foot of the San Jacinto Mountains, with an elevation 
of about 425 feet above sea level ; Soboba Springs in the San 
Jacinto Mountains near the town of San Jacinto, with an eleva- 
tion of about 2,000 feet; Keen Camp in the San Jacinto Moun- 
tains at an elevation of 4,800 feet, with excursions on Mt. 
Tahquitz to 8,000 feet, and Colton, in San Bernardino County, 
with an elevation of about 800 feet. Unless otherwise stated, 
all localities are in California and all specimens from Califor- 
nia were taken by myself. 

1. Trichopepla vandykei, new species 

Narrower and more clearly marked than scmivittata with a 
shorter head. Length 7— 8i% mm. 

Head scarcely longer than its width across the eyes, less narrowed at tip 
than in scmivittata, with the sides more abruptly arcuated there. Second 
antennal segment scarcely longer than the third, sometimes obviously 
shorter, in semivittata usually a little longer. Rostrum not surpassing the 

October 18. 1918 



272 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

hind coxae, in semivittata usually reaching on to the second ventral seg- 
ment ; both species having the basal segment longer than the bucculas. 
Carinate margins of the pronotum regularly but feebly arcuated ; in semi- 
vittata straight or feebly sinuated at the middle. Upper surface smoother 
with more regular and shallower punctures than in the allied species. 
Genital segment of the male short as in sciniznttata, but with its apical 
margin roundedly excavated, its basal angles scarcely notched. Claspers 
with the ventral angle produced outwardly in an acute rounded hook which 
almost conceals the rounded apex when viewed from below. 

Color pale yellowish testaceous, marked with areas of black punctures as 
follows : a band on either margin of head before the eye superiorly and a 
broader one inferiorly: a broad vitta down either side of the pale median 
line, expanded so as to cover most of posterior disk of vertex, and four 
well defined rays on anterior half of pronotum. Basal half of scutcllum 
polished black, crossed by three conspicuous pale calloused vittre. Beneath 
with a fuscous or black cloud on side of pro- and meta-pleurs, and some 
faint clouds on mesopleurae. Venter pale, with indications of lateral vittse 
in the female, the male claspers lineate with black. Punctures on pale 
portions of upper surface more or less infuscated. Membrane uniformly 
whitish in male, faintlv fuliginous in female. Legs pale, immaculate except 
for a darkening on tips of tarsi. Hairy vestiture long, soft and pale as m 
semivittata. 

Described from one male and two female examples taken in 
San Francisco, September 16, 1906. by Dr. Edwin C. Van 
Dyke, after wbom the species is named. So far as known to 
me, this is the most clearly marked of all our species of Tr'icho- 
pcpla. It may become more suffused under other conditions. 

Holotype (No. 383), male, allotype (No. 384), female, and 
paratype, in collection of the California Academy of Sciences. 



2. Trichopepla califomica, new species 

Aspect of atricornis but with a shorter head and a maculated 
connexivum. Length 6>^ to 8 mm. 

Head distinctly shorter than its width across the eyes; broadly rounded 
or truncated at apex, the sides parallel or nearly so for a space before the 
ante-ocular sinus. Third antennal segment not longer than second. Sides 
of pronotum almost rectilinear for a space at the middle, moderately ex- 
panded as in semivittata. Upper surface deeply punctured with black, the 
ray-like markings much obscured. Male genital segment trisinuately ex- 
cavated, with its lateral angles strongly notched. Claspers obliquely pro- 
duced at ape.x as in semii-ittata. with their ventral angle produced in an 
acute, incurved hook as in vaiidykei. Rostrum short, scarcely exceeding the 
intermediate coxae. 

Color as in semivittata but with the ray-like markings more obscured by 
large black punctures. The carinate pronotal margins seem always to be 
pale and usually the median line of the pronotum and the three calloused 
vitts of the scutellum are conspicuous. Beneath the sternum is black and 
there is a black lateral vitta on the pleura and sides of the venter, the latter 
placed halfway to median line. Male with disk of venter mostly black. 
Legs testaceous-brown or more or less infuscated. Antennae nearly black, 
connexivum about equally alternated with pale and black. Membrane quite 
deeply infuscated. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DUZEE—NEW SPECIES HEMIPTBRA 273 

Described from four male and 15 female examples repre- 
senting the following localities: Mt. Tallac, Calif., 8,500 feet, 
July 17, 1915, numbers taken running on the ground on a 
sloping alpine meadow, by Dr. E. C. Van Dyke and myself; 
Paradise Park, Mt. Rainier, Wash., 6,000 feet, July 14, 1906, 
Dr. E. C. Van Dyke; Prairie Hills, B. C, July, 1908, Selkirk 
Mountains, B. C, July, 1908, and Sisson, Calif., August 19, 
1908, Dr. J. C. Bradley; Moscow, Idaho; Sierra Madre Moun- 
tains, Mexico, September. 

This species ma}' be recognized by the short, blunt head, the 
short rostrum, the obscured coloration, and the black vitta on 
either side of the venter. 

Holotype (No. 385), male, and allotype (No. 386), female, 
from Mt. Tallac, in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences. Paratypcs in the collections of the California Acad- 
emy of Sciences and in that of the author. 



3. Trichopepla aurora, new species 

Aspect of a large sciiihnttata but with a somewhat shorter 
head and rounded, calloused pronotal margins. Length 8/4 to 
9 mm. 

Head as long as its width across the eyes ; narrowed from the ante- 
ocular sinus, with rounded apex. Second antennal segment distinctly 
longer than third. Rostrum just passing the intermediate coxae. Surface 
above coarsely, irregularly punctured with fuscous and black ; connexivum 
alternated. Membrane infuscated. Genital se.gment of male broad, its 
apical margin shallowly, trisinuately excavated ; claspers very broad, 
truncate, their apical margins rectilinear, not showing beyond the acutely 
produced ventral angle. 

Color as in semivittata, well obscured by black punctures; ray-like mark- 
ings of head and anterior lobe of pronotum distinct, those on base of 
scutellum mostly represented by three pale calloused spots. Calloused sides 
of the pronotum pale, not at all elevated but rounding over in conformity 
with the adjoining surface. Black alternations on the connexivum weak- 
ened by pale interpunctural spaces. Venter showing faint indications of six 
longitudinal darker vittffi. Antennae mostly black. Legs pale, more or less 
obscured by minute blackish punctures. 

Described from three males taken in El Dorado County, 
Calif., June 20, 1915, by F. W. Nunenmacher, one female 
taken by me at Ross Valley, Marin County, Calif.. April 28, 
1918, and one female from Gallatin County, Mont., taken June 
22, 1900, at an elevation of 7,000 feet, by E. Koch. The 



274 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

ecarinate sides of the pronotum and very broad male claspers 
will distinguish this species. 

Holotype (No. 387), male, from El Dorado County, in col- 
lection of the California Academy of Sciences. 

Allotype (No. 388), female, from Ross, Calif., in collection 
of the California Academy of Sciences. 

Paratypes in both collections and in that of Mr. L. R. 
Reynolds. 

4. Trichopepla grossa, new species 

Aspect of a Carpncoris but with the longer and more atten- 
uated odoriferous canal of Trichopepla. More uniform in 
color than our other species of Trichopepla, the radiating vittse 
conspicuous only on head and anterior field of pronotum. 
Length 9 to 10 mm. 

Head nearly vertical, as long as its width across the eyes, narrowing 
anterior to the ante-ocular sinus; cheeks slightly surpassing the tylus. 
Second antennal segment longer than third. Rostrum attaining the inter- 
mediate coxas. Carinate sides of pronotum calloused but scarcely reflexed, 
continuing the slope of the pronotal surface. Male genital segment feebly, 
trisinuately excavated at apex. Claspers broad, truncate, their ventral 
angle produced outwardly in a sharp bent tooth. Membrane fuliginous. 
Upper surface regularly deeply punctured. 

-Color yellowish testaceous, fusco-punctate, the punctures concolor- 
ous beneath and on apex of scutellum. Fuscous ray-like vittse dis- 
tinct anteriorly, fading out toward middle of pronotum. Antennae black 
with the first and base of second segment pale. Legs pale or obscurely 
punctate. Connexivum black, broadly margined with pale. One male is 
almost entirely black with the apex of the scutellum and the connexivum 
pale, the legs strongly punctured with black and the pleurae with lateral 
vittae of black punctures. 

Described from two males and two females. One black 
male from Julietta, Idaho, and two females from Moscow and 
Market Lake, Idaho, were received from Prof. J. M. Aldrich. 
The other male was taken at Castella, Calif., by Mr. J. A. 
Kusche, July, 1912. 

Holotype (No. 389), male, from Castella, Calif., in collec- 
tion of the California Academy of Sciences. 

Allotype, female, from Moscow, Idaho, and paratypes in 
collection of the author. 

The following table will distinguish the species of Tricho- 
pepla known to me : 



Vol. VIII] yAN DUZEE—NEIV SPECIES HEMIPTERA 275 

Sides of pronotiim carinate, sometimes quite broadly reflexed 1 

Sides of pronotum calloused, ecarinate, continuing the slope of the disk 4 

1. Head longer than width across the eyes, apex narrower and more 

produced ; sides approaching before the ante-ocular sinus ; rostrum 

at least attaining apex of hind coxre 2 

-. Head not longer than width across the eyes, rounded at apex with 
the sides parallel for a space before the ante-ocular sinus; rostrum 
not surpassing the base of the hind coxae 3 

2. Head distinctly longer than width across the eyes; apex narrow, 

parabolic, but little arcuated; second antennal segment obviously 
longer than third ; membrane infuscated ; posterior disk of pro- 
notum coarsely irregularly punctured, male genital segment tri- 
sinuately excavated ; calloused lines on base of scutellum more or 

less broken and obscured semivittata Say. 

-. Head scarcely longer than width across the eyes ; apex broadly 
rounded; second and third antennal segments subequal; membrane 
whitish hyaline ; posterior disk of pronotum closely, finely punc- 
tured ; male genital segment deeply, roundedly excavated ; three 
calloused lines on base of scutellum very distinct and regular.... 
vandykei, new species 

3. Connexivum black, its margin quite broadly x>3.\t. . . .atricornis Stal. 
-. Connexivum alternated with black at incisures 

calif oritica, new species 

4. Margin of connexivum broadly pale grossa, new species 

-. Margin of connexivum alternated aurora, new species 



5. Carpocoris sulcatus, new species 

Allied to remotus but differing in the longer head and ineni- 
brane, narrower scutelhim and more maculated surface. 
Length 9 to 10 mm. 

Head a little longer than width across the eyes, in remotus a little 
shorter ; cheeks narrower, making the head look still longer. Sides of 
pronotum a little sinuated. in remotus feebly arcuated. Scutellum more 
narrowed beyond the frenulum with its apex more angulate, the base cal- 
loused and bevelled, leaving a deep groove 'behind the pronotal margin. 
Membrane surpassing abdomen for nearly one half its length beyond tip 
of corium. Rostrum attaining apex of hind coxse, the basal segment 
scarcely reaching the apex of the buccute. Second antennal segment little 
if any longer than third. Genital segment of male deeply trisinuate, the 
median lobe less deeply cleft than in remotus; claspers broad, truncate, 
with their ventral angle produced exteriorly; viewed from below these 
claspers are curved outward, oblique at tip. with the outer angle subacute. 

Color pale yellowish testaceous with four black ray-like vitts, moreor less 
distinct, on head and anterior field of pronotum. Base of scutelhim with 
a blackish cloud either side of a pale median vitta sometimes confined to 
the calloused depressed base. Punctures of upper surface sometimes dark- 
ened in places. Connexivum maculated in mature examples. .Antenna; 
black, with basal segment and extreme base of second pale. Beneath 
and legs pale, immaculate, apex of tibiae and tarsi somewhat infuscated. 

Described from one male taken at Alpine, San Diego Comity, 
Calif., October 3, 1913, on grass under oak trees; one male 
taken by F. W. Nunenmacher in Mariposa County, Calif., 
June 15, 1914; one female taken by Dr. F. C. Clark, in Bear 



276 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [P«oc. -tiH Se». 

Valley, Santa Cruz Mountains, in August, 1913, and one 
female taken by me near Redding, Calif., July 7, 1918. This 
species is a little larger than rcmotus and may be distinguished 
by the narrower and longer head, different relative lengths of 
the antennal segments, shorter basal segment of the rostrum, 
the black markings of the upper surface of the head, pronotum, 
scutellum and connexivum, and, especially, by the calloused 
and bevelled base of the scutellum. The colors are doubtless 
subject to variation but here there is none of the pink tint 
found on the corium of remotus. The male genital characters 
do not differ materially from those of remotus so far as can be 
seen without dissection. 

Holotype, male from San Diego County, in collection of the 
author. 

Allotype (No. 390), female from Bear Valley, and para- 
types in collection of the California Academy of Sciences. 

6. Brochymena sulcata, new species 

Closely allied to 4-pustulata and affiiiis and somewhat inter- 
mediate between those species, but quite distinct in its male 
genital characters ; cheeks more produced before the tylus ; 
arolia narrower; male genital segment transversely sulcate, the 
claspers narrower, elliptical; length 12-15 mm. 

Head as long as the pronotum on its median line ; cheeks surpassing the 
t>lus by their own width at that point, their inner margins at the sinus 
parallel or diverging, not approaching or overlapping as is usually the case 
In 4-pustulata. their lateral tooth rectangular. Segments two to five of the 
antenna; subequal in length, the tliird sometimes a httle longer, normally 
so in 4-pustulata. Rostrum attaining the middle of the second ventral 
segment. Pronotum across the humeri a little more than twice broader 
than its median length ; lateral margins before the sinus with four to si.K 
triangular flattish teeth that merge into the adjoining surface, the humeri 
with six to eight serrations or small teeth ; in 4-pustulata these lateral 
teeth are more terete and calloused and sometimes are curved backward. 
Exserted ostiolar canal tongue-shaped, narrowed at base, rather longer 
than the external diameter of the orificial tube ; in 4-pustulata lanceolate, 
broadest at base, and distinctly shorter. Male genital segment almost at- 
taining the outer angle of the sixth ventral segment, its apical margin 
transversely sulcate, omitting the smoothly rounded median excavation; 
either side the sulcus clothed with long pale hairs ; claspers elliptical ven- 
trally, in 4-pustulata broadly rounded. Other structural characters sub- 
stantially as in 4-pustulata. 

Color above as in the allied species ; beneath pale with the marginal alter- 
nations, slender edge of the segments, stigmata, a line behind them, and a 
spot on the middle of the sixth segment blackish. Femora fuscous with 
their base, an apical and a subapical spot pale, the latter often produced 
basally as a vitta. Tibiae with a broad median pale annulus carrying a 
fuscous spot on the exterior face ; the posterior rarely marked with a pale 



Vol. VIII] VAN DUZEE—h!EW SPECIES HEMIPTERA 277 

basal spot exteriorly. Antennae black with the incisures very slenderly 
pale. Rostrum pale with its median line and apex black. 

Described from six male and twelve female examples taken 
as follows : San Diego, Calif., April, June, October and De- 
cember, taken by myself; Los Angeles, Calif., April, M. C. 
Van Duzee; San Jacinto Mountains, 5000 ft., June, and Kemlo, 
Calif., June, Fordyce Grinnell; Cisco, Calif., July, C. von 
Geldern ; Sobra Vista, Sonoma County, Calif., April, and south 
Sonoma County, Calif., June, J. A. Kusche; Martinez, Contra 
Costa County, Calif., J. C. Grundell; Santa Cruz Mountains, 
Chas. Fuchs ; western San Joaquin County, Calif. ; and Pres- 
ton, Ariz., J. A. Kusche. I have heretofore determined this 
species as 4-pnstulafa and it seems to represent that species west 
of the Rocky Mountains. 

Holotype (No. 391), male, from San Diego, in collection 
of the California Academy of Sciences; allotype, female, from 
San Diego in collection of the author ; paratypes in both col- 
lections. 

7. Harmostes angustatus, new species 

Allied to fraterculus but with the antennae longer with longer 
basal segment, the bucculse lower and the colors paler. Length 
7 to 8 mm. 

Head as in the allied species, the clypeus broader and less elevated than 
in reAexuUis or fraterculus ; bucculae lower than in fraterculus, scarcely 
surpassing anterior line of eyes, becoming almost evanescent posteriorly. 
Rostrum long, attaining base of second ventral segment ; first segment 
reaching to within its own width of the base of the head. Antenns long, 
slender; first segment clavate, surpassing the clypeus by one fourth its 
length ; second as long as the head and equal to third, these segments un- 
usually slender. Pronotum a little shorter than the head ; sides irregularly 
arcuated, strongly carinated but not expanded or reflexed except for a 
short space at anterior angle, which is rounded with the usual prominent 
tooth ; hind edge almost straight, disk with a distinct median carina which 
hardly attains the anterior margin. Scutellum distinctly tricarinate, its 
apex deeply impressed and upturned. Elytra parallel, the costa rectilinear 
from near its base ; median areole of cerium hyaline, the inner partly so. 
Venter deeply sulcate to fifth segment. Male claspers unusually slender, 
viewed from the side oblique at apex and much produced dorsally, median 
process acute or subacute. 

Color pale testaceous-brown or tinged with green or yellow, more or 
less marked with fuscous, this color forming four obscure spots on hind 
margin of pronotum and clouding apical half of clavus and apex of corium; 
the nervures dotted with fuscous. Membrane whitish hyaline, obscurely 
dotted at times. Tergum deep black with a pale median vitta from base 
of the fourth segment, expanded posteriorly; apica! segment with two black 
vittas in male. Head, pronotum, scutellum, coriaceous portions of elytra, 
legs and often lower surface of body coarsely punctured with brown or 
rufous. A few individuals show the rosy tints on the clavus often found in 
the allied species. 



278 ■ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th St*. 

Described from ten males and seven females. I have taken 
this species at Mussey's in San Diego County, Palm Springs, 
May 18 to 23, and Keen Camp in the San Jacinto Mountains, 
Calif., June 6, to 12, 1917, and have examples in my collection 
from El Paso, Texas, taken April 5, 1902; Alamogordo, N. 
Mex., taken June 9, 1902, and Bill Williams' Fork, Ariz., taken 
by Prof. F. H. Snow in August. At Palm Springs it was taken 
with its young on Hymenoclea salsola T. &. G. The short buc- 
culse and narrow pronotal margins will distinguish this species. 
These carinate margins are at times more or less crenulate but 
not strongly as in aifinis and its allies. 

Holotype (No. 392), male, and allotype (No. 393). female, 
from Palm Springs in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

Paratypes in collection of the California Academy of Sciences 
and in that of the author. 

The North American species known to me may be distin- 
guished as follows : 

Lateral margins of pronotum distinctly serrated afUnis Dall. 

Lateral margins of pronotum obscurely granulated or smooth 1 

\. Lateral margins of pronotum carinated but not reflexed; bucculae 

attaining anterior margin of eyes ; . . .ans^ustatus, new species 

-. Lateral margins of pronotum broadly expanded and reflexed 2 

2. Color croceus or reddish; rostrum short; base of vertex without a 

groove croceus Gibson 

-. Color more yellowish or testaceous; base of yertex with a median 

groove 3 

3. Basal segment of antennx scarcely surpassing clypeus; bucculas not 

surpassing anterior line of eyes ; membrane bivittate 

fratercuhts Say. 

-. Basal segment of antennae much surpassing clypeus ; bucculae attaining 
hind margin of eyes ; membrane without vittae reftexulus Say. 



8. Teleonemia vidua, new species 

Closely allied to nigrina, proportionately a little longer with 
more slender antennae; color a uniform dark fuscous with the 
head and basal segment of the antennas black. Length 4 mm. 

Elongate, narrow; elytra nearly parallel, a little expanded at the middle. 
Vertex with two short porrect frontal spines, the anterior just above the 
line connecting the base of the antennae, the posterior continuing the 
superior line of the vertex. Antennas longer and more slender than in 
nigrina, clothed with very short hairs; segments one and two sub-equal; 
four scarcely as long as one and two together, fusiform with cinerous 
pubescence at apex ; three nearly three times the length of four. Pronotum 
less convex than in nigrina with posterior scutellar portion longer, the 
anterior margin not elevated nor produced medially; carinas feeble; surface 



Vol. VIII] VAN DUZEE—NEW SPECIES HEMIPTERA 279 

rugose but scarcely punctured, becoming obscurely areolate posteriorly. 
Rostrum almost attaining hind edge of mesosternum, the rostral canal 
nearly parallel on the mesosternum, (metasternnm covered in mounting). 
Discal area of corium coarsely and deeply punctured ; subcostal area, nar- 
row, obscurely biseriate ; costal very narrow, whitish, the areoles longer 
than broad and distinguished by heavy veinlets. Membrane regularly dis- 
tinctly areolate. Genital segment of female armed with a long pilose 
protuberance either side. These are not broadly divergent as in ninrina 
but diverge at first and are then bent backward so as to become parallel, 
their apices flattened and rounded. In nis^rina these protuberences may be 
reduced to mere tubercles and the same may be true in the present species. 
Color a nearly uniform fuscous becoming still darker beneath. Head 
and basal segment of antennje black ; costal areoles whitish ; tibiae pale, a 
little darker at base. Head, antennae and legs somewhat polished. 

Described froin one female example taken at Keen Camp in 
the San Jacinto Mountains, Jime 8, 1917, at an elevation of 
nearly 6,000 feet. This is so evidently distinct from the related 
species it seems safe to describe it froin a single example. 

Holotype (No. 394), female, in collection of the California 
Academy of Sciences. 



9. Teleonemia monile, new species 

Broader and more clearly marked than nigrbia; subcostal 
area with two series of very distinct hyaline areolae; antennae 
short and stout. Length 4 mm. 

Tubercles of the vertex small and inconspicuous; Antenns short and 
thick as in nigrina; basal segment short-pilose, the third hardly more than 
twice the length of the fourth, the latter shorter than the basal two united. 
Pronotum nearly as in nigrina, the flattened anterior portion more angu- 
larly produced and distinctly areolate at the middle ; posterior scutellar 
portion coarsely areolate ; carina very distinct, subfoliaceous and areolate. 
Elytra considerably expanded at the middle, broader and truncate at apex ; 
discal area very coarsely punctate, the punctures becoming subareolate 
exteriorly; subcostal area broad, distinctly biseriate, the areoles whitish 
hyaline; costal area rather broad, hyaline,, the areoles elongated, separated 
by heavy veinlets. Membrane distinctly areolate. Rostrum about reaching 
hind margin of mesosternum; rostral canal broad on mesosternum and a 
little narrowing posteriorly. Female genital segment with a large rounded 
and flattened tubercle either side. 

Color cinereous brown becoming lighter on the pronotum posteriorly 
and on the elytra; most of the elytral veinlets and the interstices between 
the punctures fuscous; linear costal area alternated with blackish and white, 
giving it a beaded appearance; beneath more fusco-ferruginous. Tibiae 
pale on their apical two thirds. Second and third antennal segments quite 
strongly tinged with castaneous. 

Described from one male and three female examples taken 
by Prof. H. F. Wickham at Lundy, Mono County, Calif.. July 
8-10, at an elevation of nearly 8000 feet. The broader form, 
short stout antennae, distinctly areolate elytra, conspicuously 



280 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th S^r. 

biseriate subcostal area and clearly marked moniliform costal 
area, which is continued about the apex of the elytra, will dis- 
tinguish this species. 

Holotype, male, and allotype, female, in collection of the 
author. 

Paratypes in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences and in that of the author. 

Our California species of Tclcouemia may be distinguished 
by the following key : 

Subcostal area biseriate 1 

Subcostal area uniseriate 2 

1. Subcostal area conspicuous!}- biseriate; pronotal carins conspicuous; 

large brown species monilc, new species 

-. Subcostal area narrow, obscurely biseriate ; pronotal carinae incon- 
spicuous; smaller cinereous species schwarci Drake. 

2. Antennae stouter ; third segment about twice the length of the 

fourth ; costal area conspicuously areolate ; color fuscous varied 

with cinereous nigrina Champ. 

-. AntenuK more slender; third segment nearly three times the length 
of fourth; costal area very narrow, obscurely areolate; color 
brown, nearly uniform, with the head hXack. . .tiidua,r\tvi species 



10. Oncerometopus calif ornicus, new species 

Larger and darker than nigriclavus; sanguineous, antennae, 
legs, callosities, clavus, inner field of corium. membrane and 
genital segment black ; disk of pronotum more or less infus- 
cated either side of the pale median line. Length to tip of 
membrane 6j^ mm. 

Vertex and tylus rather more convex than in vigrichivus. Antennje with 
the second segment distinctly longer than in nigriclavus, a little longer than 
the pronotum ; third and fourth together a fourth shorter than second, in 
nigriclavus nearly a fourth longer. Pronotum proportionately longer, its 
length two fifths its basal width, in nigriclavus scarcely inore than one 
half ; sides nearly rectilinear, a little expanded at the humeral angles ; col- 
lum as long as the thickness of first antennal segment ; callosities prominent, 
distinguished by a deep incision which is especially distinct behind the 
median bridge connecting them anteriorly. In nigriclavus this incised line 
is not conspicuous and behind the median bridge is represented by two 
impressed punctures ; surface transversely rugose with scattering shallow 
punctures and an obvious obtuse median carina ; hind margin almost trun- 
cate. Elytra nearly parallel, a little expanded at the middle, the embolium 
narrowly linear, distinct; surface polished, distinctly uniformly shagreened, 
in nigriclavus more opaque and but obscurely shagreened. Apex of abdo- 
men in both sexes reaching midway between the tip of the cuneus and that 
of the membrane. Tibis short-setose. Tarsi ; basal segment scarcely ex- 
panded, second a little shorter than median length of first, in nigriclavus 
hardly half that length. Male genital characters rather obscure, the dextral 
hook lunate, a little narrowed posteriorly and lying against the excavated 
margin of the segment. 



Vol. VIII] VAN DUZEE— NEW SPECIES HEMIPTERA 281 

Color sanguineous, obscured on the vertex and pronotum ; clypcus, an- 
tennae, legs, callosities, clavus, inner field of corium, membrane and genital 
segments black; vertex, at least posteriorly, and disk of pronotum more or 
less infuscatcd, the collum, sides and median line remaining paler. An- 
tennae in the male testaceous with the first segment and narrow base of the 
second black ; third and fourth in the female often paler. 

Described from one male and ten female examples taken 
from the flowers of a bush sunflower growing along the road 
at Soboba Springs, near San Jacinto, Calif., June 1, 1917. 
Both this species and nigridavus vary considerably in the ex- 
tent of their dark markings but the characters given seem suf- 
ficient to separate them. 

Holotype (No. 395), male, allotype (No. 396). female, and 
paratypes, in collection of the California Academy of Sciences. 



11. Neurocolpus simplex, new species 

Allied to nicxicanus, proportionately shorter and broader 
than nnhilns with basal segment of antennae and hind femora 
more thickened; color yellowish, inclined to fulvous, the hairy 
vestiture white. Length 6yi to 7 mm. 

Head about as in nubilns, the tumid vertex scarcely projecting beyond 
the line of the clypeus. Basal segment of antennae clavate, shorter than in 
nubilus and thicker at apex than in either of our other species, its hairy 
vestiture silvery white, the hairs less flattened than in the allied forms; 
second segment almost twice the length of first, shaped as in nubihis, less 
clavate than in nicxicanus : third and fourth together subequal to first, 
slender. Pronotum as in nubilus, its length one half its basal width, clothed 
with short matted scale-like hairs; collum not so strongly distinguished as 
in the allied species. Rostrum reaching to apex of the intermediate coxae. 
AMomen somewhat expanded, the conne.xivum surpassing the elytra in 
some examples. 

Color obscure fulvous or honey-yellow, becoming clearer yellow on pos- 
terior disk of pronotum, apical lobe of scutellum, and base of elytra ; the 
whole surface clothed with a white vestiture of scale-like hairs which show 
an inclination to form three lines on the vertex, to become somewhat 
m:atted on the pronotum, and are larger and more conspicuous on the legs. 
Membrane whitish hyaline with the nervures 3'ellowish, becoming more or 
less infuscatcd at base. Sometimes there is a faint fuscous cloud on outer 
margin of membrane before its apex. One immature example has the apex 
of the tibiae and of the embolium greenish. 

Described from four females taken on the palo-verde, Ccr- 
cidium torrcyanum, among the foothills west of Coachella, 
Calif., May 16, 1917. This species is very distinct in its pale 
color, white vestiture and the form of the antenna! seginents. 

Holotype (No. 397), female, and paratypes in the collection 
of the California Academy of Sciences. 



282 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

12. Phytocoris plenus, new species 

Very close to iiiops Uhl. ; differing in the absence of a pale 
median annulus on second antennal segment, the more pro- 
duced head and form of the male genitalia. Length 7 mm. 

Head prominent, nearly vertical ; viewed from the side extending below 
the eye for a space equal to about three fourths the greatest length of the 
eye; clypeus prominent, convex; giila oblique. In iiiops the head projects 
hardly more than one half the greatest length of the eye, the clypeus is less 
prorninent and the gula is but slightly oblique. Rostrum long, in the male 
passing the apex of the fourth ventral segment, the basal segment broadly 
linear, attaining the middle of the anterior coxae. Vertex viewed from 
above flat, obviously wider than the eyes ; tumidly convex before ; in inops 
not wider than the eyes and less convex before. .Antenna about as in 
inops, the first segment a little longer. Pronotal collum strongly differ- 
entiated ; in inops but feebly so. Elytra with three polished areas, the basal 
but poorly distinguished; the apical conspicuous, resting on the base of the 
cuneus. Hind femora long, almost attaining the apex of the membrane. 
Apical margin of last ventral segment of male thickened, produced in a 
subacute angle; sinistral notch right-angled, terminating above in a bhjnt, 
blackish tooth which usually is somewhat longer than its width. In ino/^s 
this tooth is longer, terete and much more slender. Dextral notch nearly 
as deep as the sinistral but more rounded at its fundus. In inops the ventral 
apex of this segment is less acute with both notches more rounded, the 
dextral shallower. 

Color cinereous mottled with fuscous as in inops but with the markings 
more contrasted. Vertex distinctly striated anteriorly, its disk paler. Disk 
of pronotum paler; median line at base, sides and anterior angles infus- 
cated; posterior submarginal line broken into dots, or nearly so. Antennse 
fuscous, without pale annulations ; the basal segment dotted with pale ; the 
extreme base of segments two and three white. Scutellum distinctly varied 
with pale and fuscous, the anterior lobe fuscous with three pale marks, its 
apex conspicuously pale. Elytra rather evenly mottled with the costa 
dotted; corium with the three polished areas paler; cuneus pale within, 
its outer and inner margins varied with fuscous. Membrane evenly 
irrorate as in inops, its outer margin with two clear spots, the anterior at 
apex of the cuneus ; nervures pale becoming fuscous at base. Legs irrorate 
with fuscous ; coxae and narrow base of femora white, the former bivittate 
with fuscous; tibiae fuscous irrorate with white and marked with four white 
rings which are subequal to their interspaces, the basal on the hind pair 
obscure ; tarsi fuscous with a pale annulus. Rostrum pale with its ape.x 
broadly fuscous. Sternum fuscous. Venter white, irrorate with fuscous, 
with a narrow pale vitta and a few orange dots on either side, the genital 
segments mostly fuscous. Behind each eye is a small tuberculate ivory 
mark and behind that is a larger one on the incised line of the collum. 

Described from one male taken at Keen Camp in the San 
Jacinto Mountains, June 8, 1917; one male taken on the hills 
at Foster, San Diego County, April 11, 1914, and two males 
taken at Lakeside, San Diego County, Calif., May 5, 1913. I 
have seen no females I could certainly associate with these 
males. 

This species is closely allied to inops but it is well distin- 
guished by the characters given above. In the allied forms the 



Vol. VIII] I'AN DUZEE—SEIV SPECIES HEMIPTERA 283 

female has the vertex broader and tlie rostrum shorter than 
their males and the same may be true in tliis species. ¥ov ready 
recognition the banding of the tibijE will be found a convenient 
character: In picinis the anterior tibise are narrowly black at 
either end with three dark rings between; in vtops and related 
forms the apical ring is broad and there are but two between 
that and the narrow basal one. In iiwps the second antennal 
segment is fuscous with a pale median annulus. In the San 
Diego County males of plcnus the basal half of the second an- 
tennal segment is paler. 

Holotype (No. 398), male, from Keen Camp, in collection 
of the California Academy of Sciences. 

Paratypes in the collection of the author. 



13. Phytocoris fraterculus, new species 

Allied to iiiops, averaging larger and darker with a longer 
head and wanting the median pale annulus on second antennal 
segment. Differs from plcnus in the shorter pronotum and by 
the presence of a distinct pale annulus near the apex of the hind 
femora, and from both species by the characters of the male 
genitalia. Length 7 to 7^^ mm. 

Head produced below the eye for a space nearly equal to the length ol 
the eye ; clypeus prominent ; gula obUque ; cheeks prominent, rounded, not 
angularly produced as in iiwfis. Vertex flattened, scarcely advanced to the 
line of the clypeus, not projecting before it as in inof>s. Rostrum attaining 
apex of second ventral segment; its first segment reaching to middle of 
anterior coxs. Antennae slender ; first segment linear, hardly longer than 
the pronotum; second equal to the costal margin of corium ; third about 
equal to first; fourth two-thirds tlie third; first armed with stiff hairs which 
are a little longer than the thickness of the segment. Pronotum short, its 
length one half its basal width; sides rectilinear; base slightly emarginate ; 
collum distinct as in plcnus. Elytra with three polished areas as in filcnus. 
Legs long, about as in plcnus; the hind femora reaching nearly or quite to 
apex of membrane, distinctly shorter than in inops. Sinistral margin of 
the genital segment with its superior angle unarmed, rounded ; the sinistral 
hook long and curved as in inops. with a rounded notch at base; ventral 
aspect of (he .genital segment rounded or subacute at apex about as in 
inops. Surface clothed with close black pubescence and softer white de- 
ciduous hairs. 

Color cinereous mottled with fuscous as in the related species, sometimes 
pale brownish and fuscous. Vertex distinctly striate ; clypeus. lorse and 
cheeks brown, bordered with pale; hind margin of the eye and usually a 
median spot on base of vertex whitish. Pronotum brown or fuscous becom- 
ing pale about the callosities and blacker toward the margins ; the hind edge 
narrowly white behind a blackish vitta which may become broken into six 
lobes or spots. Scutellum brown with basal angles and a geminate median 



284 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sef. 

line fuscous and the sagitate apex white. Elytra cinereous or brown with a 
darker, usually irrorate, area along the claval suture and on the radial 
vein and costa ; apical polished area angulate, pale, and invading the base 
of the cuneus; margins of the cuneus variegated with black and pale. 
Membrane about as in /tlenus; white, rather closely and evenly irrorate 
with fuscous but shading darker toward its base ; margin darker, alternated 
with two white spots beyond tip of cuneus ; nervures brownish, the radial 
sometimes blackish. Beneath fuscous-brown ; coxK and sometimes disk of 
venter pale. Legs fuscous, irrorate with whitish and sometimes pale at 
base; hind femora with an oblique pale subapical vitta and in the female 
a pale ray from the base to near the middle ; tibiae showing three, more or 
less distinct, pale bands, one, before the middle of the hind pair, unusually 
distinct. Antennas fuscous ; basal segment irrorate with pale ; extreme 
base of second and third segments white, the second without a pale median 
annulus. 

Described from three male and eleven female examples taken 
at the following localities: Yosemite, Calif., June 16, 1916; 
Fallen Leaf Lake, Calif., August 2L 1916, 6300 feet; Tallac, 
Calif., August 22, 1916. 6000 ft.. Soda Springs, Nevada 
County, Calif., 6800 ft., August 24, 1916; all taken by Mr. 
Walter M. Giffard; Bright Angel Camp, Ariz., 6900 ft., H. F. 
Wickham, and Pine Hill in the Cuyamaca Mountains, San 
Diego County, Calif.. Oct. 19, 1913, 4300 ft., taken by myself. 

Holotype (No. 399), male, and allotype (No. 400), female, 
frotn Yosemite, in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

Paratypes in collection of Mr. Walter M. Giffard and in 
that of the author. 



14. Phytocoris hirtus, new species 

Aspect of pleiitis but readily distinguished from that and 
other allied forms in having the upper surface clothed with 
unusually long hairs, especially upon the legs. Length 8^ mm. 

Head oblique, produced before the eye for a distance about equal to the 
greatest length of the eye ; cheeks tumidly convex but somewhat less so than 
in inops; Vertex convex and swollen along the line of the clypeus much as 
in inops. Rostrum reaching well on to the third ventral segment. Antennse 
slender ; first segment as long as basal width of pronotum, slightly thick- 
ened basally; second segment nearly twice the length of first; third and 
fourth together as long as second : first sparsely clothed with long pale 
hairs which are at least twice as long as the thickness of the segment. 
Pronotum long and well narrowed anteriorly as in plenus, the sides a little 
convex; hind edge a little emarginate ; collum distinct; callosities small and 
inconspicuous. Elytra long with the costa slightly arcuated ; venter reach- 
ing to tip of cuneus. Upper surface and head clothed with nearly erect 
brown hairs which are almost as long as the thickness of the hind tibise 
and are interspersed with short scale-like deciduous hairs. Legs clothed 
with soft pale hairs as long as the thickness of the anterior femora. 



Vol. VIII] FAN DUZEE—NEIV SPECIES HEMIPTERA 285 

Color about is in plcniis; pale brownish or cinereous varied with fuscous ; 
disk of clypeus, \oxx and cheeks and two vitt;e behind the eyes which are 
continued across the inferior aspect of the pronotum, fuscous; frontal 
striae distinct. First segment of antennre whitish, with a series of dots and 
the broad apex fuscous; second segment pale brown, broadly white at base 
becoming fuscous at apex and next the pale basal annulus; third and 
fourth segments fuscous, the third narrowly pale at base. Pronotum be- 
coming paler anteriorly and almost black before the narrow white posterior 
margin. Scutellum variegated with a pale apex. Elytra with the three 
polished areas paler, the posterior whitish and extended so as to cover 
basal half of cuneus; apex of corium and cuneus blackish. Membrane 
irregularly irrorate, the areoles and apex darker. Beneath pale or yellow- 
ish, the pleural pieces mostly infuscated. Sides of venter mottled with 
fuscous with indications of a paler longitudinal vitta below the stigmata. 
Legs pale, the femora irrorate with brown, especially a'bove ; the tibis with 
four fuscous annuli, more or less distinct. 

Described from two females from southern California, one 
taken by Mr. Fordyce Grinnell at Pasadena, the other taken 
by me at North Island, Coronado, San Diego, June 30, 1913. 
The large size and hairy vestiture of this species will warrant 
its description from females only. 

Holotype (No. 401), female, from Pasadena, in collection 
of the California Academy of Sciences. 

Paratype in author's collection. 

The following key will help to distinguish the si.x grey or 
fuscous mottled species having finely irrorate membranes, which 
have been reported from California: 

Legs clothed with whitish hairs which are longer than the thickness 

of the tibiae hirtus, new species 

Legs smooth or with minute pubescence only 1 

1. Dimorphus ; male linear, uniformly grey, irrorate ; female brach}^- 

terous with a fuscous ray on the clavus and wedge-shaped mark 

on the corium posteriorly caucsceiis Reut. 

-. Sexes similar ; above irregularly mottled 2 

2. Head short, vertical, produced below the eye for a space equal to 

about one half the length of the eye 3 

-. Head long, oblique, produced below the eye for a space nearly equal 

to the length of the eye 4 

3. Smaller and pale ; dextral margin of the male genital segment with- 

out a tooth superiorly hcidcnianni Reut. 

-. Larger and darker ; dextral margin of the male genital segment pro- 
duced in a terete tooth superiorly inops Uhl. 

4. Hind femora without an oblique pale annulus ; second antennal seg- 

ment one half longer than first ; dextral margin of male genital 

segment produced in a broad flattened tooth superiorly 

plenus, new species. 

-. Hind femora with an oblique subapical pale annulus ; second an- 
tennal segment twice the length of first; dextral margin of male 

genital segment without a tooth at superior angle 

fratercuhis, new species 



286 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4ih Ser. 

15. Phytocoris geniculatus, new species 

Pale greenish, sprinlvled and varied with whitish: apex of 
cuneus and the hind femora tinged with fuh'ous, the latter 
armed at apex with two short black tubercules. Length 5 mm. 

Head moderately produced, nearly vertical before; vertex and clypeus 
strongly conve.x leaving a deep suture between them, the vertex about one 
half wider than an eye in male, nearly twice as wide in female ; frontal 
strix conspicuous; cheeks prominent but scarcely angled before. Rostrum 
attaining third ventral segment ; its first segment reaching the base of the 
head in male, a little longer in female. Antennre longer than the entire 
body : first segment as long a<^ head and pronotum together, linear, as thick 
as two-thirds the superior width of an eye, sparsely clothed with fine pale 
pubescence with a few longer stifif hairs intermixed ; second segment nearly 
twice the length of first; third three-fourths the length of second; fourth 
one half of third. Pronotum strongly narrowed before, its length one half 
the basal width ; sides straight ; collum distinct ; callosities large, obscure. 
Eljtra somewhat polished all over, with two large areas more distinctly so. 
Legs long, the hind femora surpassing the membrane and much flattened. 
Apex of the male genital segment subacute; the sinistral notch deep and 
acutely angled, the margin rounded and unarmed above ; sinistral hook 
short, crescentic, blunt at apex, not nearly reaching to the apex of the 
segment. 

'Color pale greenish or yellowish, marbled with whitish, the two polished 
areas of the elytra still whiter; apical half of cuneus and the hind femora 
tinged with fulvous ; hind femora armed with a small deep-black tubercle 
on either side at apex. Whole upper surface sparsely clothed with a 
deciduous white pubescence with scattering longer fuscous hairs ; the ex- 
treme tip of clavus with a minute tuft of black hairs, and in perfect ex- 
ainples there is another at the inner margin of the cuneus and probably a 
third at its inner basal angle. Legs and antennae obscurely varied with 
pale fulvous-brown and whitish ; the ape.x of the second and third antennal 
segments often infuscated as is the apical half of the fourth. Beneath, 
with coxae and base of femora paler, the venter marbled more or less with 
darker. Membrane white, more or less irrorate with minute brown points 
and sometimes with a black point at the middle of the outer margin, the 
nervures yellowdsh. 

Described from 32 e.xamples, representing both sexes, taken 
at Coachella and Palm Springs, Calif., May 14th to 19th, 1917. 
At Coachella they were less mature and were found feeding on 
a small-leaved Atriple.x. This species may be distinguished by 
its pale greenish white mottled aspect with a fulvous tinge to 
the cuneus and hind femora and by the two black tubercles at 
apex of these femora. 

Holotype (No. 402), male, and allotype (No. 403), female, 
from Palm Springs, and paratypes in collection of the Calif- 
ornia Academy of Sciences. 



Vol. VIII] yAN DUZEE—NEW SPECIES HEMIPTERA 287 

16. Phytocoris consors, new species 

Closely allied to gciiiculattts; differs principally in wanting 
the fulvous color on tiie cuneus and femora and the black 
tubercles on the apex of the hind femora and in having the 
basal segment of tlie antenns distinctly white-pilose ; pale dull 
greenish, evenly, finely marmorated with pale. Length 5 mm. 

In its structural characters this species is almost ideirtical with gcnicw- 
Ititiis but there are certain differences. The first antennal segment is much 
more thickly set with long stiff white hairs ; the elytra do not show the con- 
trasting polished areas which arc cjuite evident in its ally and the tubercles 
at the apex of the hind femora are concolorous or barely tipped with black, 
the male genital characters seem scarcely to differ. 

Here the color is the same greenish white found in Penicillatus but the 
whole upper surface is quite uniformly marmorated with pale dull green. 
The pale polished areas found in the allied form and the fulvous tint so 
constant there are absent here. The antenn.-e have the same mottled aspect 
but none of the specimens before me show any trace of the fuscous apex 
on the second and third segments found in the other form. The membrane 
here is white with more or less of the fuscous dotting found in gcnicutatus 
and the whole upper surface is dotted with soft white hairs as in that 
species, but here I can detect in none of the specimens before me, all of 
which seem to be perfect, the longer stiff brown hairs present in the allied 
form. 

Described from two male and five female specimens taken at 
Coachella and Palm Springs, Calif., May 14-21, 1917. Like 
the preceding they were found on the whitish vegetation grow- 
ing on the floor of the desert. 

Holotype (No. 404), male, and allotype (No. 405), female, 
and paratypes in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

17. Phytocoris ventralis, new species 

Nearest gcnictilafits ; small, short and broad with much the 
aspect of a Psallns. White ; elytra sparsely sprinkled with black ; 
broad apex of the second antennal segment, knees, and a vitta 
on either side of the venter black. Length 4^-^ mm. 

Head vertical, produced below the eye for a distance nearly equal to the 
length of the eye in the female, for about half this length in the male. 
Rostrum long, reaching to middle of venter in the female and to the si.xth 
ventral segment in the male. Antennae as long as the entire body in the 
male, a little shorter in the female ; first segment short, stout, as long as 
the pronotum, clothed with soft white hairs which are nearly as long as 
the thickness of the segment : second segment as long as the corium ; third 
two-thirds the length of second ; fourth about equal to first. Pronotum 
short, rather steeply declinate; hind edge slightly emarginate; callosities 
large, not conspicuous; collum narrow, poorly distinguished. Elytra nearly 
parallel, opaque white with a subhyaline, more polished area exteriorly at 



288 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES tPROc. 4th Sek. 

base and at apex. Abdomen reaching to tip of cuneiis in the female. Legs 
short for this genus. Dextral male clasper very small ; sinistral broad and 
angled superiorly at base, curved and lying against ventral margin of 
genital segment, the apex of which it attains, its apex subacute. 

Color testaceous-white, clear white on the pronotum and elytra ; upper 
surface clothed with short scale-like deciduous white hairs intermixed with 
which are a few strongly clavate black ones, imparting a sprinkled effect ; 
apex of corium with a small fuscous cloud; apical mar.gins of cuneus nar- 
rowly infuscated. Callosities testaceous like the head. Membrane minutely 
and irregularly irrorate with pale brown. Antenns white ; extreme tip of 
first segment fuscous; apex of second black for a space equal to one half 
the length of the first segment: third and fourth black; base of third nar- 
rowly white. Mesothorax beneath black with pale median and lateral 
vittx. Venter with a broad deep-black vitta on either side attaining the 
genital scgnient in the female. Legs white, apex of femora, and extreme 
base of tibias more or less broadly black. A few small points on the tibia 
and the base and apex of the tarsi brown. Tibix clothed with soft white 
hairs and a few stiff brown bristles. 

Described from one niale and two female examples taken on 
palo-verde growing among the foothills seven miles west of 
Coachella, Calif., May 16, 1917. The male is immature with 
the black ventral vittse scarcely indicated. The small eyes, ob- 
long form, white color, black ventral vittas and the presence of 
clavate black hairs above will distinguish this well-marked 
species. 

Holotype (No. 406), female, allotype (No. 407), male, 
and paratype in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

18. Pallacocoris candidus, new species 

Aspect of a Trigoiioiyhis nearly : creamy white throughout 
and clothed with a soft white pubescence, in' fresh examples 
showing a median line of white hairs on the vertex, pronotum 
and scutellum ; antennae very long. Length 6 mm. 

Head porrect ; vertex nearly horizontal, viewed from above rounded 
before and projecting for a third of its length before the eyes ;_ clypeus 
vertical, strongly convex, its basal suture deep, on a line with the insertion 
of the antenns ; cheeks prominent, cylindrical : gula horizontal ; bucculs 
low. Antennse very long, one fourth longer than the entire body ; first 
segment stout, linear, as long as the head and pronotum, a little thicker 
near its base, clothed above with soft appressed white hairs which become 
shorter at apex, and beneath with matted hairs longer than the thickness 
of the segment ; second segment a little longer than the corium ; third and 
fourth nearly equal to second. Rostrum reaching to near the middle of the 
venter, the first segment but little surpassing the base of the head. Pro- 
notum trapezoidal, nearly horizontal, but little narrowed anteriorly; sides 
straight, carinated ; collum broad, depressed, but poorly distinguished ; cal- 
losities small, obscure, set far apart ; hind margin truncate. Scutellum 
rather long; its basal field a little expanded. Elytra long, narrow, parallel. 
Legs long, hind femora surpassing the abdomen, narrowing from near base 



Vol. VIII] VAN DVZEE—NEW SPECIES HEMIPTERA 289 

to apex; hind tibire very slender, as long as the entire elytra. Basal seg- 
ment of the tarsi longer than the second and equal to the third. Male 
genital characters inconspicuous, the dextral notch deep, the dextral 
claspcr short, scarcely produced. 

Color uniformly creamy white, sometimes tinged with green on the 
scutellum; antennas infuscated at apex; apical margin of the elytra with 
three tufts of ferruginous hairs, one at tip of clavus and two on the inner 
margin of cuneus. In fully colored examples the membrane is tinged 
with ferruginous at apex and marked with two darker spots on the margin. 
Apex of tarsi a little darker. Rostrum black at apex. Base of the female 
oviduct infuscated. 

Described from thirteen examples representing both sexes 
taken at Coachella and Palm Springs, Calif., May 16 to 23, 
1917. This genus is certainly close to Miridiiis Renter and is 
recognized here only in deference to Renter's views. The 
species seems qnite distinct from sua':>is. Generic characters 
are included in the above description for convenience. 

Holotype (No. 408), male, and allotype (No. 409), female, 
and paratypes in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

19. Lygus abronias, new species 

Closely related to rubicundus Fall, as distinguished by Mr. 
Knight in his review of this genus. Larger, face clothed with 
long decumbent pale hairs ; color bronze-grey to deep black ; 
second antennal segment, tibiae and tarsi pale except at base and 
apex, the femora always (?) black in mature examples; ex- 
treme tip of scutellum pale ; membrane bivittate with fuscous. 
Length 5-6 mm. 

Head more oblique than in ruhictindus , moderately convex, distinctly 
punctate ; basal carina and an oblique line from the hind angle of the eye 
half way to the middle, smooth ; clothed with moderately long appressed 
grey hairs which converge obliquely to the median line; frontal strise 
obvious but not conspicuous ; clypeus prominent, smooth ; bucculK high, 
reaching to the basal third of the gula. Rostrum attaining middle of hind 
coxae. Antennae short as in rubicundus ; first segment surpassing the 
clypeus by one half its length ; second hardly three times the length of 
first, gradually thickened apically ; third slender, sub-equal to first ; fourth 
slender, about three fourths the length of third. Pronotum much as in 
plagiulus, more convex and sloping anteriorly than in rubicundus; closely 
evenly punctured ; sides gently arcuated ; callosities small, poorly defined ; 
collum distinct ; hind edge simiated ; sometimes a median smooth line is 
indicated. Scutellum about as in filagiatus, strongly, transversely rugose. 
Elytra closely, evenly punctured, the punctures coarser than in either of the 
allied species ; embolium rather broad, becoming evanescent at middle of 
corium; cuneus moderately depressed as in rubicundus. Legs rather short 
as in rubicundus, the tibial spines black and shorter than the thickness of 
the member. Male genital segment produced on its ventral aspect, its apex 
rounded and pale ; the claspers inconspicuous, formied much as in rubi- 
cundus but the sinistral shorter and blunter. 



290 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Color a bronzy grey-brown, much as in phgiatus, varying to deep black, 
when immature pale and tinged with green. In pale examples the collum 
is yellowish and the callosities black, sometimes sending an indistinct 
blackish ray either side the middle and another next the lateral margins. 
Scutellum in pale examples with a black geminate median vitta omitting 
the extreme tip which remains pale in the darkest individuals. Apex of 
corium with a blackish cloud which is more extended as the individual 
becomes darker. Extreme tip of clavus black. Cuneus always pale with 
the tip black ; sometimes it becomes ro.sy red but this color does not seem 
dependent upon maturity. Membrane faintly enfumcd with the nervures 
yellowish or even red ; apex of the larger areole with a fuscous cloud 
which send a ray to the apex. These parallel rays are normally separated 
by double their own width but they may become extended so as to cover 
much of the surface. Antennae black ; second segment pale with its ex- 
treme base and apical one third black ; narrow base of third segment pale. 
Femora black in mature examples, the anterior and intermediate pale 
when immature, more or less invaded with black ; tibiK and tarsi pale, the 
narrow base and apex of the tibiae and apex of the tarsi black. Beneath 
black with a large ivory-white spot on the orificies ; either side with a 
longitudinal pale vitta in pale examples which becomes nearly or quite 
obsolete in black specimens. Whole surface with a short pale pubescence 
which is easily rubbed off. 

Described from four male and ten female examples taken 
from yellow sand verbenas {Abronia latifoUa). growing on 
the sand dunes at Ingleside. San Francisco, March 24, 1918. 
A few nymphs and immature were taken with these adults. 
This species is perhaps nearest to plagiatris in many of its char- 
acters but its true relationship is with rubicniidus from which 
its larger size, punctured hairy face, more convex pronotum, 
black femora and different coloration, especially of the mem- 
brane, will distinguish it. It pertains to Knight's pratcusis 
group. 

Holotype (No. 410), male, and allotype (No. 411), female, 
in collection of the California Academy of Sciences. 

Paratypes in collection of the Academy and in that of the 
author. 

20. Pilophorus discretus, new species 

Allied to xcalshi, a little smaller and more constricted at the 
middle ; fulvous-brown, elytra paler, the apical silvery line 
oblique but not dislocated, the polished outer half of the corium 
beyond this line abruptly fuscous. Length about 4 mm. 

Head more produced than in zmhhi, its length before the eye distinctly 
more than the length of the eye, in walshi about the length of the eye ; 
base of the vertex depressed, sharply, slenderly carinate behind. Basal 
segmient of rostrum not exceeding the bucculse. Pronotum polished ; sides 
almost parallel anterior to the middle or a little constricted at the middle, 
the humeri angularly prominent; hind margin distinctly concavely arcu- 



Vol. VIII] VAN DUZEE—NEIV SPECIES HEMIPTERA 291 

ated ; anterior narrowly depressed imitating an obscure collum. Elytra 
parallel on basal half, much expanded posteriorly, the polislied apical por- 
tion of the corium strongly marked and covering only the costal half beyond 
the second transverse line of silvery hairs; this line moderately oblique 
and not at all dislocated on the clavus as in walshi. Antennae slender; first 
segment about as long as the eye ; second nearly as long as the head and 
pronotum united, not obviously thicker at apex; third about one third the 
length of second. 

Color reddish or brownish fulvous, becoming pale on the elytra; disk 
of the vertex and pronotum shading darker; extreme ape.K of the clavus 
and polished area at apex of the corium fuscous. Scutellum and elytra 
with the usual lines of deciduous silvery hairs; the basal line on the 
corium short, the apical retreating somewhat at the costa and continuous on 
the clavus. Cuneus fuscous with an oblique line of silvery hairs from near 
the inner angle well toward the costa along the basal suture. Membrane 
dark with a large smoky cloud. Beneath bright fulvous with the abdomen 
piceous. Legs fulvous, the hind pair infuscated. Antennae reddish brown, 
pale at base; (fourth segment wanting}. 

Described from two female examples ; one taken at Colton, 
Calif., May 28, 1917, the other from Alpine, San Diego County, 
taken October 3, 1913. This is a sinall, clearly inarked species 
which may be distinguished by the slender antenna, long head, 
short basal segment of tlie antennas and bicolored apex of the 
corium. 

Holotype (No. 412), female, from Colton, in collection of 
the California Academy of Sciences. 

Paratype, in collection of the author. 



21. Pilophorus tomentosus, new species 

Form of clavatits; dull cinnamon brown, rather densely 
clothed with soft pale hairs ; posterior silvery line not dislo- 
cated on the clavus. Length 4j^ mm. 

Head long, produced below the eye considerably more than the length 
of the eye ; base of the vertex but feebly depressed, the hind edge sharp 
but scarcely carinated. First antcnnal segment barely attaining the apex 
of the head ; second as long as the head, pronotum and scutellum together, 
moderately thickened at apex ; third and fourth together three fourths 
the length of second; fourth one half longer than third. Pronotum parallel 
on anterior two thirds, then abruptly flaring to the humeri. Rostrum reach- 
ing the tip of the hind coxae; first segment just surpassing the bucculae. 
Elytra a little narrower than in clavatus: moderately expanded at apex; 
posterior line of silvery hairs a little oblique but not dislocated at the clavus. 
Apical field of corium obscurely polished on costal half only. 

Color a dull cinnamon brown, sometimes a little clearer on base of the 
elytra and beneath, more or less tinged with red on the head, pronotum 
and antennae. Apical portion of second and third antennal segments 
fuscous, the fourth whitish, infuscated at apex. Scutellum with the usual 
lateral and apical lines of silvery hairs. Posterior silvery line of the elytra 
a little advanced at the commissure, not dislocated at claval suture. Pol- 



292 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

ished apical area of the corium a very little darker. Basal submargiii of 
the cuneus with a cuneiform line of longer silvery hairs. Membrane ob- 
scure with a fuscous median cloud. Venter with an oblique area of silvery 
hairs on either side. 

Described from three male and fourteen female examples 
taken on willows at San Juan Capistrano, Calif., June 24, 1914. 
The dull brownish color and pubescent surface will distinguish 
this species. 

Holotype and allotype in author's collection. 

Paratypes in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences and in that of the author. 



22. Pilophorus tibialis, new species 

Allied to clavatus and still more closely to cinnanwpterus. 
Second antennal segment gradually much thickened toward its 
apex, third fuscous, fourth mostly white ; posterior silvery line 
on the elytra entire ; hind tibije flattened and curved ; membrane 
with a fuscous area overrunning the areoles ; apex of the 
corium polished across its whole width. Length 5 mm. 

Head shaped as in clavatus but somewhat broader at base ; viewed from 
before narrower and more pointed than in ama^nus; viewed from the side 
more depressed and subcarinate below the eye, the apex surpassing the eye 
by considerably more than the length of the eye : vertex deeply impressed 
either side, the median line sometimes broadly, slightly carinate, not at all 
sulcate; the hind margin more strongly elevated than in either allied 
species ; cheeks pointed at apex, almost attaining the tip of the clypeus, 
their sides feebly arquated. Antennae about as in amccniis: the first segment 
shorter and the third distinctly longer than in that species ; second longer 
and more clavate than in clavatus, about as in amacnus : fourth segment a 
little shorter than third and about equal to first. Rostrum attaining tip 
of intermediate coxae, the basal segment reaching hardly more than half 
way to the anterior angle of the eye. Pronotum about as in clavatus, 
shorter and more finely rastrate than in amacnus, distinctly impressed be- 
tween the callosities. EI>tra about as in amocnus, the posterior silvery line 
often a little sinuated but not dislocated at claval suture ; corium beyond 
this line polished across its whole width. Hind legs longer than in clavatus, 
about as in amwHus but with their tibis still broader and more curved in 
both sexes, its width at the basal third nearly equal to the width of the 
femora. Sinistral male clasper transverse, longer than broad, its apex 
abruptly armed with a small acute, incurved tooth. In amacnus this clasper 
is more quadrangular with its apical hook scarcely more than an acute 
tubercle while in clavatus this clasper is lunate with its apex flattened and 
even broader than the base. 

Color piceous-black, the elytra before the posterior silvery line dark 
cinnamon brown ; head, anterior portion of pronotum and beneath more or 
less tinged with cinnamon ; the anterior and intermediate tibiae, at least at 
apex, paler; base of the vertex and clypeus infuscated in pale examples. 
Antennae pale brown or tinged with castaneous, the clavate portion of the 



Vol. V^II] VAN DUZEE—NEIV SPECIES HEMIPTERA 293 

second segment piccous; third infuscatcd, paler at base; fourth white, 
minutely tipped with fuscous. Rostrum pale piceous. Posterior line of 
silvery hairs on the clj^ra usually a little sinuated, not at all dislocated at 
claval suture. Apex of clavus, corium behind the silvery line for its whole 
width and the cuneus moderately polished and infuscated. Membrane in- 
fuscated, with a deeper blackish cloud covering the larger areole and ad- 
joining surface posteriorly. Raised disk of the scutellum bounded by the 
usual lines of silvery hairs at each side and at the apex. Base of the hind 
tarsi and often of the tibis paler brown. 

Described from 32 examples, representing both sexes, taken 
on coniferous trees at Cayton in eastern Shasta County, Calif., 
and at Sisson, Calif., July 15 to 27-, 1918. These were much 
more abundant on pines but were also taken on firs and cedars. 
This species may be distinguished by the prominent base of the 
vertex, the broad, curved hind tibiae, and the fuscous third 
and white fourth antennal segments. I have specimens from 
Manitou, Colo., that do not differ from this species and Mr. W. 
M. Giffard has taken it at Donner Lake, Placer County, Calif., 
at an elevation of 6000 feet. It is probably the common species 
on pines throughout California. 

Holotype (No. 413), male, and allotype (No. 414), female, 
from Cayton, and paratypes in collection of the California 
Academy of Sciences. 



23. Pilophorus crassipes, new species 

Allied to tibialis but with narrower hind tibiae; vertex with 
a median sulcus ; membrane with a blackish lunule behind the 
areoles ; length 6 mm. 

Head broad triangular and flattened much as in tibiulis. Base of the 
vertex much depressed ; hind margin strongly elevated ; median line sul- 
cate ; front of vertex with evident striae ; apex of the cheeks narrowly 
truncate, considerably exceeded by the clypeus ; sides of the head bluntly 
carinate before the eye as in the allied species. Second antennal segment 
rather thicker than in either amcenus or tibialis, becoming less abruptly 
narrowed toward the base, thus giving tlie antennae a heavier look ; third 
segment nearly twice the length of first and almost as thick : fourth three 
fourths the length of third and more slender. Rostrum attaining the hind 
cox£e ; the basal segment much surpassing the bucculs but not reaching 
the base of the head. Pronotum broader than in tibialis and ainwiius; as 
wide as the head across the eyes ; disk posteriorly strongly rugose-shag- 
reened. Posterior line of silvery hairs on elytra entire, not dislocated at 
claval suture ; the surface of the clavus and corium behind this line and the 
cuneus polished. Hind tibiae long, flattened and curved but not so strongly 
as in tibialis, its greatest width about half that of the femora. Upper sur- 
face, of the elytra at least, clothed with scattering short erect stiff fuscous 
hairs. 



294 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Color piceous-black, becoming more brownish on head and antennae, the 
thickened apical portion of the second segment shading to darker piceous; 
fourth segment white with only the tip dusky. Lines of silvery hairs on the 
scuteHum and elytra more slender than in the allied forms, the posterior 
straight and entire, not dislocated on claval suture. Membrane paler than 
in the allied forms, with a broad fuscous lunule at apex of the larger 
areole. 

Described from a male from Glen Echo, Md., July 20, a 
female from Washington, D. C, June 15, both taken by the 
late Otto Heidemann and determined by him as "Piloplwrns 
crassipes Uhl. MS.", and a female taken by myself at Riverton, 
N. J., August 17, 1902. Most of my material in both this 
species and the next, including specimens determined by Dr. 
Uhler, .was sent to Dr. Renter for study but a short time before 
his death and has never found its way back to me. These 
species however are very distinct and can safely be described 
from scant material. Both were listed by Heidemann in 1892 
(Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., ii, p. 225), but his comparative notes 
do not form a proper description of the species. P. crassipes 
is common on pine throughout the east. 

Holotype, female, from Wash., D. C, and allotype, male, 
from Glen Echo, in collection of the author. Paratype in col- 
lection of the California Academy of Sciences. 



24. Pilophorus laetus, new species 

Size and aspect of discrctiis but very distinct from all our 
other species by the abruptly clavate second antennal segment. 
Length 3J^ mm. 

Head large ; viewed from before broadly rounded at apex with the 
narrow pointed ch-peus projecting a little below the cheeks. Face convex; 
vertex with a median sulcus, scarcely depressed at base, the hind edge 
very slenderly carinate. Sides of the head strongly, obtusely carinate be- 
yond the eyes. Antennae slender ; the apical one third of second segment 
abruptly, strongly clavate. Rostrum reaching the hind coxae, the first seg- 
ment hardly attaining the base of the head. Pronotum short, sides parallel 
anteriorly, the humeri angularly produced but not wider than the head 
across the eyes. Elytra much expanded at apex ; anterior silvery line 
oblique, posterior interrupted from the cubital vein almost to the claval 
suture, not dislocated on clavtis ; .Apex of the clavus and corium beyond this 
line for their whole width and the cuneus polished, the latter with a silvery 
point at its inner angle. 

'Color piceous or more or less castaneous, becoming paler on the head 
antennK and legs. Club of second antennal segment piceous, preceded by 
a paler space; third segment white, fuscous at tip, (fourth segment want- 
ing). Base of elytra bright cinnamon as in amocnus. Membrane a little- 



Vol. VIII] VAN DUZEE— NEW SPECIES HEMIPTERA 295 

fuliginous with a large fuscous cloud centered at the apex of the areoles. 
Base of the anterior coxa;, much of the posterior, and base of the tarsi 
whitish. 

Described from one female example collected by Mr. Otto 
Heidemann at Rock Creek, D. C, June 20, 1890, and deter- 
mined by bim as "Pilophorus Icstits Uhl." I took one male at 
Washington, D. C, June 25, 1905, and a female at Woodbine, 
N. J., August 21, 1902, but both are now too imperfect to be 
used as types. 

Holotype in collection of the author. 

The following key will distinguish our recorded North 
American species of Pilophorus : 

Third antenna! segment with the apical one third abruptly clavate ; 
posterior silvery line interrupted on the corium, not dislocated at 
claval suture ; length 3 J4 mm latus, new species 

Third antennal segment gradually thickened toward the apex or nearly 

linear 1 

1. Third antennal segment linear or practically so; posterior silvery 

line entire, a little oblique ; length 4 mm discrcUis, new species 

-. Third antennal segment obviously thicker at apex 2 

2. Third antennal segment but little thickened at apex 3 

-. Third antennal segment much thickened at apex, clavate ; apex of 

elytra smooth ; length 5 to 6 mm 6 

3. Surface clothed with rather long appressed grey hairs 4 

-. Surface smooth or with scattering stiff hairs; apex of corium pol- 
ished exterior to cubital vein only; posterior silvery line dislo- 
cated 5 

4. Apex of corium polished across its whole width ; posterior silvery 

line dislocated at the clavus sclnvar^i Reut. 

-. Apex of corium polished exterior to cubital vein only ; posterior 
silvery line entire tomcntosus, new species 

5. Length about 3.'<2 mm. ; basal segment of rostrum scarcely surpassing 

the bucculae ; base of fourth antennal segment broadly pale 

ivalshi Uhl. 

-. Length 5 mm. ; basal segment of rostrum nearly attaining base of 

head; base of fourth antennal segment very narrowly pale 

clavatus Linn. 

6. Elytra comparatively broad, but little widened apically; hind tibise 

normal; fourth antennal segment white with apex black 

cinnaiiiohtcnis Kb. 

-. Elytra more expanded apically; hind tibis flattened and more or less 

curved 7 

7. Third antennal segment white; base of vertex scarcely elevated, its 

median line sulcate amcrnus Uhl. 

-. Third antennal segment fuscous or black 8 

8. Base of vertex sulcate : membrane with a blackish lunule at apex of 

the areoles ; elytra clothed with short, stiff, erect hairs 

criissil^es. new species 

-. Base of vertex not sulcate ; membrane with a large blackish cloud 
covering the larger areole and invading the surface beyond ; elytra 
smooth tibialis, new species 



296 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIEyCES [Proc. 4th Sea. 

25. Lopidea occidentalis, new species 

Closely allied to media Say and apparently the western rep- 
resentative of that species ; above sanguineous, scutellum, cal- 
losities, antennre and markings on the head black ; right clasper 
of male without subapical tooth. Length 5^ mm. 

Structural characters very near to those of media. Vertex a little fuller 
and more convex. Antenna shorter, as long as from apex of head to base 
of cuneus. Dextral clasper of male broad, strap-shaped as in media but 
without the subapical tooth, the basal tooth shorter, more slender and in- 
curved from near its base, just attaining the base of the dorsal tooth of 
the pygofer; this median dorsal tooth on the pygofer is much larger in 
the present species, surpassing the anal tube, slender and hooked at apex. 
Sinistral clasper elongate-triangular, acute at superior apical angle ; fringed 
ventrally with long pale hairs. In media the dextral clasper is armed with 
a produced tooth before its apex dorsally ; the basal tooth is very long, 
curved, and fully equals the dorsal tooth of the pygofer ; this dorsal tooth 
much shorter and armed with an apical hook; the sinistral cUsper, also, is 
bilobed, both lobes being broadly rounded at apex. 

Color sanguineous as in media; ch-peus, two longitudinal areas on the 
vertex and its base black, these markings sometimes extended so as to cover 
most of the surface. Callosities black, contiguous. Scutellum black tinged 
with red at apex. Clavus and inner field of corium more or less infuscated, 
darker in the male. Membrane blackish, iridescent, the nervures black. 
Antennx and legs black or nearly so, the femora invaded with pale at apex. 
Sternum and middle of venter more or less clouded with black, the male 
genitalia red. Rostrum piceous, reaching the hind coxae. 

Described from 39 specimens, representing both sexes, taken 
at Palm Springs, Calif., May 19, 1917, on Croton californicus, 
found growing near the mouth of Andreas' Canyon. The 
male genital characters and shorter antennae will distinguish 
this species from its eastern ally. The general color, also, is 
deeper, more as in renteri and ccBsar. 

Holotype (No. 415), male, allotyi>e (No. 416), female, and 
paratypes in collection of the California Academy of Sciences. 



26. Hadronema infans, new species 

Small, black; posterior lobe of pronotum and elytra dull 
sanguineous ; inner field of corium obscured, the membrane 
black; length 3>4-4 mm. 

Head as in pieta, the basal impression of the vertex deep; antennae short, 
as long as from apex of head to base of cuneus. Basal lobe of scutellum 
covered by the pronotum, the apical lobe convex, without a basal depres- 
sion. Rostrum attaining the apex of hind coxae; tip of venter reaching 
to apex of the cuneus. Male genital characters distinctive. Dextral clasper 
elongate-conical, curved and almost hooked at apex which passes just above 



Vol. Vim y.4N DUZEE—NEW SPECIES HEMIPTERA 297 

the apex of the sinistral clasper; this sinistral clasper convex, ligulate, 
rounded at tip and incurved against the apex of the genital segment ; both 
claspers with a few long stiff hairs ventrally. 

Color black, more or less covered with a white bloom, especially on the 
head and pronotum; head obscurely marked with pale next the eyes and on 
the cheeks. Posterior lobe of pronotum and elytra obscure sanguineous, 
paler on the humeri and base of the corium ; the clavus and inner field of 
the corium obscured or blackish. Scutellum blackish; membrane black; 
sides of venter more or less tinged with reddish. Upper surface sparsely 
clothed with very short appressed pale hairs. 

Described from 69 examples taken at Palm Springs. Calif., 
May 22, 1917, on Dalca cinoryi found growing on the floor of 
the desert a mile or two east of town. This species is nearest 
picta in size and genital characters but is very distinct from 
any previously described species. 

Holotype (No. 417), male, allotype (No. 418), female, and 
paratypes in collection of California Academy of Sciences. 



27. Hadronema albescens, new species 

Allied to dccorata Uhl. ; white or almost lead-color ; head, 
base of antennae, scutellum and femora fulvous; inner angle of 
corium with a blackish spot ; length 4 mm. 

Head about as in militaris, the vertex flatter than in robusta. Rostrum 
attaining the middle of intermediate coxae, its first segment scarcely sur- 
passing the base of the head. Antennas about as in robusta: second and 
third segments equal in length; first and fourth subequal, the firsit thickened 
and fusiform. Pronotum rather less roughened than in the allied species, 
the callosities large but not prominent ; anterior margin showing a flat 
membranous expansion covering the base of the head but this cannot 
properly be desi,gnatcd as a collum and becomes a mere margin in the 
allied forms ; carinate lateral margins obtuse ; humeral angles rather prom- 
inent. Scutellum flattened. Elytra parallel ; costal margin sharply distin- 
guished and narrowly foliaceous ; cuneus unusually long and narrow. 
Upper surface of the pronotum, scutellum, clavus, and disk of the corium 
clothed with scattering stiff fuscous hairs springing from fuscous dots; 
sides of corium and cuneus with a softer white pubescence. Legs long, 
the tibiae armed with long stiff black bristles, much longer than the thick- 
ness of the member. Male genital characters obscure. Dextral clasper 
broad, flat, bent in its own plane at about the middle and truncate at apex; 
sinistral clasper produced in a long acute black spine. 

'Color white or somewhat lead-color ; head, scutellum and coxK of a pale 
dull fulvous, the borders of the eyes, cheeks, lor.-e and bucculss white; basal 
segment of the antennas and femora of a deeper fulvous. Antennae, except 
basal segment, rostrum, tibije and tarsi black ; the base of the second anten- 
nal segment, of the rostrum and of the tibia? paler or fulvous ; pronotum, 
venter, clavus and disk of the corium more or less darkened or lead-color 
and punctured with fuscous at base of the black hairs. Inner angle of 
corium with a transverse blackish spot not passing the radial vein. Mem- 
brane white, somewhat infuscated in the areoles, the veins blackish. Hind 
femora and pygofer of the female blackish at base. 



298 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Described from 80 examples representing both sexes, taken 
on Dalca ciiioryi at Palm Springs, Calif., May 18-22, 1917. A 
few examples were also captured on a species of Atriplex where 
they probably were resting. This is identical with the "imma- 
ture variety" (No. 777) mentioned by Dr. Uhler in his de- 
scription of Hadronaua dccorata but it is a very distinct species. 
It is still nearer H. splcndida Gibson (Can. Ent., 1, p. 84, 
1918) but is sufficiently di.stinct. 

Holotype (No. 419), male, allotype (No. 420), female, and 
paratypes in collection of the California Academy of Sciences. 



28. Orthotylus hamatus, new species 

Form and size of laiiguidiis nearly; clear light green; mem- 
brane uniformly whitish hyaline; length 6 mm. 

Elongate oval, rather broad, nearly smooth, clothed only with very 
minute pale pubescence. Vertex flattened across the base in the male, 
scarcely so in the female, the basal carina sharp. Front moderately convex, 
less so in the male; characters of the head about as in languidus ; clypeus 
prominent ; antennae sliort ; second segment distinctly shorter than in 
languidus, hardly longer than the basal width of the pronotum. Pronotum 
about as in languidus, its length one half its basal width ; sides straight ; 
callosities large, oval, widely separated : hind margin concavely arcuated. 
Elytral costa slightly arcuated. .\pex of abdomen reaching to middle of 
cuncus in the male, to its apex in the female. Rostrum attaining tlie pos- 
terior margin of the nietasternum : first segment slightly surpassing the 
base of the head. Dextral clasper of male broad, strap-shaped, truncate at 
its incurved apex, its base broadly e.xtended dorsally and armed with a 
sharp curved hook which is parallel to and about half as long as the broad 
ventral portion, Sinistral clasper linear, subterete, attaining the apex of 
the ventral plate of the genital segment. This geni-tal conformation is very 
nearly as in languidus with the addition of the sharp parallel dorsal hook 
added to the dextral clasper. 

Color a pale clear bluish green deepened along the clavale suture ; head 
and breast sometimes paler ; membrane whitish hyaline, very slightly infus- 
cated in the male, the apical margin slenderly darker. Eyes and tip of the 
tarsi and rostrum black. Antenns tinged with yellow and somewhat in- 
fuscated at apex. 

Described from three male and seven female examples taken 
on willows growing by the river above Colton, Calif.. May 28, 
1917, and one female taken at Soboba Springs near San 
Jacinto, Calif., June 2. 1917. 

This species may be distinguished from languidus by its more 
pronounced green color, the darker line along the claval suture, 
the unifiirmlv hyaline membrane and especially by the want of 



Vol. VIII] VAN DUZEE— NEW SPECIES HEUIPTERA 299 

the conspicuous long pale hairs clothing the up[)er surface of 
that species. 

Holotype (No. 421), male, allotype (No. 422), female, 
and paratypes in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

29. Orthotylus albocostatus, new species 

Aspect of nnifonnis: closely allied to fratcnius but larger and 
broader with the costal margin of the elytra quite broadly 
whitish; length 5-5}^ mm. 

Head about as in nnifonnis. longer and more oblique than in fratcrnus; 
length below the eye distinctly greater than the greatest length of the 
eye ; clypeus very prominent and convex ; vertex but little flattened, the 
carina feeble. Pronotum short, transverse ; humeri prominent, flattened ; 
sides sharply carinate ; callosities but little elevated, in the female dis- 
tinguished by a transverse depression. Elytra long, the costa feebly arcu- 
ated in the male, more strongly in the female; cuneus in the male much 
elongated. Rostrum reacliing the apex of the intermediate coxs. Antennae 
about as in fratcnius: first segment thicker, armed within near the apex 
with two or three stiff fuscous hairs which are longer than the thickness 
of the segment; second segment distinctly longer than the basal width of 
the pronotum; third nearly equal to second; fourth hardly longer than 
first. Surface clothed with soft white hairs which become scale-like and 
conspicuous on the pronotum and head and are intermixed with stiffer 
fuscous ones on the elytra interior to the radial vein. Male genitalia small ; 
dextral clasper nearly circular, pedicellate ; sinistral scarcely twice ithe size 
of the dextral, transverse or a little oblique. 

Color pale dull green, becoming still paler on the head and pronotum and 
darker on the clavus. Pronotum and scutellum' with an obscurely paler 
median line ; costal margin to the radial vein whitish hyaline, this pale 
margin fading out on the cuneus. Membrane moderately infuscated, paler 
in the areoles, the veins pale or green. Antennas green at base becoming 
infuscated at apex. Tip of rostrum, apex of tarsi and tibial bristles black. 

Described from twelve male and nine female examples taken 
at Keen Camp, San Jacinto Mountains, Calif., June 12, 1917, 
on a species of Gilia with slender foliage, and one male taken in 
Muir Woods, Marin county, Calif., May 19, 1915. This form 
may be distinguished among our green species by its long head, 
the pale costal margin and the fact that the brown hairs on the 
elytra are found only on the surface interior to the radial vein. 

Holotype (No. 423), male, and allotype (No. 424), female, 
from Keen Camp in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

Paratypes in the collection of the Academy and in that of the 
author. 



300 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Ser. 

30. Parthenicus covilleae, new species 

Aspect of pickollis but paler ; fulvous yellow with uniformly 
black membrane ; length 3-4 mm. 

Head somewhat less produced than in l^icicolUs, the extension below the 
eye rather less than the greatest width of the eye ; clypeus prominent with 
a deep depression between its base and the apex of the front. Antennae 
similar to those of picicollis; first segment thickened, scarcely surpassing 
the apex of the head; second subequal to third and fourth united. Elytral 
costa very slightly arcuated. Upper surface clothed with long stifT concol- 
orous or pale hairs becoming blackish on the disk of the ehtra and some- 
what matted about the apex of the clavus giving that place a blackish aspect 
in perfect examples. Male claspers small, rounded when viewed from the 
side; the dextral subacute and oblique; the sinistral produced along the 
ventral wall of the segment to its ape.x. 

Color a soiled yellowish fulvous, more or less tinged with red. in fully 
colored examples showing a transverse band covering the scutellum, base of 
the elytra and the cuneus, reddish. Membrane uniformly deep fuscous, 
the nervures red ; sometimes there is a small paler lunule at the apex of the 
cuneus. Legs and antcnns paler, the basal segment of the latter more 
reddish. Tarsal claws black, .'\bdomen of the male sometimes tinged 
with green. 

Described from 27 examples, representing both sexes, taken 
on creasote bush, Covillca mcxicana, at Palm Springs and Coa- 
chella, Calif., May 18-21, 1917, where it was abundant and just 
reaching maturity. The uniformly yellowish color and blackish 
membrane will distinguish this species. Only the most fully 
colored individuals show indications of sanguineous irrora- 
tions in the reddish areas on the base of the elytra and cuneus. 

Holotype (No. 425), male from Palm Springs, allotype 
(No. 426), female from Coachella, and paratypes in collection 
of the California Academy of Sciences. 



31. Parthenicus candidus, new species 

Closely allied to vaccini, the femora wanting the fuscous 
dotting but marked with a few black points; white, dotted with 
black ; base of scutellum and thickened vein at base of mem- 
brane sanguineous ; membrane white with two marginal spots 
and a few discal points brown; length 3-3 J^ mm. 

Male : Head short, vertical ; produced below the eye for less than the 
width of the eye ; cK-peus prominent ; its basal incisure distinct. Antennae 
as in z'accini ; first segment but little surpassing the apex of the head, 
thicker, armed near the apex with two black bristles set in black dots ; sec- 
ond as long as basal width of pronotum; third two thirds the length of 
second ; fourth hardly longer than basal. Rostrum attaining the middle 
of the venter, the first segment passing the middle of the anterior coxae. 



Vol. vim VAN DVZEE—NEW SPECIES HEMIPTERA 301 

Pronotum a little broader with the sides more oblique than in vaccini; 
more strongly depressed anteriorly, the callosities obscure. Basal lobe of 
scutellum somewhat exposed, Elytral costa feebly arcuated. Cla,spers 
similar to those of vaccini. Sinistral narrow, lying along the ventral wall 
of the segment and reaching to its middle line. Dextral terete, slender, 
curved and overlapping the sinistral a little. In all specimens before me 
this clasper is lifted free from the margin and this may be its normal 
position. 

Color a dead white becoming soiled or testaceous on the head and 
anterior lobe of pronotum; surface of pronotum minutely dotted with 
brown omitting its posterior disk. Basal lobe of scutellum clouded 
with sanguineous which color may invade the base of the posterior 
lobe. Elytra dotted with black, these dots arranged somewhat in 
lines, two rows of seven each on the clavus being quite regular; those 
of the corium paler and more confused, towards the apex carrying 
brown hairs. Apex of the clavus with a pencil of black hairs and there 
are three similar clusters on the cuneus, one at its basal angle and two 
beyond the middle of the inner margin. Thickened vein at base of the 
membrane sanguineous. Membrane clear white with two fuscous 
clouds on the apical margin and a few faint brown points on the disk, 
the veins white. Antenn.-e witli a black point near the apex of the first 
seginent and three or four fainter dots on the second, sometimes obsolete. 
Femora with a few black points, one near the apex of the hind pair being 
larger. Tibise strongly dotted. 

Female sometimes brachypterous, then ovate with a shorter pronotum 
and a soiled white color, more strongly spotted and wanting the sanguin- 
eous marks. The macropterous female similar to the male. 

Described from three male and three female examples taken 
on Hyincnoclca salsola at Coachella, Calif., May 16, 1917, and 
at Palm Springs, May 21, 1917. This species is very close to 
vaccini from Massachusetts but the difference in the food-plant 
and locality in addition to color characters would seem to war- 
rarit its separation; vaccini has the femora infuscated or ir- 
rorate at apex and the disk of the pronotum and scutellum 
evenly dotted ; it also wants the sanguineous markings and has 
the dotting of the elytra confined to the corium and fainter and 
more irregular, and the disk of the membrane without brown 
points. Both have the pale hairy vestiture. 

Holotype (No. 427), male, allotype (No. 428), female, 
and paratypes in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

Our eight species of Partlirnictis may be distinguished by 
the following key : 

Color, including the membrane, white 1 

Color pale, usually irrorate with sanguineous or mostly sanguineous; 

membrane fuscous or mostly so 2 

1. Femora irrorate with fuscous at apex; elytral dots omitting the 
clavus ; disk of pronotum and scutellum dotted ; no red markings, 
eastern, on Vaccinum vaccini V. D. 



302 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

-. Femora with a few black points ; clavus with two rows of black 
points; disk of pronotum and scutellum free from points; base of 
scutellum and basal vein of membrane sanguineous, western, on 
Hymenoclea candidus, new species 

2. Membrane fuscous with two pale marginal spots beyond the cuneus. 3 
-. Membrane uniformly fuscous 4 

3. Tibiae minutely dotted with sanguineous ; inner angle of elytra infus- 

cated, the surface minutelj' dotted with sanguineous ; membrane 

faintly enfumed psalloidcs Reut. 

-. Tibia; coarsely dotted with fusco-sanguineous ; elytra uniformly 
more coarsely dotted with sanguineous or washed with that color ; 
membrane deeply enfumed, the paler spots contrasted, .ruber V. D. 

4. General color white or pale salmon with a sanguineous band cross- 

ing the scutellum and base of elytra; without sanguineous irrora- 

tions ; hind femora fusco-sanguineous giifardi V. D. 

-. General color croceus or testaceous, usually irrorate with sanguin- 
eous or mostly sanguineous 5 

5. Pronotum and scutellum piceous-brown ; elytra sanguineous or 

heavily irrorate with that color picicoUis V. D. 

-. Pronotum and scutellum not colored differently from elytra 6 

6. Testaceous, irrorate with sanguineous; femora heavily irrorate, 

soror V. D. 

-. Croceus, without irrorations ; base of elytra and cuneus sometimes 
sanguineous; femora concolorous coviUca, new species 



32. Psallus croceus, new species 

Aspect of scrialus but more briglitly colored ; whitish, tliickly 
sprinkled with bright croceus; membrane irrorate; length 
3-3 J/2 nim. 

Head short, projecting below the eye for a distance equal to the greatest 
width of the eye ; clypeus broad, poorly distinguished. Antenns normal 
for the genus ; first segment scarcely surpassing the apex of the head ; 
second nearly equal to the basal width of the pronotum ; third and fourth 
together not longer than second; third one fourth longer than the fourth. 
Pronotum short and broad, but slightly declinate ; its length two-fifths its 
basal width; sides feebly arcuate; hind margin a little concavely arcuate; 
callosities small. Basal lobe of scutellum exposed ; costal margin of elytra 
feebly arcuated. Hind femora broad, flattened. Dextral male clasper 
long, curved and tapering, transverse, reaching across the genital segment ; 
sinistral porrect, triangular, flattened, but little shorter than the dextral. 

Color testaceous-white ; upper surface closely sprinkled with rather large 
orange dots, the disk of the cuneus quite strongly tinged with orange. 
Membrane whitish hyaline, sparsely sprinkled with pale fuscous dots ; 
veins and a large spot at apex of cuneus white, the latter bordered behind 
by a fuscous cloud; areoles infuscated about their margins, shading to 
hyaline on their basal disk ; hind femora usually with a few dusky dots, 
about three of which are larger and persistent. Tibiae armed with a few 
stout bristles, posterior with a row of large black dots ; the anterior and 
intermediate with a few small dots toward their base. Base of the female 
oviduct sometimes infuscated. Upper surface clothed with stiff somewhat 
appressed pale hairs. 

Described from six male and eight female examples taken on 
a sycamore tree in Andreas' Canyon at Palm Springs, Calif., 



Vol. VIII] VAN DUZEE—NEIV SPECIES HEMIPTERA 303 

May 19, 1917. The coarse orange dotting of this species will 
serve to distinguish it. 

Holotype (No. 429), male, allotype (No. 430), female, 
and paratypes in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 

33. Atomoscelis peregrinus, new species 

Color and aspect of Sthciianis citncotiiictiis but aside from 
generic characters it may be distinguished by its larger size and 
uniformly pale antennje and legs ; pale greenish with red 
cuneus ; length 3^ mm. 

Head short, broad, vertical ; clypetis prominent, abritptly bent so the 
apex is inferior and almost horizontal ; its base on the line connecting the 
antennae, the suture distinct ; apex of head forming a right-angle ; gula 
wanting; vertex broad, moderately convex, ecarinate at base. Antennae 
reaching nearly to tip of clavus; basal segment thick, not surpassing apex 
of head; second as long as the pronotum and half the scutellum, two fifths 
the basal width of the pronotum. Rostrum a little surpassing the hind 
coxae in female, attaining the fifth ventral segment in male. Pronotum 
short, trapezoidal, sides strongly oblique ; callosities small, distinct ; base 
of scutellum covered. Elytra parallel or nearly so. Hind femora salta- 
torial, broadly flattened. Surface above clothed with minute deciduous 
scale-like white hairs. -Male claspers large, broad, plate-like; the dextral 
nearly a parallelogram with its apex oblique and produced above ; sinistral 
transverse with its dorsal and ventral angles subacute. 

Color pale yellowish becoming greenish on the elytra and abdomen or 
at times altogether greenish ; cuneus red ; tarsi tipped with black, the legs 
otherwise immaculate. 

Described from two male and thirty-one female examples 
taken on Dalca schottii at Coachella, Calif., May 16, 1917. At 
Palm Springs it was also taken in numbers, with its young, on 
this Dalea and on Krameria canescens. 

Holotype (No. 431), male, allotype (No. 432), female, 
from Coachella, and paratypes in collection of the California 
Academy of Sciences. 



34. Tuponia lucida, new species 

Pale tender green with subhyaline elytra ; hind tibiae dotted 
with black ; length about 4 mm. 

Head short, vertical, somewhat produced, the facial angle being a little 
less than a right angle ; produced below the eye for almost the length of 
the eye. Vertex broad, quite convex, ecarinate at base. Clypeus broad, 
flat at base with the basal suture nearly obsolete ; rounded and prominent 



304 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

at apex ; giila scarcely indicated. Rostrum reaching hind coxae ; first seg- 
ment attaining base of head. Basal segment of antenns scarcely surpassing 
apex of head ; second almost as long as basal width of pronotum, a little 
longer than third and fourth together ; fourth two thirds of third. Prono- 
tum short, transverse ; its length two fifths its basal width, the sides a little 
rounding to the anterior angles ; callosities narrow, well defined. Elytral 
costa verj- slightly arcuated. Dextral male clasper elongated, obtuse, about 
four times wider than long, just passing the middle of the genital segment; 
sinistral porrect, triangular, transversely convex. 

Color pale or whitish green, sometimes tinged with yellow on the head ; 
the elytra subhyaline. Membrane whitish hyaline, highly iridescent; veins 
pale green. Antenna: slightly infuscated at apex. Tibise dotted with black, 
these dots on the anterior and intermediate very small ; apex of tarsi 
black. Upper surface clothed with soft white hairs. 

Described from one male and seven female examples taken 
on willows along the Tahquitz trail in the village of Palm 
Springs, Calif., May 21, 1917. This fortn may be distinguished 
by its unifomi pale green color and spotted tibise. Its longer 
head and uniform coloring will distinguish it from our other 
species of Tuponia. 

Holotype (No. 433), male, allotype (No. 434), female, and 
paratypes in collection of the California Academy of Sciences. 



35. Tuponia dubiosa, riew species 

Very close to lucida; smaller, proportionately broader and 
more deeply colored; light green, membrane immaculate; hind 
femora broader and more distinctly dotted, the tibial dots 
smaller ; length 3 mm. 

Characters of head about as in lucida but with the vertex obviously nar- 
rower; basal segment of rostrum not passing the base of the head; hind 
femora broader than in lucida, subovate. 

Color more distinctly green than in lucida, more tinged with soiled 
fulvous on the head and beneath, especially on hind femora and sides of 
abdomen. Femora minutely but distinctly dotted with brown, the dots 
on the anterior and intermediate sometimes almost obsolete ; tibiae white, 
the tibial spines pale, springing from minute black points which are much 
smaller than in lucida. Membrane whitish hyaline, immaculate or appar- 
ently so. Upper surface clothed with soft white hairs. Base of oviduct 
infuscated. 

Described from six female examples taken on palo verde 
at Coachella, Calif., May 16, 1917. Although very close to 
lucida this form seems to be distinct by its smaller size, less 
elongated form, deeper color, iminaculate membrane and nearly 
impunctate tibije. 

Holotype (No. 435), female, and paratypes in collection of 
California Academy of Sciences. 



Vol. VIII] l^AN DUZEE—NEIV SPECIES HEMIPTERA 305 

36. Plagiognathus pictipes, new species 

Above pale greenish becoming yellowish on the head ; be- 
neath and legs piceons or almost castaneous, somewhat irrorate 
with pale ; abdomen green ; length 3 mm. 

Head narrower than in Europiella stigmosa, but little more than half the 
basal width of the pronotnm. vertical before, the face scarcely inferior as in 
Europiella ; clypeus but little prominent, the basal suture distinct but not 
deep, a little above the insertion of the antennae ; facial angle rather less 
than a right angle; gula none. Rostrum attaining the base of the inter- 
mediate coxje ; basal segment dilated, just passing the base of the head. 
Antennae short ; first segment hardly attaining apex of clypeus ; second as 
long as the width of head across the eyes ; third two thirds the length of 
second; fourth two thirds of third. Pronotum but little declinate ante- 
riorly, the callosities obvious but not prominent ; basal lobe of scutellum 
covered. Costal margin of elytra but feebly arcuated ; the abdomen of the 
female reaching half way from tip of cuneus to apex of membrane. Hind 
femora broad, compressed ; hind tarsi with the third segment scarcely 
longer than second. Characters of male claspers obscure, the sinistral 
small, transverse. 

Color above pale greenish or whitish, becoming yellowish or even fulvous 
on the head ; beneath clear pale green marked with fuscous or dark cas- 
taneous on lower surface of head and on the breast. Legs whitish, coarsely, 
irregularly dotted with blackish castaneous, at times becoming almost en- 
tirely black, especially on the hind femora ; all the tibiae white with white 
spines springing from small black points; tarsal claws black; oviduct of 
female sometimes infusoated. Apex of the antennae infuscated, the basal 
segment more or less marked with castaneous. Elytra immaculate greenish. 
Membrane whitish hyaline, faintly irrorate with dusky, nervures pale. 
Wings whitish hyaline, highly iridescent. 

Described from one male and nine female examples taken at 
Coachella, Calif., near the railway station, May 13, 1916. The 
single male is immature indicating that as in decolor the male 
appears later than the female. This species like decolor has the 
aspect and general characters of Europiella but the fonn of the 
head and pronotum are those of Plagiognathus. In a measure 
they seem to connect these two genera. In the present species 
the upper surface is clothed with matted white hairs with some 
longer fuscous ones intermixed on the corium and cuneus. 

Holotype (No. 436), female, allotype (No. 437), male, and 
paratypes in collection of the California Academy of Sciences. 



37. Europiella sparsa, new species 

A small thick-set pale greenish white insect, thickly clothed 
above with deciduous scale-like white hairs intermixed on the 
elytra with longer fuscous ones ; femora and tibise dotted ; 
length 3 mm. 



306 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES tPROC. 4th Ser. 

Head broad and short, its width across the eyes three fourths that of the 
basal margin of the pronotum ; nearly vertical, the face below somewhat 
inferior; its apex, viewed from the side, broad and square; produced below 
the eye for a distance almost equal to the length of the eye ; clypeus flatfish, 
poorly distinguished, its basal suture indistinct but obvious, on a line dis- 
tinctly above the base of the antennje ; gula wanting. Rostrum attaining 
the hind cox:e ; basal segment expanded reaching the base of the head. 
Antennae short ; basal segment about reaching apex of clypeus ; second 
equal to the width of the head across the eyes ; third about two thirds of 
second; fourth one half the third. Pronotum short and broad, feebly 
convex; sides but little oblique, feebly arcuated; hind margin straight: 
callosities indistinct. Basal field of scutellum covered. Elytra short and 
broad ; costa distinctly arcuated. Hind femora broad and much flattened ; 
third segment of hind tarsi scarcely longer than the second. Male genital 
characters obscure, the sinistral clasper small and transverse. 

'Color obscure testaceous-white, sometimes tinged with yellow or green, 
especially on the head and abdomen. Antenns becoming infuscated on 
their apical half; Femora with a few large scattering brown dots toward 
their apex, more apparent on the hind pair and less conspicuous in the 
male, these dots tending to form a line near the lower margin. Tibiae 
white, armed with large conspicuous black spines set in black dots. Eyes, 
apex of the tarsi and of the rostrum black. Oviduct of female more or 
less infuscated. Lower surface of male sometimes infuscated. Upper sur- 
face clothed with closely set silvery scale-like deciduous hairs, intermixed 
on the elytra with longer fuscous ones. Membrane immaculate. 

Described from 10 male and 14 female examples taken on 
Atriplex at Coachella, Palm Springs and Soboba Springs, 
Calif., May 13, to June 2, 1917. Among our pale species sporsa 
may be distinguished by the stout black tibial spines and the 
sparse coarse dotting of the femora. 

Holotype (No. 438), male, allotype (No. 439), female, 
and paratypes in collection of the California Acadeiny of 
Sciences. 



38. Catonia helenae, new species 

Form and size of iiiajitsciilus; cinereous varied with fuscous 
and croceus ; front with an interrupted black band at base and 
an indefinite area at apex ; length 7-8 mm. 

Vertex nearly square, a little wider posteriorly; carinae prominent; an- 
terior margin feebly rounded, passage to the front abrupt ; basal margin 
scarcely angled. Front narrow, much wider at apex ; sides straight ; carinae 
prominent ; clypeus more convex with conspicuous carinae. Elytra long and 
parallel ; venation distinct ; stigma about twice longer than wide and 
crossed at its basal third by an oblique suture, the margin beyond with 
three small areoles. Lateral plates of the female genital segment short, 
transverse, their hind edge feebly sinuated and their inner angle obtuse. 
Plates of the male lanceolate-triangular, acute at apex, their inner basal 
angles approaching, exteriorly fringed with short pale hairs ; median valve 
produced in a long slender tooth which attains the middle of the plates. 

Color soiled yellowish testaceous, tinged with fulvous on the front, 
mesonotum and elytral nervures. Fovae of the vertex and pronotum in- 



Vol. VIII] VAN DUZEE—NEIV SPECIES HEMIPTERA 307 

fuscated, those of the front black at base and infuscated at apex next the 
clypeus. Checks, pleural pieces and basal angles of the. mesonotum marked 
with black; median compartments of the mesonotum clouded with black 
at base and again beyond the middle. Elytra cinereous becoming whitish 
at apex, with pale fulvous nervures, dotted and maculated with fuscous, 
the larger spots omitting the clavus and forming about three transverse 
vittae on the corium; costal area with an elongated blackish spot near the 
base, a small one at apex and two well defined spots between; the apical 
two thirds of the stigma black ; membranal portion mostly immaculate. 
Abdomen more or less clouded with fuscous on its disk ; legs pale. Basal 
segment of the antenns pale yellowish. Ocelli fulvous. 

Described from 35 specimens, representing both sexes, taken 
on the dead reflexed leaves of the Cahfornia fan palm, PVash- 
ingtonia filifcra, in Andreas' Canyon at Palm Springs, Calif., 
May 9, 1917. I have dedicated this interesting species to my 
wife, Helen Van Duzee, in recognition of her enthusiastic inter- 
est in entomological pursuits. This is our largest Catonia and 
quite distinct from any other known to me. It seems to be 
confined to this palm and to find its sustenance among the dead 
foliage only, as I was unable to obtain any froin the living 
leaves. 

Holotype (No. 440), male, allotype (No. 441), female, 
and paratypes in collection of the California Academy of 
Sciences. 



39. Catonia necopina, new species 

Allied to nervata and albocostata; dark fuscous-brown with 
the vertex and pronotum paler; costal and apical veins of the 
elytra whitish; length 5-5 >4 mm. 

Vertex short, rounding over to the base of the front, the lateral carinae 
forming a subacute angle before ; base angiilarly emarginate. Front a little 
convex in both diameters, very slightly widened toward the clypeus with 
the sides feebly arcuated ; sides acute but scarcely elevated ; median carina 
obsolete; barely indicated at the clypeal suture; surface closely uniformly 
punctured as is also the clypeus, the latter with an indistinct median carina. 
Pronotum as in the allied forms. Mesonotum closely evenly punctured, 
the carina obtuse, nearly parallel. Elytra deep smoky subhyaline without 
reticulations or dots, the nervures distinct. Costal margin with but three 
areoles between the stigmatal and transverse veins. Lateral plates of the 
female genital segment transverse-quadrangular, their inner angles sub- 
acute; plates of the male about twice longer than wide, parallel, their 
apices obliquely cut off; median tooth half the length of the plates, 
rounded at apex. 

Color deep smoky brown becoming a paler fulvous-brown on the head 
and pronotum; the patagis and costal margin whitish. Elytral nervures 
paler beyond the middle, more conspicuously whitish at apex. Front deep 
fuscous-brown shading to paler at base. Mesonotum tinged with cas- 



308 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIE.XCES [Proc. 4th Seb. 

taneous, the carinas concolorous or slightly p^ler. Abdomen blackish 
fuscous, the segments edged with pale, the genital pieces mostly pale. Legs 
fuscous lined with pale, the tibiae and tarsi mostly pale. 

Described from one pair taken at Keen Camp. San Jacinto 
Mountains, June 9, 1917, on Mt. Tahquitz, at an elevation of 
about 7000 feet. The food plant is probably cypress. Among 
the allied species with uniformly fuscous elytra bordered and 
veined with pale this may be distinguished by the convex, 
ecarinate, punctured front. 

Holotype (No. 442), male, and allotype (No. 443), female, 
in collection of the California Academy of Sciences. 



PROCEEDINGS 

. OF THE 

CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Fourth Series 

Vol. VIII. Nos. 8 and 9, pp. 309-351 June 16, 1919 



VIII 

REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE ACADEMY 
FOR THE YEAR 1918 



BY 

C. E. Grunsky 
President of the Academy 



Although no great event affecting the welfare and useful- 
ness of the Academy can be announced as having occurred 
during the last calendar year, the Academy has nevertheless 
prospered and its membership may well be content with the 
fact that despite the adverse conditions which prevailed dur- 
ing the war, now happily ended, it has continued to function 
properly and its activities have not been seriously interrupted. 

There has been but slight change in the number of mem- 
bers, as shown by the following summarv' : 

The present membership in the Academy is 455, made 
up of : 

Patrons 6 

Honorary Members 32 

Life Members 78 

Fellows 14 

Members 325 

During the year 1918, 2>Z new members were admitted 
and the Academy lost by death 13, by resignation 18 and by 
being dropped for arrearages in dues 6. 

June 16, 1919 



310 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se«. 

Those who were called by death are as follows : 

Mr. William Babcock Member Januar>- 23, 1918 

Mr. Frederick H. Beaver Member July 23. 1918 

Mr. George A. Clark Member April 27, 1918 

Mrs. A. L. Coombs Member May 5, 1918 

Hon. George W. Dickie Member August 17, 1918 

Mrs. Sarah Vaslit Hackett. ...Life November 3, 1917 

Mr. William J. Hackmeier... Member January 21, 1918 

Judge Ralph C. Harrison. . . . Life July 18, 1918 

Mr. Livingston Jenks Member November 11, 1918 

Dr. Martin Krotoszyner Member .^pril 20, 1918 

Dr. Benjamin R. Swan Life January 27, 1918 

Capt. Ignatius E. Thayer Life May 14, 1918 

Mr. Joseph S. Tobin Member February 5, 1918 

Mr. Qarence A. Waring Member November 4, 1918 

The Academy carries on its list of patrons the following 
names : 

Mr. William B. Bourn Mr. Joseph D. Grant 

Mr. William H. Crocker Mrs. Charlotte Hosmer 

Mr. Peter F. Dunne Mr. A. Kingsley Macomber 

Mr. Herbert Fleishhackcr Mr. Alexander F. Morrison 

Deceased 

Mr. William .Mvord Mr. John W. Hendrie 

Mr. Charles Crocker Mr. James Lick 

Mr. Ignatz Steinhart 

The Treasurer's report for the year 1918 shows that the 
total receipts for the year were $67,885.96, of which 
$15,569.67 were paid out as interest. The receipts include 
$500.00 of the A. K. Macomber donation of $3500.00. which 
made the installation of the White Pelican group possible. 
Otherwise they are fairly representative of the annual gross 
income of the Academy. The floating debt of the Academy 
was reduced during the year by $14,000. The rest of the 
income has been consumed in maintaining the Academy's 
museum and in carrying on the activities of the Academy in 
its various departments. That these activities have been 
productive of good results is apparent in the increase of the 
Academy's scientific collections and in the publications of the 
Academy, and will be made clear, too, by the reports of the 
Director of the Museum and of the curators. 



Vol. VIII] GRVNSKY— PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR igiS 311 

The Academy lias published during 1918 the following- 
papers in continuation of the Fourth Series of the Proceed- 
ings: 

Vol. II, Part II, No. 12, pp. 1-187 

A Review of the Albatrosses, Petrels and Diving Petrels 
by Leverett Mills Loomis. 

Vol. VII, No. 12, pp. 319-330 

Report of the President of the Academy for the Ye.\k 1917 
by C. E. Grunsky. 

Vol. VII, No. 13, pp. 331-364 

Report of the Director of the Museum for the Year 1917 
by Barton Warren Evermann. 

Vol. VIII, No. 1, pp. 1-25 

In Memoriam : Theodore Henry Hittell. 
Vol. VIII, No. 2, pp. 27-34 

In Memoriam : Carl Fuchs. 
Vol. VIII, No. 3, pp. 35-112 

Some Japanese Aphidid^ 

iby E. O. Essig and S. I. Kuwana. 

Vol. VIII, No. 4, pp. 113-156 

Geology of the Northern End of the Tampico Embayment Area 
by E. T. Dumble. 

Vol. VIII, No. 5, pp. 157-179 

The Kelp-Flies of North America 
by J. M. Aldrich 

Vol. VIII, No. 6, pp. 181-270 

The Garter-Snakes of Western North America 
by John Van Denburgh and Joseph R. Slevin. 

Vol. VIII, No. 7, pp. 271-308 

New Speoes of Hemiptera chiefly from C.vlifornia 
by Edward P. Van Duzee. 

During the year 1918, 10 free lectures have been delivered 
at the stated meetings of the Academy, as follows : 

January 16. The Sea Lions of the Pacific Coast of America. 

Prof. E. C. Starks, Department of Zoology, 

Stanford University. 
March 20. Fishes of the Lake Bonneville Basin. 

Prof. John O. Snyder, Department of Zoology. 

Stanford University. 
April 17. Sequoia National Park and its Extension. 

Worth Ryder, Curator, Oakland Art Gallery. 
May 15. Some Activities of the United States Department of -\%r\- 

culture in California. 

G. P. Rixford, Physiologist, Bureau of Plant Industry. 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 



312 



CALIFORMA ACADEMY OF 5C/E.VCE5 [Proc. 4th Ser. 



June 19. The Geography of Europe and the World War. 

Prof. Earle G. Linsley, Department of Science. 

Mills College. 
July 17. The Influence of the Weather on Human Activities. 

Edward A. Beals, District Forecaster, United States 

Weather Bureau. 
.^UGUST 21. The Early Days of the Academy. 

Charles B. Turrill. 
September 18. The Ways in which Insects are Modified or Adapted to 
their Environment and Mode of Life. 

Dr. Edwin C. Van Dyke, Professor of Entomology, 

University of California. 
October 16. Some Philosophical Considerations of Mathematics. 

Dr. Rufus L. Green, Professor of Mathematics, 

Stanford University. 
December 18. Birds of the High Sierras and their Environment. 

Dr. William F. Bade, President, California Associated 

Societies for the Conservation of Wild Life. 

The Sunday afternoon lectures delivered in the Museum 
building during the year 1918 included the following: 

T.ivNUARY 6. Midwinter Birds of Golden Gate Park. 

Dr. Joseph Grinnell, Director of the Museum of Verte- 
brate Zoolog>-, University of California. 
January 13. Fish and Game in California. 

Dr. H. C. Bryant, Expert, Fish and Game Commission. 
January 20. Forest Insects. 

Prof. R. W. Doane, Department of Entomology, 

Stanford Universit>'. 
January 27. E.xpcriences in a Georgia Swamp. 

Prof. J. C. Bradley, Department of Entomology, 

Cornell University. 
February 3. Bird Life as seen through the Camera, 

Dr. J. Rollin Slonaker, Department of Physiology, 

Stanford University. 
February 10. California Petroleum. 

Dr. Roy E. Dickerson, Curator of Invertebrate Paleon- 

tologT,-, California Academy of Sciences. 
February 17. Our Nearest Neighbor, the Moon. 

Prof. E. G. Linsley, Department of Geology and 

Astronomy, Mills College. 
February 24. The Crab Fisheries of the Pacific Coast. 

Dr. F. W. Weymouth, Department of Physiology, 

Stanford University. 
March 3. The Pacific Whale Fisheries. 

Dr. Harold Heath, Professor of Zoology, 

Stanford University. 



Vol. VIII] 



GRUNSKY— PRESIDENT'S REPORT FOR wiS 



n: 



April 


7. 


April 


14. 


April 


21. 


April 


28. 


May 


5. 


May 


12. 



March 17. Animal Experimentation and Medical Progress. 

Dr. F. M. McFarland, Professor of Histology, 
Stanford University. 

March 24. Life on Other Worlds. 

Dr. R. G. Aitken, Astronomer, Lick Observatory. 

March 31. Inflnence of California's Topography and Climate upon 

Man's Work. 

Prof. R. S. Holway, Department of Geography. 
University of California. 

Circulation of the Blood. 

Dr. A. A. D'Ancona, San Francisco Board of Education. 

Geology of California. 

Dr. J. Perrin Smith. Professor of Paleontology, 
Stanford University. 

Development in Teaching Geograpliy. 

Dr. Marsden Manson. 
The Banking Problems of the War. 

Professor M. S. Wildman, Department of Economics. 

Stanford University. 
The Hetch-Hetchy Water Supply. 

M. M. O'Shaughnessy, City Engineer. 
Collecting Bird Groups with Gun and Camera. 

Paul Fair, Department of Exhibits, California 

Academy of Sciences. 
May 19. The Value to Mankind of Humanely Conducted Experi- 

ments, upon Living Animals. 

Dr. F. B. Sumner, Biologist, Scripps Institution for 

Biological Research. 
October 6. The Chan.ges in the Newtonian Law of Gravitation indi- 
cated by the latest researches on the Motions of the Planets 
and of the Moon. 

Dr. T. J. J. See, Professor of Mathematics, 

United States Navy. 

October 13. The coming Commonwealth of Man. 

Edward Berwick, Member of the Institute of Inter- 
national Law. 

November 24. .Animal Life of the Apache Trail, Arizona. 

Harry S. Swarth, Curator of Birds, Museum of Verte- 
brate Zoology, University of California. 

December 1. Some Activities of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture in California. 

G. P. Rixford, Physiologist, Bureau of Plant Industry, 
United States Department of Agriculture. 

December IS. Building of the first Transcontinental Railroad. 
Charles B. Turrill. 



314 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

December 22. The Application of the Science of Geology in Exploration 
for Oil. 

Dr. Bruce L. Clark, Department of Paleontology, 

University of California. 
December 29. The Lessons of the Southeast Wind. 

Dr. Marsden Manson. 

In the matter of the Ignatz Steinhart bequest of $250,000 
to the Academy for the erection and equipment pi an 
aquarium in Golden Gate Park, it can now be reported tliat 
the city through a charter amendment, adopted at the elec- 
tion last November, has been definitely committed to an ac- 
ceptance of the conditions named in the bequest. Your Board 
of Trustees, too, has signified to the Executors of the Estate 
their acceptance of the trust imposed by the Steinhart will. 
There are, therefore, no obstacles in the way of proceeding 
with the making of plans and the erection of the building 
except only those incident to settling up an estate which con- 
sists in large part of real estate for which there is no imme- 
diate demand. 

Since the close of the year of which this report is a brief 
record, the Council of the Academy has been advised by Mr. 
John W. Mailliard and Mr. Joseph Mailliard that their large 
and valuable collection of eggs and bird skins is to be donated 
to the Academy. The plan of transfer, tentatively suggested 
and which will within a few days be put into effect, will obligate 
the Academy to immediately furnish space for a part of the 
collection, which the Mailliard brothers desire to have ade- 
([uately housed in the Museum building. The rest of the col- 
lection will follow from time to time at their pleasure ; but the 
question of ultimate ownership will be at once definitely settled. 

The Academy is fortunate indeed to thus acquire the re- 
sults of the lifetime work of two enthusiastic students of 
birds, who have both long been active members of the 
Academy ; and I take this occasion to express the Academy's 
deepest gratitude to the donors. May they continue to take 
the same satisfaction and pleasure in the collection in a new 
home as they have heretofore. 

Preliminary announcement should be made, too, of the 
fact that under the terms of the will of the late S. Field 
Thorn, long a resident of San Francisco, the Academy is to 
receive a tract of land near Santa Cruz, containing about 240 



Vol. VIII] GRUNSKY— PRESIDENTS REPORT FOR wiS 3l5 

acres. Apart from the advantage that would come to the 
Academy by being thus placed in possession of more prop- 
erty, if the desire of the testator be not frustrated, with cor- 
responding increase of opportunity to be of ser\-ice in the 
advancement of science, such becjuests show that the Acad- 
emy's work and its efforts to be of service in the community 
are being appreciated in ever widening circles. 

The accessions to the Museum and Library for the year 
1918 may be summarized as follows: 

Department of Botany 

By Exploration 1216 specimens 

By Gift 805 

By Exchange 1005 

By Purchase 1230 

4256 
Department of Entomology 

By Exploration 10,019 specimens 

By Gift 5,116 

By Exchange 43 

^ , „ , 15,178 

Department of Herpetology 

By Exploration 1119 specimens 

By Gift 60S 

T •, 1724 

Library 

Books, pamphlets and excerpts 

By Gift 1077 

Department of Paleontology 

By Exploration 447 specimens 

By Gift 339 

786 

Numerous boxes of fossils, shells and minerals. 

Department of Ornithology 

Important accessions of skins, nests and eggs of birds. 

Department of Mammalogy 

By Gift 139 specimens 

In the Mammal Hall of the Museum the fur-seal group is 
under preparation. In the Bird Hall the generosity of Mr. 
Herbert Fleishhacker and of Mr. A. K. Macomber has made 
possible the installation of two more attractive large-size 
habitat groups, that of the Water-Fowl group of San Joaquin 
Valley and the White Pelican group respectively. These were 



316 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Sek. 

both opened to the pubhc during the year and it may be noted 
that the artistic finish of the background paintings by Capt. 
Chas. B. Hudson, has received much favorable comment 
and so, too, the general arrangement and the grouping of the 
birds by Mr. Paul Fair. A number of the smaller groups, 
too. have been added in this hall. 

For large exhibits the space in the Bird Hall is now ex- 
hausted, and there are but two alcoves not yet in use in the 
■ Mammal Hall. The space which the new building provided 
a few years ago. is already practically in full use. The 
Academy needs an auditorium. This is evidenced by the 
large attendance at the popular Sunday afternoon lectures, 
for which the space temporarily provided is not well suited. 
This space should be added to the Bird Hall. The need is 
pressing, in other words, for another section of the Museum 
building. May we not hope that, recognizing this need and 
the earnest endeavor of the Academy to be of public service. 
that some one or more of those of this community who have 
the means to do so will come to the Academy's aid in this 
matter and provide the funds which would enable an expan- 
sion of its museum and of its general activities. 

The activities in the several departments are fully set forth 
in the reports of the Director of the Museum and of the 
Curators. I need only say that the work that is being done 
is creditable to the Academy and that there is no lack of in- 
terest and endeavor to meet the task which the Academy has 
made its own. 

The time has now come for making some effort to increase 
the membership of the Academy. Our dues are nominal, only 
$5.00 per annum, and there is no admission fee. Any one 
interested in science or desiring to aid in the advancement of 
science is eligible to membership. The Council plans to name 
and maintain a membership committee and requests that 
notice be sent of any person desiring to become a member. 

On behalf of the Officers of the Academy, I desire to again 
express their appreciation of the support which they have 
received from the membership in their efforts to make the 
Academy useful and of service to the public. I take pleasure, 
too, in acknowledging the faithful senice which has been 
rendered by its staff of employees. 



IX 

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE MUSEUM FOR 
THE YEAR 1918 



BY 

Barton Warren Evermann 
Director of the Museum 



The annual report of the Director for the year 1917 was 
presented to the Academy at the annual meeting of February 
20, 1918. At that time the following habitat groups had been 
completed : 

Large groups: San Joaquin Valley Elk, Columbian Black- 
tailed Deer, Rocky Mountain Mule Deer, Antelope, Desert 
Mountain Sheep, Stellar's Sea Lion, California Sea Lion, 
Leopard Seal, Farallon Islands Bird Rookery, San Joaquin 
Valley Bird Group, Desert Bird Group, San Joaquin Valley 
Water-Fowl Group, and California Condor. 

hitcniiediate groups: Mountain Lion, Northwestern Black 
Bear, Raccoon and Striped Skunk, and Coyote. 

Small groups: California Ground Squirrel, Santa Cruz 
Chipmunk, California Valley Quail, California Clapper Rail, 
California House Finch, and Coast Bush-Tit. The installa- 
tion of the Sulphur-bottom Whale skeleton had also been 
completed. During the past year the following habitat groups 
have been completed : 

JVhifc Pelican. — This is one of the most interesting and 
instructive, as well as beautiful, groups that have been in- 
stalled. It represents a portion of the breeding ground of the 
White Pelican on Anaho Island in Pyramid Lake, Nevada. 

This rookery was selected in preference to any of those in 
California (Buena Vista Lake, Eagle Lake, and Klamath 
Lakes) because the topography presented an exceptionally 
line setting for the group. More than 10,000 birds nest on 
this small island. The group was prepared by Mr. Paul J. 
Fair, assisted by Mr. Arthur L. Reed and Miss Olive E. 
Cutter. The background was painted by Charles Bradford 
Hudson. 



318 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIE.WCES [Proc. ^th Ser. 

The Academy has been able to install this very beautiful 
exhibit through the liberality of Mr. A. K. Macomber of 
Paicines and Burlingame, who very generously met the ex- 
pense connected with its preparation. 

Nuttall Sparrozv. — This is one of the small panel groups. 
It shows a pair of this subspecies of the White-crowned Spar- 
row and their nest placed in a Yellow Lupine (Lupinus ar- 
borcus) as found in the sand dune region in the western part 
of Golden Gate Park. 

As the Nuttall Sparrow is the most abundant and most 
familiar permanent resident of all the birds of the Park, this 
group is of imusual interest to the school children who visit 
tiie Museum. 

This group was prepared by Mr. Fair, assisted by Mr. 
Reed and Miss Cutter. The background was painted by Miss 
Cutter. 

Sharp-Shinned Haivk. — This is another of the small panel 
groups. The Sharp-shinned Hawk is of occasional occurrence 
in Golden Gate Park where it is destructive to the smaller 
birds. In the group a hawk of this species is shown with a 
Western Bluebird in its talons. The brightly colored foliage 
is that of the Poison Oak. 

We therefore have completed at this date 14 large, 25-foot 
groups (eight mammal and six bird), four intennediate, 10- 
foot groups (all mammals), and eight .small panel groups 
(two mammal and six bird). 

Other groups now in preparation are the Fur-Seal (nearly 
completed), the Roosevelt Elk, the Water Ouzel (nearly com- 
pleted), and the Audubon Cottontail (Sylvilagus auduhoni). 

PERSONNEL 

Only one or two slight changes in the personnel of the 
Museum have occurred within the year. Mr. James H. Chas- 
tain, janitor, resigned March 31 to engage in mining opera- 
tions, and assistant janitor Wm. C. Lewis was promoted to 
janitor. On the same date Mr. Fred Maag was appointed 
assistant janitor and carpenter. On April 1, Mr. Geo. W. 
Edwards was appointed assistant janitor. Mr. Joseph R. 
Slevin, assistant curator of Herpetology, liaving been com- 



Vol. VIII] EVERMANN^DIKECTOR'S REPORT FOR igiS 319 

missioned an ensig-n in tlie United States Navy, was granted 
indefinite leave of absence without pay July 31. He returned 
to duty February 1, 1919. Miss Mary E. McLellan was 
appointed check-room attendant March 16. 1918, and on 
August 1, promoted to the position of library assistant. 

The employees of the Academy at this date are the follow- 
ing : 

Dr. Barton Warren EveniTann. Director and Executive 
Curator of the Museum, and Editor; W. W. Sargeant, Secre- 
tary to the Board of Trustees; Miss Susie Peers, Stenog- 
rapher and Typewriter; Joseph W. Hobson. Recording Secre- 
tary ; Miss Alice Eastwood, curator, Department of Botany ; 
Edward P. Van Duzee, curator. Department of Entomology 
and assistant librarian; Dr. John Van Denburgh, curator, 
Department of Herpetology ; Dr. Roy E. Dickerson', curator, 
Department of Invertebrate Paleontology ; Dr. Waiter K. 
Fisher, curator, Department of Invertebrate Zoology; Paul J. 
Fair, chief taxidermist; Charles Bradford Hudson, artist; 
Joseph R. Slevin^, assistant curator of Herpetology ; John I. 
Carlson^, general Museum assistant ; Arthur L. Reed, assist- 
ant, Department of Exhibits ; Miss Olive E. Cutter, assistant. 
Department of Exhibits ; Mrs. Marian L. Campbell, assistant. 
Department of Botamv; Mrs. Helen Van Duzee, assistant. 
Department of Entomology and in the Library ; Miss Mary E. 
McLellan. library assistant ; Georges Vorbe, assistant, Depart- 
ment of Paleontology ; Merle Israelsky, assistant, Department 
of Paleontology ; Raymond Smith, general assistant ; Wm. C. 
Lewis, janitor; Fred Maag, assistant janitor and carpenter; 
Geo. W. Edwards, assistant janitor ; Frank W. Yale, nig-ht 
watchman ; Mrs. Johanna E. Wilkens. janitress ; Patrick J. 
O'Brien, day watch. 

ACCESSIONS TO THE MUSEUM 

As in previous years, the accessions to the Museum have 
been numerous as shown by the detailed list in the appendix 
to this report. A few of the more notable ones are referred 
to in the President's report (pp. 314-315). 

* On leave with the Standard Oil Company since June 30. 
^ On leave in the U. S. Navy since July 31. 
' On leave since March 15. 



320 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Pkoc. 4th Seh. 

VISITORS TO THE MUSEUM 

On account of the prevalence of Influenza in San Francisco 
the Museum was closed to the public from Saturday, October 
19, to Saturday, November 16, both inclusive. With the ex- 
ception of this period of 29 days, the Museum has been open 
to visitors every day. 

Although the attendance has been large it has, of course, 
suffered somewhat on account of war conditions and especially 
the Influenza. The daily visitors have varied from a few 
hundred on stormy days to more than 90CX) on favorable days. 

The public and private schools not only of San Francisco 
but of the transbay cities continue to visit the Museum, the 
teachers bringing the entire school to study the habitat groups 
and other educational exhibits. The Director endeavors, 
whenever possible, to conduct the classes about the Museum 
and explain the various exhibits. \Mien time permits the 
schools are taken into the lecture hall where a special lesson 
is given with stereopticon slides and moving pictures on some 
one of the groups. The children thus leave the Museum with 
at least one lesson clearly impressed on their minds. 

The attendance by month during the year 1918, was as 
follows : 

January 25.260 

Fel)rnarv 2.3,698 

March ' 26,810 

April 23,274 

Mav 26,391 

June 29.843 

July 31,420 

August 31,137 

September 29,847 

October 14,743 

November 8,53 1 

December 19.588 

Total 290,542 

LECTURES 

A course of free popular lectures on scientific subjects has 
been maintained throughout the year, on the third Wednes- 



Vol. VIII] EyERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1918 321 

(lay evening of each month. These have been given at the 
regular monthly meetings which, through the courtesy of 
the Engineers' Club of San Francisco, have been held in the 
hall of that society on the ninth floor of the Mechanics' 
Institute building. The list of lectures and their subjects will 
be found in the President's report (pp. 311-312). 

The Academy has continued the Sunday afternoon course 
of popular lectures which were begim October 22, 1916, soon 
after the Museum was formally opened to the public. These 
lectures are given in the auditorium of the Museum at 3 
o'clock each Sunday afternoon. The popularity of the course 
remains undiminished; the size of the audiences has been 
limited only by the size of the auditorium. The lecture 
committee for the year, Mr. W. W. Sargeant, Miss Alice 
Eastwood and Mr. Paul J. Fair, has been energetic and re- 
sourceful in securing lecturers and arranging the details for 
these lectures. A list of the lectures given in 1918 will be 
found on pages 312-314 of the President's report. 

Attention is again called to the fact that the Academv has 
no funds from which to meet even the slight expense con- 
nected with these lectures. It is hoped that some friend of 
the Academy who feels an interest in the educational work 
it is doing may provide a small endowment the income from 
which can be applied to the expenses of public lectures. 

FIELD WORK OF THE MUSEUM ST.AFF 

Within the year the Museum conducted a number of import- 
ant field investigations, as follows : 

Channel Islands. — During the latter part of March (March 
22-31) the Museum sent an expedition to the Channel Islands 
oflf the coast of southern California. The party consisted of 
the Director of the Museum, the Curator and Assistant Cura- 
tor of the Department of Herpetology. Mr. Joseph Mailliard 
of San Francisco, and Mr. J. Eugene Law of Los Angeles. 
Through the courtesy of the California Fish and Game Com- 
mission the party was able to visit San Clemente, San Nico- 
las, Santa Barbara, and Santa Catalina islands. This oppor- 
tunity is taken to express to the officials of the Fish and 
Game Commission, especially Mr. Carl Westerfeld, Executive 



322 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Secretary ; Mr. N. B. Scofield, assistant in charge of commer- 
cial fisheries; and Captain H. B. Nidiver of the Commission's 
patrol boat Albacore, the appreciation of the members of the 
party of the courtesies extended. Captain Nidiver did every- 
thing possible to enable the party to work effectively during 
the entire period of the trip. Equal appreciation must be ex- 
pressed also to Mr. E. G. Blair. President of the San Clemente 
Sheep Company, for permission to land on San Clemente 
Island and for making our stay on that island \ery pleasant. 
We are also indebted to Captain H. W. Rhodes, Inspector 
18th Lighthouse District, for permission to land on several 
lighthouse reservations. 

The trip to the islands proved qiu'te successful. A large 
collection of lizards was obtained on San Clemente, and con- 
siderable collections of birds, nests and eggs, insects, shells, 
and plants were obtained from the various islands. One inter- 
esting result of the expedition was the addition of several 
birds to the known fauna of the islands, including the Pied- 
billed Grebe and Arkansas Kingbird on Santa Catalina ; a 
species of Junco (probably Thurber's), Western Chipping 
Sparrow, Lincoln Sparrow, Dusky Warbler, and Audubon 
Warbler on Santa Barbara, and what was believed to be the 
Cactus Wren on San Clemente*. 

Northern California and Soutlicrn Oregon. — From May 29 
to July 7, a party consisting of the Director of the Museum 
and the Curator and Assistant Curator of Herpetology made 
a collecting trip through northern California and southern 
Oregon chiefly in the interests of the departments of Herpe- 
tology and Ornithology. The expedition was a camping trip 
and large and valuable collections of reptiles and birds' nests 
and eggs were obtained. 

USE OF THE ACADEMY'.'; COLLECTIONS AND LIBRARY BY 
INVESTIGATORS AND STUDENTS 

Students and investigators in the various departments have 
continued to avail themselves of the facilities for study and 
research which the Academy is always glad to supply. Space 
will pennit the mention of only a few of the specialists who 
have made use of our collections. Dr. Joseph Grinnell has 

• See Joseph Mailliard in the Condor, XX, No. 5, September-October, 1918, p. 189. 



Vol. VIII] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 191S 323 

consulted the collections of wood rats and elk. The ornitho- 
logical and oological collections have been consulted by a 
large number of students of birds, including L. M. Loomis, 
Joseph Mailliard. Harry S. Swarth, Joseph Grinnell, John 
Van Denburgh, O. P. Silliman, Roswell Wheeler, Donald G. 
Cohen, Harold C. Hansen, Chase Littlejohn, and others. 

In Entomology, practically all tlie entomologists of Cali- 
fornia have made frequent use of the collections. Among 
those who should be especially mentioned are Dr. Frank E. 
Blaisdell, Dr. E. C. Van Dyke Mr. Lawrence R. Reynolds, 
Mr. Ralph Hopping, Prof. F. C. Fall, Prof. J. M. Aldrich, 
Mr. Walter M. Giiffard, Mr. Wm. F. Breeze, Mr. Chas. L. 
Fox, and many others. The curator of this department has 
been particularly active and successful in securing the co- 
operation of specialists to identify our collections in the vari- 
ous groups, as set forth fully in the curator's report. Dr. 
Blaisdell particularly has rendered very valuable service in 
identifying the Coleoptera. 

The collections and publications in the department of 
Paleontology have been consulted by many of the paleontolo- 
gists, malacologists, and geologists of the Pacific Coast, among 
whom should be mentioned Professor Charles W. Weaver, 
and Miss Kacheryn Van Winlde of the University of Wash- 
ington ; Dr. Earl L. Packard of the University of Oregon ; 
Dr. Bruce L. Clark of the University of California; Dr. W. 
S. W. Kew, associate geologist. U. S. Geological Survey ; 
Mr. Clark Gester, geologist. Southern Pacific Company; Mr. 
Parker Trask. Mr. Anthony Folger and Miss Esther Rich- 
ards, graduate students, University of California; Professor 
Woodruff, Pomona College; Mrs. Ida S. Oldroyd, Stanford 
University; Mr. F. M. Anderson, consulting geologist; Dr. 
J. O. Nomland, geologi.st. Standard Oil Co., and several 
others. 

In the department of Botany practically all the botanists 
of California have made use of the herbarium in verifying 
their identifications of specimens or in other ways. 

In addition to this, much of the time of the Director and 
Curators has been employed in answering questions or supply- 
ing information requested by correspondents or visitors As 
the Museum becomes better known and specialists and students 



324 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

come to understand that we are always ready to be of service, 
the requests for information increase in number. While this 
takes much time of the Director and Curators, it is proper 
educational work and real service which the Museum is always 
glad to render. 

RESEARCH WORK 

The members of the Museum staff have been active in re- 
search and scientific investigation. They have contributed a 
number of papers to scientific literature, among which the 
following may be mentioned : 

Van Denburgh, John and Slevin, Joseph R. 

1. The Garter-Snakes of Western North America. <Proc. Calif. 
Acad. Sci.. Fourth Ser., Vol. VIII, No. 6, pp. 181-270, pis. 7-17, 
October 18, 1918. 

Van Duzee, Edward P. 

1. New Species of Hemiptera chiefly from California. <Proc. Calif. 
Acad. Sci.. Fourth Ser., Vol. VIII, No. 7, pp. 271-308, October 18, 
1918. 

Evermann, Barton Warren 

1. Notes on some Adirondack Reptiles and Amphibians. <Copeia, No. 
56, April 15, 1918. pp. 48-51. 

2. Notes on some Reptiles and Amphibians of Pike County. Pa. 
<Copeia, No. 58, June 18, 1918, pp. 66-67. 

3. George Archibald Clark. <Science, n. s. XLVIII, No. 1235, .August 
30, 1918, pp. 213-215. 

4. Notes on some Reptiles and Amphibians of Waterville, New Hamp- 
shire. <Copeia, No. 61, September 15, 1918. pp. 81-83. 

5. Note on Flyingfishes. <The Catalina Islander, Vol. V, No. 42. 
November 5, 1918, p. 4. 

6. The Unionidae of Lake Maxinkuckee. <Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci, 1917, 
pp. 251-285. (Senior author with Howard Walton Clark.) 

7. Fisheries Experiment Stations. < Pacific Fisherman, Vol. XVI, No. 
12, December, 1918, p. 11. 

DEP.\RTMENT ACTIVITIES 

Although war conditions disorganized the work of the 
Museum to some extent the curators and their assistants have, 
as always, been active and efricient in increasing and caring 
for the collections in different departments, and in research 
work based upon the collections of the Museum, The condi- 
tion and activities of the different departments are fully set 



Vol. VIII] EVBRMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR iv:S 325 

forth ill tlie reports of tlie respective curators and need be 
referred to here only briefly. 

The Dcpartinciit of Entomology did considerable field work. 
The curator, Mr E. P. Van Duzee, spent four weeks in 
Shasta and Siskiyou counties, California, and Jackson County, 
Oregon, during which important collections were obtained. 
He also made numerous shorter collecting trips to the vicinity 
of Los Baiios, Sacramento, Mt. St. Helena, Cazadero. and 
elsewhere. 

The Department of Paleontology. — Although Dr. Dicker- 
son, the curator of this department, has been on leave most 
of the year, he nevertheless did some work on the Petaluma, 
Sonoma and Tomales quadrangles which added materially to 
our knowledge of those regions and to the Academy's collec- 
tions of fossils. During the time the curator has been on 
leave he has had opportunity to do some collecting for the 
Academy. 

Dcpaitnieiit of Botany. — Miss Eastwood, the curator of 
this dejiartment. has continued with, lier characteristic energy 
and industry to Ijuild up and care for the Herbarium which 
now contains more than 50.000 specimens all properly identi- 
fied and authenticated, besides many specimens of fungi not 
yet fully determined. Many important additions to the 
Herbarium have been made during the year as set forth in 
detail in the curator's report. 

Department of Herpetology.— The curator and assistant 
curator have been active in enlarging, caring for. and study- 
ing the collections of this department. Two important col- 
lecting trips were made, one in March to the Channel Islands, 
the other in June and July through northern California and 
southern Oregon, which added more than 1000 specimens to 
the collections. The total accessions in the year number 1724. 
and the total number in the department now exceeds 37,000. 

Department of Ornithology. — Such field work as was done 
in the interest of this department was chiefly in die section 
of oology, to which very little attention has hitherto been 
given. The total number of specimens added to the .Academy's 
collection of nests and eggs during the year exceeds 1600, 
some of them rare and of unusual interest. During the nest- 



326 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Se». 

ing season the Director made numerous short week-end col- 
lecting trips to Los Banos and otlier nearby fields. One longer 
trip was made to the Channel Islands in March, and another 
in June and July through northern California and southern 
Oregon, which added greatly to the Academy's oological col- 
lections. Suitable cases have been provided in which these 
collections are now being arrangetl. 

Department of Mammalogy. — No effort has been made to 
enlarge the collections in this department. A few miscellane- 
ous specimens were, however, received, including specimens 
chiefly from Marin County donated by Mr. Charles A. Allen, 
the veteran naturalist and collector of San Geronimo, and 87 
specimens chiefly from California, donated by the well-known 
collector, Mr. J. August Kusche. 

A considerable number of mammal skulls having accumu- 
lated, Miss Lula M. Burt, an expert preparator, has been 
employed for some weeks in cleaning skulls and skeletons. 
More than 1200 skulls have already been cleaned by Miss 
Burt. 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology. — The curator of this 
department, Dr. W. K. Fisher, was invited by Dr. C. C. Nut- 
ting of the University of Iowa to accompany an expedition 
organized by that institution for study of the marine fauna 
of the Lesser Antilles. Through an arrangement with Stan- 
ford l^niversity. Dr. Fisher was pennitted to represent the 
Academy and that institution. He sailed from New York for 
the Antilles April 19th and returned August 1st. Collecting 
was done about Antigua and the Barbados and considerable 
collections of marine invertebrates were obtained. 

Some work was done by the department at the San Juan 
Islands, Puget Sound, where important collections were ob- 
tained for the Academy by Mrs. Ida S. Oldroyd. 

Library. — Very gratifying progress has been made in put- 
ting the library in proper shape, especially in accessioning the 
volumes. More than 8000 volumes have been accessioned. 
These include all the volumes on the second floor and all those 
in the departments of Ornithology, Herpetology, Botany and 
Paleontology. Valuable assistance has been rendered the 
librarian by Miss Mary E. McLellan and Mrs. Helen Van 
Duzee. 



Vol. VIII] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR mS 327 

The Academy has not had available the funds really neces- 
sary for the proper g-rowth of the library, nevertheless the 
accessions have numbered about 400 complete volumes and 
several hundred pamphlets. 



THE ACADEMY AND THE WAR 

Many members of the Academy, including several of the 
Museum staff, were active in war worl: of one kind or an- 
other. The Academy's service flag- contains 17 stars. Men- 
tion should first be made of those who were in actual war 
service. The list includes the foHov/ing: 

Albert L. Barrows. Entered Officers Training Camp May, 1917; commis- 
sioned in August First Lieutenant, Cavalry; at Camp Lewis in August 
given commission First Lieutenant, Infantry ; was made Adjutant of 
the 347th Machine Gun Brigade; embarked for France July, 1918; still 
in France. 

Charles L. Camp, First Lieutenant, Field Artillery, .\merican Expedition- 
ary Forces, France. 

Charles T, Crocker, Chief Petty Officers January 5, 1918. Commissioned 
as Ensign, January 13, 1919. Detailed to the Naval Communication 
Service in Third Naval District, in Office of Cable Censorship. Still 
in active Service. 

William VVeller Curtner. Entered the service October 14, 1918; sent to 
Vancouver Barracks, Washington; placed in the ISth Casual Deten- 
tion Company of the Spruce Production Division. Honorably Dis- 
charged December 13, 1918. 

Merle Israelsky, Aid Department of Paleontologj', California Naval Unit, 
October 11 to December 21, 1918. 

Charles A. Kofoid, Major, Sanitary Corps, National Army, January, 1918. 
Still in service. 

Norman B. Livermore. Entered U. S. Army Service September 2, 1917. 
In October, 1917, commissioned as Captain of Engineers and sent to 
France. In France during the close of 1917 and entire year of 1918. 
Promoted to Major in the fall of 1918. Discharged about the middle 
of January, 1919, in the United States. 

Wayne F. Loel. Enlisted June 29, 1918, and assigned to 115th Engineers 
at Camp Kearny ; entered Engineers Officers Training School at Camp 
A. A. Humphreys September 19, 1918; discharged at Camp Humphreys 
November 27, 1918. 

Atholl McBean, Director of the Bureau of Personnel. Pacific Division, 
the American Red Cross, February 1 to April 24, 1918. Deputy Com- 
missioner of the Switzerland Commission of the American Red Cross, 
and Director of American Prisoner Relief, April 24 to October 31, 1918. 



328 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

William W. Price, Captain, American Red Cross, Director of Red Cross 
Base Hospital, Camp Fremont, January 20, 1918, to October 12, 1918. 

William G. Reed, Captain, Signal Corps, Aviation Section, American Ex- 
peditionary Forces, France. 

Laurence R. Reynolds, General Staff of the War Department, October 
17, 1918, to November 1, 1918. 

Thomas J. J. See, Captain U. S. Navy, Mare Island, California. 

Joseph R. Slevin, Assistant Curator, Department of Herpetology. Ensign 
U. S. Naval Reserve, July 22, 1918. Promoted to Lieutenant January 
24, 1919; released from active duty January 25, 1919. Service on the 
U. S. S. Beaver. 

Stanley Stillman. Lieutenant Commander, U. S. Navy. Commander U. S. 
Navy Base Hospital No. 2, Scotland. December, 1917, to January, 1919. 

Tracy L Stores, First Lieutenant, Sanitary Corps. Laboratory Car 
"Metchnikofi'", Fort Sam Houston, Texas. 

Lansing K. Tevis, First Lieutenant, Aviation Service. 

Joseph C. Thompson, ^^edical Director, U. S. Navy. 

F. Vickery, Lieutenant, U. S. Army. 

Charles E. von Geldern. First Lieutenant, L'. S. Medical Corps, Camp 
Fremont, California. 

In adciition to those engaged in actual war service a great 
many members of the .-\cademy rendered important service to 
their cotmtry; indeed, it can be truthfully said that practically 
the entire membership of the Academy rendered valuable 
service in one v.ay or another. .Some were engaged in Red 
Cross, Y. M. C. A., or Liberty Loan work, while others 
sei-\'ed on important scientific and other committees working 
in connection with the National and State Councils of De- 
fense, the Federal Food Administration, and other Federal or 
State agencies. One of these was the Committee on Scien- 
tific Research of the State Council of Defense for California, 
practically the entire membership of which was made up of 
members of the Academy, as was also that of each of the 
several special committees (Geology, Oil, Zoological Investi- 
gations, etc.) working under the general authority of the 
State Coimcil of Defense and directly under the Committee 
on Scientific Research. 

Some of the more important committees may be given here. 
The members of the Academv are indicated bv the star. 



Vol. VIII] EVERMANN-DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR ,9,8 329 

Pacific Coast Research Committee of the Pacific Dix-iswn of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science: John C. Merriam Chair- 
man; *DougIas H. Campbell; *W. W. Campbell; *Barton w' Ever- 
mamv; *E. C. Franklin; A. O. Leuschner; D. T. MacDougal; Geo H 
Whipple. 

Committee on Botanical Investigations: *Harvey M. Hall Chairman- 
*DougIas H. Campbell ; *Wm. A. Setchell. 

Committee on Entomological Investigations: *VV B Herms Chairman- 
*R. W. Doane; *E. O. Essig; G. P. Weldon. 

Committee on Zoological Investigations: *Barton Warren Evermann 
Chairman; niarold C. Bryam; W. C. Crandall ; *S J Holmes-' 
*Charles A. Kofoid; *Frank M. MacFarland; *Wm. E. Ritter- *Nor- 
man B. Scofield; *J. Rollin Slonaker ; *John O. Snyder; *E. C.'starks. 

*Doane, R. W., Chairman, Committee on Entomological Investigations of 
the Pacific Coast Research Conference. Since December 1917 Con- 
sulting Entomologist of the Federal Food Commission for California. 

*Hall Harvey M., Member of the Committee on Botanical Raw Products 
of the National Research Council. Vice-Chairman of the Sub-commit- 
tee on Botany of the Pacific Coast Research Conference. 

*Lilienthal, Jesse W., Chairman of the War Camp Community Service 
Vice-Chairman of the San Francisco Chapter of the American Red 
Cross, and President of the Boy Scouts of San Francisco. Division 
Comrnander in both of the Red Cross drives, and State Chairman of 
the United War Work Campaign, 

*l\tailliard, Joseph, Operative and assistant cliief of San Francisco Branch 

trZ\T ^nT'' ^"'^'''^^>- '° U. S. Department of Justice, August' 
15, 1918, to February 1, 1919. 



330 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS 

Department of Botany 
By Alice Eastwood, Curator 

The herbarium of the California Academy of Sciences now numbers 
50,559 specimens all mounted and classified according to the latest system. 
It includes both Phanerogams and Cryptogams. Altogether there are 
3116 genera and 17,112 species. 

The Cryptogams are not so well represented as the Phanerogams, but 
there are some notable collections. Among the Lichens is the Hasse col- 
lection which has been purchased by the Academy. It furnished the ma- 
terial for "Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium, Vol. 17, 
part 1, The Lichen Flora of Southern California by Hermann Edward 
Hasse". The total collection of lichens contains 89 genera, 320 species, and 
394 specimens. The collection of mosses contains 140 genera, 298 species, 
and 674 specimens most of which were donated by Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 
The collection of hepatics contains 13 genera, 21 species, and 40 specimens. 

The collection of fungi is the most valuable of the Cryptogams since it 
consists of the 474 tjTies from the Harkness collection which were saved 
from the great fire. A few have been added from time to time by the 
curator, but are at present unhsted as the determinations are uncertain. 

Besides these types of California fungi, there are 1855 Phanerogams, 
most of which were also saved from the fire, and eleven Galapagos types 
and cot>'pes of Allocarya recently determined by C. V. Piper. This material 
was loaned to the National Herbarium and the results of Mr. Piper's 
studies will soon appear in one of the contributions from the National 
Herbarium. The Academy's herbarium contains also a number of new 
species to be described soon, which will add to the accumulation of types. 

The additions to the herbarium have come in various ways; 1005 speci- 
mens were received in exchange, 807 came as gifts from 24 different donors, 
most of them being specimens for identification. The curator added 1300 
specimens and many duplicates. Besides the Hasse collection of lichens 
the Academy purchased the valuable mounted collection of Idaho speci- 
mens which formed the herbarium of John M. Holzinger. These plants 
were collected in the region traversed by the Lewis & Clark Expedition 
and the report on them was published by Professor Holzinger in Contri- 
butions from the U. S. National Herbarium, Vol. Ill, No. 4. 

The southern California branch of the U. S. Forest Service presented 
the Academy with its herbarium. This consisted of 149 mounted sheets, 
chiefly specimens of Eucalyptus, representing almost as many species as 
specimens ; also 93 bottles containing seeds of 86 species of Eucalyptus. 
This is a valuable addition to our herbarium and will be of great assist- 
ance in identifying the numerous species of this difficult genus so widely 
cultivated in California. 

The Botanical Club numbers sixty-five members and holds weekly 
meetings. These are chiefly field trips, some in Golden Gate Park to study 
the exotics and others in the San Francisco Bay region, where cultivation 



Vol. VIII] EVERM ANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR ic/rS 331 

has not destroyed the native flora. These out-of-doors excursions can be 
held all winter and are not only more instructive than lectures or books, 
but more enjoyable. A weekly class of the gardeners of Golden Gate 
Park is also conducted in the evening at the herbarium so as to enable 
these men to have correct knowledge of the plants under their care. They 
bring in specimens which are useful in the Museum flower show. This 
exhibition of the native and exotic plants blooming throughout the year 
out-of-doors in San Francisco and around the Bay has been one of the 
most popular of the educational influences of the Academy and is greatly 
appreciated by the flower-loving public. Without the faithful care of Mrs. 
Johanna Wilkens, who has kept the water replenished, the shelves clean 
and the dead flowers removed, it would be impossible to keep up this ex- 
hibition in a satisfactory manner. Each species is labelled with scientific 
and common name and native country. 

The framed pictures of edible and poisonous mushrooms in the little 
room off the vestibule have lured the lovers of mushrooms to the herbarium 
to discover the good or bad qualities of many that are common chiefly in 
the Park. On account of the lack of literature it has not been possible to 
answer all these inquiries. A collection of wax models, correctly colored 
and named would be a valuable addition to the Museum and I would like 
to suggest that a beginning be made during the ensuing year. A complete 
collection would have to be the work of many years and it would be neces- 
sary to send those that are unknown to authorities for correct naming. 

At last, Mr. McLaren, the superintendent of the Park, has begun the 
planting of the court back of the Museum with trees and shrubs common 
in the Park but arranged, when possible, in the scientific sequence of 
families, so that it will be a botanical garden of a new kind and instructive 
as showing the evolution from the lower to the higher orders. 

The plot of ground which faces the court is soon to be planted with trees 
and shrubs of the Bible and a small plot of ground has been reserved for 
the plants mentioned in Shakespeare's plays. These groups of plants will 
be of great interest to many people. However, without labels they will have 
no educational value and I would like to suggest that the Academy purchase 
a labelling machine so as to permanently label these plants as well as mak- 
ing a beginning towards labelling the trees and shrubs throughout the Park. 

The curator had a leave of absence in May and June and was away six 
weeks. Part of the time was spent in collecting and collections were made 
at Portola and Loyalton in California, and in Buena Vista, Leadville, Glen- 
wood Springs, Grand Junction in Colorado, at Thompsons Springs, Soldiers 
Summit, Thistle and Salt Lake in Utah. Earlier in the year a trip was 
made to Downieville, also to Tres Pinos and San Benito, to study the 
willows. Professor C. S. Sargent paid the railroad fare on these short 
trips. The expenses of the trip to Colorado were paid by the curator. 

As new specimens have come in, they have been mounted, and much back 
work that had to be left undone has been completed, so that we are now 
aibout caught up and shall begin the new year of the Academy with the 
collections that have come in recently but are not yet incorporated into the 
herbarium. 



332 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIESCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

These collections include an herbarium of 1464 specimens collected by 
the late Dr. E. K. Abbott of Salinas and Monterey, and presented to the 
Academy by his widow ; 48 specimens from Afognak, Alaska, collected and 
donated by Russel Noyes ; 26 unnamed specimens from Canton, China, col- 
lected and donated by Caroline Rixford Byrd ; also at Mrs. Byrd's sug- 
gestion, 199 specimens from southern China donated by the Christian Col- 
lege, Canton, China. A collection of 200 desert plants collected by 
Roxana S. Ferris in southern California and Arizona has been purchased 
by the Academy. 

A great many duplicates have been distributed to various botanical cen- 
ters with which the Academy exchanges. Some of these were in return 
for what had already been received, while others have been sent in expecta- 
tion of returns to be later received. 

The Arnold Arboretum 305 

U. S. National Museum 1631 

Gray Herbarium, Cambridge. Mass 933 

New York Botanical Garden 713 

Missouri Botanical Garden 2d3 

Ira W. Clokey, Denver, Colo 864 

Besides these there have been distributed through the Arnold Arboretum 
duplicates of Yukon trees and shrubs collected in 1914 to the following : 

Geological & Natural History Survey of Canada 318 

U. S. National Museum 397 

Royal Herbarium, Kew, England 256 

Missouri Botanical Garden 216 

Through the valuable help of my assistant, Mrs. Marian L. Campbell, 
we have at last caught up with the accumulated piles of unmounted speci- 
mens and the new year will see the mounting of the accessions as they 
come in. Mrs. Campbell has mounted 6039 specimens and Mrs. E. C. 
Sutliffe has mounted the collection she made in Sierra and Plumas 
counties in the summer of 1918, consisting of 138 specimens which she has 
donated to the herbarium. 

The list of accessions will be given in the general report of accessions. 

Besides the popular Sunday lectures which the curator has given at the 
Academy, many informal talks on trees and flowers have been given to 
various clubs and to fiower shows. These help to extend the influence of 
the .Academy in popularizing science. 



Dep.\rtment of Entomologv 
E. P. Van Duzee, Curator 

The significant work in the department of entomology during the past 
year was the development of the collection of North American insects, the 
important nucleus about which mtist be elaborated all future activities of 



Vol. villi EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 191S 333 

this department. Until we know onr liome insects we can be of little service 
to enquiring beginners in entomology; nor can we make onr work inter- 
esting to the general public or properly carry on the investigations of a 
more technical nature which devolve upon this department of the Academy. 
Additions to the department of entomology during the past year number 
17,152 specimens of which 7,477 were received as gifts from friends of the 
Academy and 9,675 were added by the labors of the curator. The principal 
gifts of the year were : from Dr. F. E. Blaisdell, 1888 specimens of beetles 
which added 879 species to the Academy collections; from Mrs. Helen 
Van Duzee, 1387 spiders, mostly from California ; from Dr. E. C. Van 
Dyke, 1280 specimens, largely from Canada and the east ; and from Mr. 
C. L. Fox, 653 specimens, including a fine series of mounted moths. Other 
contributors to this department include Prof. H. F. Wickham of the 
University of Iowa ; Mr. J. O. Martin, now of Berkeley ; Mr. Louis Slevin 
of Carmel, California ; Mr. J. A. Kusche and Mr. M. F. Blasse of San 
Francisco; Mr. Ralph Hopping of Berkeley, and Dr. Barton W. Evermann, 
Mr. J. R. Slevin and Mr. John I. Carlson of tlie Academy staff. The 
field work of the curator included a four weeks' trip in Shasta and Siski- 
you counties, California, and Jackson County, Oregon, the principal locali- 
ties being Caton, McCloud and Sisson, California, and Colestin, Oregon, 
and three-day trips to Los Banos, Sacramento, Mt. St. Helena and Caza- 
dero, California. In all but the Los Banos trip he was assisted by his wife, 
Mrs. Helen Van Duzee, who, in addition to the spiders already mentioned, 
took many interesting- insects which were added to the collections of the 
Academy. 

In reviewing the work accomplished during the past year on the collec- 
tions of insects we note that the arrangement of the Coleopfera, or beetles, 
and the determination of the species, is now nearly completed, thanks to 
the kind assistance of our local students of this order. Early in the year 
Prof. F. C. Fall of Pasadena worked up the snout-beetles then in our 
possession ; Mr. Ralph Hopping of Berkeley has revised the family Ipidje 
comprising the bark beetles, adding from liis own collection many species 
that were lacking, and Dr. E. C. Van Dyke has revised the Buprestidae, 
determining the specimens added during the previous year, and bringing 
this family, which comprises the flat-headed wood-borers, fully up to date. 
The bulk of the work on the Coleoptera has, however, been done by Dr. 
F. E. Blaisdell, to whom the Academy is deeply indebted for his efficient 
and untiring efforts for more than a year past. He has determined or 
revised and arranged our material in 53 families of beetles, filling 76 of the 
large insects trays used by the Academy, completing the work on this order 
of insects with the exception of three families which are now "in the 
works." Some idea of the magnitude of the task he has so nearly com- 
pleted may be gathered from the fact that the Academy collection of named 
North American beetles now numbers 11,625 specimens, representing 2,187 
species. 

In the Hymenoptera, which embraces the bees, wasps and ants. Dr. J. C. 
Bradley completed a preliminary study of the various families of the wasos 
before his return to Cornell University last spring. The Diptera, or two- 



334 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Peoc. 4th Ser. 

winged flies, are in process of determination, most of the important families 
now being in the hands of specialists for study. The curator has recently 
begun the determination and arrangement of the Hemiptera, or true bugs, 
and thus far has completed 15 families numbering 4.064 specimens repre- 
senting 400 species. In the Lepidoptera, embracing the butterflies and 
moths, the work of arranging is progressing as rapidly as the material can 
be sorted over and determined. These insects, as well as the Neuroptera, 
represented by the dragon-flies, and the Orthoptera, or grasshoppers and 
their relatives, are larger and their arrangement must await the purchase 
of sufficient boxes for their display. 

So much time was required in mounting and labeling the material added 
and in assorting and arranging it and the accumulated material, that little 
was available for systematic study by the curator. One paper on the new 
forms of Hemiptera brought to light by the work of the previous year was, 
however, published by the Academy, in which appeared descriptions of 39 
new species or races, mostly from California ; and a shorter paper on the 
Hemiptera taken by the Canadian Arctic E.xploring Expedition of 1913- 
1916 was prepared and sent to the Canadian Government at Ottawa for 
publication in the scientific results of that Expedition. 

During the year the exhibition of exotic butterflies in the mammal hall 
of the Academy was replaced by a much larger collection of exotic forms 
numbering 248 specimens displayed in riker mounts, and a start was made 
on three smaller exhibits ; one of California butterflies, another of miscel- 
laneous insects showing mimicry and other interesting features, and one of 
life history and similar groups, and species of economic importance. 

In a science dealing with such vast numbers of forms as does entomologj' 
the determination of material must be entrusted to specialists. The cura- 
tor is qualified to do this work in the order Hemiptera, not only in the 
Academy collection but for other institutions as well, in return for similar 
help on other orders of insects. In this way the Museum, through the 
curator, has furnished information or determination of materia! for the 
following 23 students : 

Dr. W. H. Brittain, Government Entomologist, Truro, N. S. ; Mr. H. G. 
Barber, Roselle Park. N. J. ; Dr. William Barnes. Decatur, 111. ; Prof. Geo. 
A. Coleman, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. ; Dr. J. H. Comstock, 
Los Angeles, Calif.; Mr. E. L. Dickerson, Nutley, N. J.; Mr. Wm. T. 
Davis. New Brighton. N. Y. : Mr. R. K. Fletcher, Ohio State University, 
Columbus, Ohio; Mr. W. M. Giffard, Honolulu, T. H. ; Dr. Wm. A. Hilton, 
Pomona College, Claremont, Calif.; Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt. Dominion 
Entomologist, Ottawa, Ont. ; Prof. O. A. Johannsen, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y. ; Mr. H. H. Knight, Cornell, University, Ithaca, N. Y. ; Mr. 
Philip Lugenbill, Columbia, S. C. ; Mr. J. McDonough, Decatur, 111. ; Prof. 
Z. P. Metcalfe, N. C. Experiment Station, West Raleigh, N. C. ; Mr. W. L. 
McAtee, U. S. Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. ; Mr. W. F. Hamilton, 
Pomona College, Claremont, Calif. ; Dr. H. M. Parshley, Smith College, 
Northampton, Mass.; Mrs. Annie Trumbull Slosson, New York City; Dr. 
Carl J. Drake, N. Y. State College of Forestry, Syracuse, N. Y. ; Dr. F. H. 



Vol. VIII] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR igiS 335 

Lathrop, Oregon Agricultural College, Corvallis, Oreg., and Prof, S. B. 
Frackcr, State Dept. of Agriculture, Madison, Wis. 

In return Academy material has been sent for study to the following 
specialists : Moths of the family Geometridae to Mr. W. S. Wright of San 
Diego, Calif.; spiders to Mr. Nathan Banks, Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. ; the various families of the Diptera, or two- 
winged flies, to Mr. C. W. Johnson. Director Boston Society of Natural 
History; Prof. J. S. Hine, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Prof. 
A. L. Lovett, Oregon Agricultural College, Corvallis, Oreg.; Mr. R. F. 
Cole, Bureau of Entomology Laboratory, Forest Grove, Oreg. ; and Mr. 
M. C. Van Duzee, Buffalo, N. Y. Fortunately the Academy has in its own 
membership specialists well equipped to care for all families of the great 
order of Coleoptera, or beetles, whose help has already been acknowledged. 

More than 30 entomologists from various states and countries have in- 
spected or made use of the collections of the department during the year. 

Another feature of the work of this department merits at least a passing 
notice. During the past year it has been the custom of the curator and his 
wife, when not absent on necessary field work, to keep "open house." as 
it were, at the entomological laboratory for both local and visiting ento- 
mologists and their friends, so they can meet, make use of the Academy 
collections, and generally get better acquainted with one another and talk 
over the work they may be doing. These informal semi-social afternoons 
have proved so popular that they will be continued, and all members and 
friends of the Academy interested in insects will be welcome even if they 
do not technically classify themselves as entomologists. 

One word regarding the needs of this department for the coming year. 
Our first duty is the accumulation of material representing our local insect 
fauna and its determination and systematic arrangement. We must begin 
by building up a reference collection of west American insects. Until this 
is done educational and display work must be done under conditions not 
economical of time or money. This preliminary work is now well advanced 
in the order Coleoptera. If a sufficient number of cases can be secured 
another year should see the Lepidoptera, Hemiptera and Diptera in a 
condition of similar completeness, leaving but three orders still unassorted, 
and possibly these might be gotten into fair shape the following year. 
Further enlargement of the entomological exhibits will be continued as 
rapidly as properly determined material can be secured. 



Dep.\rtment of Herpetology 
By John Van Denburgh, Curator 

The Department of Herpetology during the year 1918 progressed satis- 
factorily, notwithstanding many difficulties occasioned by general condi- 
tions, the war, and the epidemic of influenza. The entrance into the Navy 
of the assistant curator. Lieutenant Slevin, prevented any active collecting 
during the last half of the year, while the demands of the epidemic greatly 
reduced the amount of time and thought which the curator could devote 



336 CALIFORMIA ACADEMY OF SCIE\'CES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

to the work of the department. Nevertheless, the work accomplished 
compares favorably with that of previous years. 

At the beginning of the year 1918 the Academy's collection of reptiles 
and amphibians numbered 35,451 specimens. There have been added 
during the year 1921 specimens, so that the collection has grown to more 
than 37,000 specimens. 

The number of specimens added during each of the past six years has 
been about as follows : 

1913 2700 specimens 

1914 800 

1915 800 

1916 1500 

1917 1600 

1918 1724 

Gifts of specimens during the year have been received as follows: 

From Dr. E. C. Van Dyke 163 specimens 

•' Mr. R. P. Erwin 258 

•' Prof. J. O. Snyder 75 

" Dr. J. Van Denburgh 19 

•' Mr. P. H. Peters 26 

" Lord Rothschild 1 

■• Mr. Herbert Pack 2 

■' Other donors 5 " 

549 
Four collecting trips were undert.iken to : 

1. San Clemente, San Nicolas, Santa Barbara and Santa Catalina islands. 

2. Monterey County, California. 
.1 Pyramid Lake, Nevada. 

4. Northern California and southern Oregon. 

These expeditions resulted in the acquisition of 1127 specimens. 

Aside from the collection made on the islands, specimens have been 
secured from 17 counties of California, as follows; 

Butte 1 specimen 

Contra Costa 3 specimens 

Del Norte 45 

Humboldt 14 

Lassen 37 

Marin 6 

Mendocino 39 " 

Merced 2 

Modoc 41 " 

Monterey 67 " 



Vol. VIII] EFBRMANN—D! RECTOR'S REPORT FOR i^rS 337 

San Benito 7 specimens 

San Francisco 1 " 

San Mateo 3 " 

Santa Barbara 1 " 

Santa Clara 6 " 

Shasta 32 

Siskiyou 19 " 

Specimens from otiier localities are : 

Idaho 488 spec' 

Nevada 12 

New York 163 

Oregon 580 

Utah 2 

Australia 20 

China 1 

Hawaii 87 

Japan 1 

Philippine Islands 2 

The classification and arrangement of the collection was continued dur- 
ing the early part of the year. 

Considerable researdi work has been accomplished during the year and 
a detailed study of the garter-snakes of the states west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains has been published. 

It is hoped that during the coming year the work of the department may 
be carried on without interruptions and that field work may be continued 
for a longer period. 



Dep.\rtment of Invertebr.\te Paleontology 
By Roy E. Dickerson, Curator 

The principal activities of the Department of Paleontology during the 
past year have been devoted to finishing some work in the Petaluma, 
Sonoma, and Tomales Quadrangles, photographing new species from Car- 
rizo Creek, San Diego County, completing the numbering and arranging of 
the Henry Hemphill Conchological Collection, increasing the Academy 
collection of types and cotypes through exchange, and the procuring of 
many collections of recent and fossil shells. Mr. Georges Vorbe and Mr. 
Merle Israelsky have been valuable assistants during the past year. 

The Academy published in the year a paper by Professor E. T. Dumble 
upon the "Geolog>- of the Northern End of the Tampico Embayment Area." 
Most of the determinations of fossils listed in this paper were made by 
Dr. W. S. W. Kew and the curator. 

The mapping of the Tertiary formations of the Petaluma Quadrangle and 
the south half of the Santa Rosa Quadrangle, was completed by the curator 
during the spring. Incidental to this work, the curator cooperated with the 



338 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

Sonoma County Farm Advisor in searching for limestone suitable for use 
in liming the adobe lands in this county, The work upon the Petaluma 
Quadrangle necessitates a connection with the coastal area around Tomales 
Bay, so that exploring in this region was started. The Point Reyes 
Triangle, the land mass on the west side of Tomales Bay, had been pre- 
viously mapped in a most excellent manner by the former curator of the 
Department, Mr. F. M. Anderson, so the time available was devoted to a 
study of the east side of Tomales Bay and the headlands which project 
into the bay. As is well known, the Tomales Bay region is in the San 
Andreas Rift Zone. Immediately along the recent rift of 1906 some inter- 
esting deposits of Pleistocene age were found in the small headlands on 
the east side of the bay. Study of these beds resulted in the recognition of 
two formations of Pleistocene age separated by a well marked unconformity. 
The beds of the lower formation have been so tilted and faulted that 
dips as high as 30° were recorded in several places. Both of these forma- 
tions yielded estuarine faunas mixed with wood and pine cones which Miss 
Eastwood has kindly identified as the Monterey pine (Pinus muricata). 
These pine cones occur in both formations and they are particularly inter- 
esting in that the pine now found in this region is Pinus radiata, and not 
Pinus muricata, which does not range this far north at present. Thus the 
flora indicates that these Pleistocene deposits were probably laid down dur- 
ing a warm interglacial epoch or epochs. This conclusion is further con- 
firmed when the Molluscous fauna is studied. Most of the species of this 
fauna are now found in the waters of San Diego and are entirely lacking 
in the waters of Tomales Bay. These faunas are estuarine and likewise 
the character of deposits are those of a Pleistocene Tomales Bay. That 
Tomales Bay existed during the Pleistocene, is very evident when the 
evidence is studied and it seems entirely probable that the Point Reyes 
Triangle has been subjected to movements quite different to those of the 
mainland. 

The mollusks of the Carrizo Creek beds are being studied and the new 
species are being described. An Eocene fauna from Peru which was col- 
lected by Mr. Clark Gester was found to contain "that finger post of the 
Eocene," Vcncricardia planicosta, with other interesting forms which have 
been previously described, but their formal relations were unknown. Mr. 
Gester recognized this species in the field and thus obtained a key to some 
of the Peruvian Tertiary problems. 

In June, the curator was granted leave by the Academy and was em- 
ployed by a California oil company in exploration work. Incidental to 
this work, he obtained several interesting collections from Oregon and 
Washington which contain a few new forms. Professor Earl Packard, 
while in charge of the Geology Department of the Agricultural College of 
Mississippi, made a collection of some fine material from the type locality 
of the Chipola marl, a celebrated Miocene horizon of Florida. These 
collections will be particularly valuable to students who are interested in 
Pacific-Caribbean problems. He collected such material from the Missis- 
sippi Cretaceous as well. Professor Packard, who is now located at the 
University of Oregon, is arranging to collect for the California Academy of 



Vol. VIII] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR igiB 339 

Sciences in the Cretaceous of Oregon. The material so obtained will serve 
as a basis for the study of Cretaceous problems of this state. This co- 
operative arrangement will prove beneficial to the University of Oregon as 
well, as duplicate material will be donated to that institution by the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences. 

Mr. and Mrs. Oldroyd made collections of recent shells from Friday 
Harbor, Washington, and froni Monterey, California. These collections 
and a collection of recent shells from Magdalena Bay. Lower California, 
made by Mr. Orcutte of San Diego, comprise an excellent start of a series 
of tj-pical locality collections on the Pacific Coast. 

Mrs. H. M. Barngrover completed the arrangement of the Henry Hemp- 
hill Conchological Collections in a very systematic manner, and installed it 
neatly and compactly in the cases of the department. 

There have been a great number of very useful donations during the past 
year. A complete list of these is appended to the Director's report. Mr. 
L. E. Smith gave the department a fine collection of minerals. Mr. H. S. 
Durden has again enriched the department by further donations of rocks 
and minerals. Mr. H. W. Bell, Deputy Supervisor, Petroleum and Gas, 
California State Mining Bureau, recently donated an interesting slab of 
diatomaceous earth from Lompoc, Calif., in which are embedded some 
fossil fishes. 

Several exchanges have been made during the past year. One of these 
was an exchange between the Academy and the University of Washington. 
These cotypes from Washington State are now installed in the Type Col- 
lection of the Department, where they will prove useful to Pacific Coast 
workers. 

Types from the California State Mining Bureau have been segregated 
and may be also consulted. It is the purpose of the Department to make 
the Type Collection as complete and useful as possible. 



Libr-^iRian's Report 
E. P. Van Duzee, Assistant Librarian 

During the year just past a very considerable improvement has been 
made in the condition of the Academy's collection of books. Perhaps most 
important is the accessioning of the volumes. This work is now well ad- 
vanced and a few months should see all complete or nearly complete 
volumes entered. Up to the present about 8,000 volumes have been entered 
on the accessions register, covering the volumes in the main library room 
up stairs and those in the departments of Ornithology, Herpetology, Botany 
and Invertebrate Paleontology. There still remain to be done those in the 
department of Entomology and in the down-stair stack room. Another 
improvement that will be much appreciated is the collation and arrange- 
ment of the great mass of miscellaneous material in the lower library 
room, consisting of government, state, and other documents and reports. 
and the publications of societies not classified as general scientific societies. 



340 CALIFORX'IA ACADEMY OF SCIE.\'CES [Proc. 4th Ser. 

In addition to this all single books and many sets of serials not before 
attended to have been classified, catalogued and the cards filed, so our 
catalogue is now reasonably complete except for government and miscel- 
laneous institutional reports and publications. Label holders have been 
attached to the shelves constructed last year for current serials and the 
300 and over serials shelved there have been arranged alphabetically and 
plainly labeled so they are now readily accessible to readers. The work 
in the library department has been accomplished through the efficient 
efiforts of two assistants who have devoted a portion of their time to this 
work. Miss Mary E. McLellan takes general charge of the library reading 
room, enters all serials and exchanges as received on the record cards, 
keeps them in proper order on the shelves, and makes all entries on the 
accessions book, while Mrs. Helen Van Duzee has collated, classified and 
arranged the great mass of miscellaneous documents, reports and serials 
in the lower library room, including most of the geological surveys and 
reports and has attended to the classifying and cataloguing done during 
the year. 

The accessions to the library during the past year number 393 complete 
volumes and a large number of miscellaneous pamphlets, excerpts and odd 
numbers of serials and society transactions, received by purchase, exchange 
or as gifts. 

.As stated last year the most important work before this department is 
the completion of the work of accessioning the accumulation of material 
now on hand, for until that is done it will be impossible to make out an 
intelligent report or to keep track of books currently received. Next in 
importance is the completion of the card catalogue so it shall cover the 
departmental libraries and the miscellaneous books in the lower stack 
room. The addition of about 90 lineal feet of wall shelving at the south- 
west corner of the lower library room would much facilitate the handling 
of the books. One suggestion made last year should Ije again repeated. 
That is the appropriation of a suitable allowance for the purchase of books 
for the general and departmental libraries and for the binding of the 
complete volumes of serials and society publications. A technical library 
such as this must maintain a constant, even if small, growth. 



Dep.\rtment of Invertebrate Zoology 
By Walter K. Fisher, Curator 

The work of the department for the year comprised exploration in two 
widely separated localities, the Lesser .-Antilles and Puget Sound. 

In December, 1917, the curator was invited to accompany an expedition 
to Antigua and Barbados, British West Indies, organized under the auspices 
of the Graduate School of the University of Iowa and largely manned by 
members of the Department of Zoology of that institution. It was decided 
that the curator would represent the California Academy of Sciences and 
the Department of Zoology of Stanford University, one-half of the ma- 
terial collected to go to each institution. In addition to this, duplicate 



Vol. VIII J EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR W'S 341 

material over and above what should be required by the University of 
Iowa, the latter institution agreed to furnish available duplicates from the 
general collections after these had been worked up by specialists. 

Professor C. C. Nutting, chief of the expedition (which consisted of 
nineteen persons) requested the curator to proceed to Barbados in advance 
of the main party in order to organize suitable quarters. He accordingly 
did so, sailing from New York April 19, 1918. The main party left about 
10 days later. 

Extensive siiore and shallow reef collections were made in the vicinity of 
Bridgetown. Barbados, consisting for the most part of the commoner West 
Indian shallow water forms. The more unusual specimens were of course 
turned over to the general collections. Dredging up to about 100 fathoms 
was carried on successfully by Dr. J. B. Henderson, the malacologist of 
the expedition. The curator accompanied the expedition as expert in 
Echinoderma. but these animals proving to be not very numerous, his 
activities covered the entire range of marine invertebrates with the excep- 
tion of MoUusca, in charge of Dr. Henderson. 

After a five weeks' stay at Barbados the expedition moved north to 
.■\ntigua for a similar period. The base for work was here at English 
Harbor, an historic fort dating from Nelson's time. The shore collecting 
proved to be excellent at Antigua, although on account of the prevailing 
winds dredging was impossible. The number of species encountered at 
Antigua was not unusiially large, but most forms were in abundance. 

The expedition arrived at New York August 1, after safely eluding any 
submarines which might then have been pirating off our eastern coast, and 
all material reached California in safety. 

In the region of Puget Sound Mrs. Ida S. Oldroyd again made a miscel- 
laneous collection of invertebrates at the San Juan Islands, paying more 
attention to the rarer forms which she did not secure last summer. 



.Accessions to the Museum and Library 

.Mexandcr, Miss Annie, Piedmont : Fifty-five numbers of Proceedings, 

California .\cademy of Sciences, and two numbers The Philippine 

Journal of Science. Gift. 
.Mien, Charles A., San Geronimo : Thirty-five mammal and 20 bird skins 

from Nicasio, Marin County, California. Gift. 
.Anderson, Mr. F. M., Berkeley : Miocene fossils from Coalinga district. 

Gift. 
.\ntonio, Ferraro, San Francisco ; One box of inlaid mahogany. Gift. 
Berry, Mr. S. Stillman, Redlands : Five pamphlets. Gift. 
Bethel. Mr. Ellsworth, San Jacinto : Seven botanical specimens. Gift. 
Blaisdell, Dr. F. E., San Francisco : Three hundred and fifty-five named 

beetles to fill vacancies in the Academy's collection of insects in certain 

families. Gift. 



342 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4ih Ser. 

Bliss, Mr. Walter D. ; Two botanical specimens from Plumas County. Gift. 

Bracket!, Mr. Harvey G., San Francisco : Section of bone found at Sara- 
toga, Califoniia. Gift. 

tJradley, Dr. J. C, Cornell University : One large, handsome and rare 
long-horned beetle (Crioprosopus magnificus) from New Mexico. Gift. 

Budd, Mr. Charles G., San Francisco : One skull of cow elk. Gift. 

Buford, Mrs. S. J., San Francisco : One English ring necked pheasant. 
Gift. 

Burbank, Mr. Luther, Santa Rosa : One botanical specimen. Gift. 

Burger, Master Albert, Fort Winfield Scott : One Angora hare. Gift. 

California Botanical Club. San Francisco : One hundred botanical speci- 
mens. Gift. 

Campbell, Mrs. Marian L., San Francisco : Eighteen botanical specimens. 
Gift. 

Carlson, Mr. John I.. San Francisco: One hundred and thirty-four 
botanical specimens, 115 insects from Arizona and southern California, 
marine shells from San Diego, land snails from Santa Barbara County 
and minerals from Arizona. Exploration. 

Cebrian, Mr. J. C, San Francisco : Botanical specimens from Central 
America, 3 saws of Pristis perrotti from Guatemala, 6 mounted speci- 
mens of the Armadillo (Ttitu norcmciiictiDii). 1 spiny puffer, 1 Alaska 
Indian totem, 1 mounted specimen of the Jacana, 1 case of 6 mounted 
birds from Guatemala. Gift. 

Chastain, Mr. J. H., San Francisco: Botanical specimens from Siskiyou 
County, California; chrome ore and asbestos from Siskiyou County. 
Gift. 

Clemens, Mrs. Joseph, VVilliamsport, Pa. : Six botanical specimens from 
Pennsylvania. Gift. 

Clokey, Mr. Ira D., Denver, Colorado : Seven hundred and one botanical 
specimens of Marcus E. Jones collections in California, Nevada and 
Lower California; also 175 botanical specimens from Colorado. Ex- 
change. 

Cockerell, Dr. T. D. .A., Boulder, Colo. : Sixteen miscellaneous books and 
pamphlets. Gift. 

Creeley, Dr. E. J., San Francisco: One skeleton adidt female Indian 
elephant. Gift. 

Dahl, Miss Adele, Tahoc City, California : One Western Goshawk. Gift. 

Davidson, Mr. W. M., Sacramento : One Ceria n. sp. from Imperial 
County. Gift. 

Dean, Mr. Walter E., San Francisco : Thirty-one ninnbers of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy, Fourth Series. Gift. 

Dickerson, Dr. Roy E., San Francisco : One package of fossils from 
Sonoina County, California ; one package of fossil shells from Santa 
Barbara County, California; one package of Oligocene fossils and 33 
specimens of fossils ; four packages of fossils from the state of Wash- 
ington. Exploration. 



\'0L. VIIIJ Hl-'ERMANN—DIRECTOICS REPORT FOR iviS 343 

The Dudley Herbarium: One botanical specimen. Gift. 

Durden, Mr. H. S., San Francisco: Two boxes and five packages of min- 
erals. Gift. 

Eastwood, Miss Alice, San Francisco : One botanical specimen from 
Golden Gate Park ; one botanical specimen from Botanical Garden, 
University of California ; 5- species of exotic plants with duplicates 
from Golden Gate Park ; 392 botanical specimens from various locali- 
ties; 3 botanical specimens and two exotics from Mount Davidson, San 
Francisco; 607 botanical specimens from Colorado, Utah, and Cali- 
fornia ; 71 botanical specimens from Mtount St. Helena. Exploration. 

Ehrhorn, Mr. Oscar, San Francisco: Five fossil shells and three speci- 
mens of mineral ores from Bolivia. Gift. 

Erwin, Mr. Richard, Boise, Idaho : One hundred and sixteen frogs ; 40 
snakes ; 257 toads ; 43 salamanders and 32 lizards from Idaho. Gift. 

Essig, Mr. E. O., Berkeley: Five hundred and eighty-two slides o' Japan- 
ese plant lice. Gift. 

Evermann, Dr. Barton Warren, San Francisco : Seventy-four botanical 
specimens from Crater Lake, and from Santa Catalina. San Clemente, 
and Santa Barbara islands ; 8 insects from northern California ; 3 Lin- 
nets. 1 Willow Goldfinch and 1 Western Savannah Sparrow ; 1 snake 
from Golden Gate Park. Eocploration. A miscellaneous collection of 
shells, corals, minerals, fossils, Indian arrowheads, beads, etc., and 
various other natural history objects totaling altogether more than 500 
specimens chiefly from Alaska, Indiana, Texas, North Carolina, and 
Porto Rico. Gift. One snake from San Mateo County, one snake 
from Merced County, and three frogs from San Benito County. E.\- 
ploration. 

Fauntleroy, Miss Sophie, Nordoff : Nine botanical specimens. Gift. 

Ferris, Mr. G. F., Stanford University : One entomological specimen 
mounted on slide of Hesl>croclencs longicefs Waterh. Gift. 

Folger, Mr. A. S., Berkeley, and Dickerson, Dr. R, E. : Fossils from Wash- 
ington. Exploration. 

Fox, Mr. C. L., San Francisco : Six hundred and fifty-tliree insects, mostly 
Diptera. Gift. 

Prison, Mr. Theodore H., Champaign, Illinois: Forty-three entomological 
specimens. Exchange. 

Gallon. Mr. G., HoUister : One badger. Gift. 

Gester, Mr. G. C. : Fossils from Peru. Gift. 

Gillon, Mrs. E. E., San Francisco: One tusk of walrus. Gift. 

Godfrey, Mr. F. L., Supt., Kahlin Reserve, Australia : Eighty-six speci- 
mens of minerals; 3 pearl oyster shells; 5 boomerangs; 3 wristbands; 
1 emu skin rug; 3 nets; 1 mat flag; 17 wooden implements; 1 metal 
bayonet with wooden scabbard ; 1 hair ornament ; 1 wall-pocket case. 
Gift. 

Golden Gate Park: One California Condor, and one young kangaroo. Gift. 

Goldsmith, Mr. Oliver : One botanical specimen. Gift. 

Gordon, Mr. W. : Fossils from San Luis Obispo. Gift. 



344 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [P»oc. 4th Seh. 

Heath. Dr. Harold. Stanford University: Nineteen botanical specimens 
from Forrester Island, Alaska. Gift. 

Herrin, Miss Alice, San Francisco : One botanical specimen. Gift. 

Herrin, Mr. William F.. San Francisco : Eighteen botanical specimens. 
Gift. 

Holm. Mr. Adolph. San P'rancisco : Four botanical specimens. Gift. 

Holzinger. Mr. John M.. Winona, Minn. : Hohinger's set of Sandberg's 
collection of Plants of Idaho, consisting of 955 mounted specimens and 
200 unmounted specimens. Purchase. 

Hopping, Mr. Ralph, Berkeley : Thirty specimens of tropical longhorned 
Coleoptera. Gift. 

Hunt, Mr. H. H.. Escalon : One bat. Gift. 

Israelsky, Mr. Merle. San Francisco : One arrow-head from Frankfort, 
Kansas. Gift. 

Jones, Mr. J. M., Wilmington, Delaware : Twenty-six entomological speci- 
mens from northern California. Gift. 

Kusche, Mr. J. .August, San Francisco : One hundred and two insects, 
chiefly from .Alaska and .\rizona ; 87 mammal skins, chiefly from Cali- 
fornia and .Alaska ; 337 bird skins, chiefly from California and Alaska. 
Gift. 

Lazansky, Mr. Bernhard, San Francisco: Relic of the great fire of April, 
1906: a nickel in slot of telephone box. Gift. 

Liebes, Mr. I.. San Francisco : Three pieces of fur illustrating method of 
preparing mink skins for garments. Gift. 

Levin, Mrs, A. L., San Francisco: Sixty-six Indian spear and arrow- 
heads. Gift. 

Lewis, Mr. W. C. Tiburon : One caribou head from Alaska. Gift. 

I.ockefeer, Mr. C. J., San Francisco : One lizard from San Mateo County. 
Gift. 

Maag, Mr. Fred, San Francisco : One snake from Marin County. Cali- 
fornia. Gift. 

Markley, Mrs., San Antonio, Texas : Three botanical specimens. Gift. 

Martin, Mr. J. O., Berkeley : One hundred and thirty-two insects, includ- 
ing a pair of DiHofafe wrighti and four examples of Schicax sena.r, 
both rare California beetles. Gift. 

McMlister. Mrs. Leonore M., Ydalpom : Forty-seven botanical specimens. 
Gift. 

McGuire, Mr. Ignatius, San Francisco : One lizard from Santa Barbara 
County and one snake from Marin County. Gift. 

Mciere, Mrs. Ernest, San Francisco: Three botanical specimens (one 
from Yellowstone). Gift. 

Menzies, Mr. Robert, San Rafael : One botanical specimen. Gift. 

Merriam, Dr. C. Hart, Washington, D. C. : Twenty botanical specimens. 
Gift. 

Merrill, Mr. E. D., Manila, P. I.: Fifty-five miscellaneous books and 
pamphlets. Gift. 



Vol. VIII] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR jgiS 345 

Mcrritt, Dr. George W.. Sail Francisco : One specimen Sipunculoidea. 
Gift. 

Miller, Mrs. C. E., Berkeley : One luuidred and two botanical specimens 

from the Santa Cruz Islands. Gift. 
Miller. Mr. Irving, Berkeley : Thirteen botanical specimens. Gift. 
Neilson, Mr. Fred, San Francisco : One crab, caught in Bristol Bay, 

Alaska. Gift. 

New York Botanical Garden : Sixty-four specimens of plants from 
Jamaica and 65 specimens of grasses. Exchange. 

Nomland, Mr. J. O., Los Angeles : One bo.\ of pliocene and miocene fos- 
sils from Los Angeles County. Gift. 

Noyes. Mr. Russell: Forty-one botanical specimens from .Afoguak, Alaska. 
Gift. 

Oldroyd, Mrs. Ida S., Stanford LIniversity : One hundred and forty-three 
botanical specimens from Michigan. Gift; and 406 specimens of shells. 
Exploration. 

Otis, Mr. Ira C, Seattle, Wasli. : Si-xty-scvcn botanical specimens from 

Cascade Mountains. Gift. 
Pack, Mr. Herbert J., Salt Lake City, Utah : Two snakes from Utah. Gift. 
Packard, Dr. E. L., Eugene, Ore. : One box of fossils from Florida and 

Mississippi. Exploration. 
Page, Mrs. George T., San Francisco : Three walrus ivory bows, 2 pestles, 

and 1 pipe. Gift. 

Palache, Mr. T. IL, San Francisco: One photograph of Piiius lambcrtianci 

Gift. 
Palmer, Mr. Andrew H., San Francisco. Three books. Gift. 
Perkins, Dr. Anne E. : Three botanical specimens. Gift. 
Peters, Mr. Peter, San Rafael : Forty entomological specimens from 

Queensland, and 26 herpetological specimens from various localities 

Gift. 
Ploud, Mr. Will.. San Francisco: One Blue Mountain Parrot from 

Australia. Gift. 
Reed, Mr. C. E.. Santa Cruz : Five botanical specimens. Gift. 
Reeve, Miss Enid, Pasadena: Si.x botanical specimens. Gift. 
Reynolds, Mrs. L. R., Brockton, Mass. : Three botanical specimens. Gift. 
Rixford, Mr. G. P., San Francisco: Three botanical specimens. Gift. 
Robinson's Bird Store, San Francisco: One chimpanzee. Gift. 
Rothschild, Hon. Walter, Tring, England : One tortoise cast. Gift. 
Sandford, Mr. O. N., San Francisco: Thirty-eight botanical specimens 

from Arizona and southern California. Gift. 
Scupham, Mr. John R., Oakland: A small quantity of crude black sand 

from the delta of the Klamath River, a small quantity of sand from 

upper ancient beach on Sixis River, Oregon, and a small package of 

sand from beach at Pandon, Oregon. Gift. 



346 CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4rH Ser. 

Silviera, Captain J. F., Centerville : One shell from the Caroline Islands 

and 5 rattlesnake rattles. Gift. 
Slevin, Mr L. S., Carmel : Forty-one insects from Paso Robles and Carmel 

and 130 insects from Monterey County. Gift. 
Slevin, Mr. Joseph R., San Francisco: Sixty-five beetles from Crater Lake, 

Oregon ; 227 insects from Oiannel Islands, mostly from San Clemente ; 

1 snake from San Mateo County ; 3 snakes from Santa Clara County ; 

9 snakes from Monterey County ; 58 lizards from Monterey County ; 

10 lizards and 2 snakes from Pyramid Lake. Nevada ; 1 snake and 2 
lizards from vicinity of Mt. Diablo. E.xploration. 

Smith, Mr. L. E., Sisson : One hundred and ninety-seven books and 

pamphlets, also various numbers of Academy Proceedings ; 14 botanical 

specimens, 2 boxes of minerals. Gift. 
Snyder, Prof. J. O., Stanford University: One salamander from Stanford 

University; 50 lizards from Honolulu; 15 lizards from .Aiea; 7 lizards 

from Yam Bay. Niihau Island; 2 lizards from Waimea, Kauai Island; 

1 snake from Japan and 1 snake from China. Gift. 
Stanford University: One botanical specimen. Gift. 
Stewart, Miss CoUeena, San Francisco : Si.K botanical specimens. Gift. 
Southern Pacific Company : Set of 55 colored slides of the .'\pache Trail. 

Gift. 
Sullivant Moss Society, New York, N. Y. : Seventy-five specimens of 

lichens. Purchase. 
Sutlifle, Mrs. E. C, San Francisco: Eleven botanical specimens. Gift. 
Thompson, Mr. David G. : One botanical specimen, and 6 botanical speci- 
mens from Mojave Desert. Gift. 
Thompson, Mr. Hugh. San Francisco: One turtle from California. Gift. 
Thompson, Mr. J. C. : Snails from Lower California. Gift. 
Thompson, Mrs. Lillian Dyer, Swampscott, Mass. : Two slides showing 

the raduli of Melongcna corona and Aflysis protea. Gift. 
Thrasher, Dr. Marion, San Francisco : One old property deed to 80 acres 

of land in the State of Indiana given in 1823 to John Smeltser of 

Barbour County, Kentucky, by the President. James Monroe. Gift. 
Tucker, Mr. J. F., Tucson, Arizona : Two Indian spear heads, one broken 

pestle and two pieces of quartz. Gift. 
Turner, Mrs. G. M., Riverside: One botanical specimen. Gift. 
Turrill, Mr. Qiarles B., San Francisco : One chinchilla ; 1 stone crab from 

near the Farallones ; Journals and Letters, David Douglas. Gift. 
United States Custom House, San Francisco: Sixty-three packages of 

mounted birds, bird skins and bird feathers, seized by Customs Office. 

Gift. 
United States National Herbarium: One box of botanical specimens. 

Exchange. 
Van Denburgh, Dr. John. San Francisco : One snake from Merced County ; 

1 toad from Hollister; 2 lizards and 1 salamander from San Juan; 15 

lizards from Honolulu and 2 salamander skeletons from Los Gatos. 

Exploration. 



Vol. \-IIIl EVERM ANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR ii/:S 347 

Van Deiiburgli, Dr. John, and Slevin, Mr. Joseph R. : Two hundred and 
fourteen lizards from San Clemente Island ; 2 lizards from San Nicolas 
Island; 24 lizards from Santa Catalina Island; 58 lizards, 59 snakes. 
5 toads, 15 frogs and 49 salamanders from California; 67 lizards, 5 
toads, 13 snakes, 14 frogs, 478 salamanders, and 3 turtles from Oregon. 
Exploration. 
Van Dtizee, Mr. E. P., San Francisco : Forty-five freshwater shells from 
Titch ranch, four miles west of Cayton, Shasta County; 413 beetles 
from Eastern states. Gift. 24 insects collected at Milbrae ; 43 insects 
collected at Ingleside; 667 insects collected at Cazadero ; 4247 insects 
collected in field trip to Ashland. Oregon; 411 insects ivom Cazadero; 
828 insects from Gadwall ; 616 insects from Sacramento; 876 insects 
from Mt. St. Helena, and 1900 insects from various localities. Ex- 
ploration. 

Van Duzee, Mrs. Helen, San Francisco: Nine hundred and forty-three 
spiders taken in the counties about San Francisco Bay. Gift. 

Van Dyke, Dr. E. C, Berkeley: One thousand one hundred and thirty- 
two insects from Ithaca, New York; 42 insects from Banff, Canada; 
88 insects from Port Coulange, Quebec ; 149 salamanders, 10 frogs and 
4 snakes from Ithaca, New York ; snails from Ithaca, New York ; sea 
shells from Alaska. Gift. 

Varrelman, Mr. Ferdinand A., San Francisco: Fifty bound volumes, 15 
unbound volumes, 533 numbers of Government bulletins, reports, etc., 
and publications of Societies, 111 miscellaneous pamphlets and excerpts 
Gift. 

Verrill, Prof, A. E., New Haven, Conn. : Twenty-four insects and 5 larvoe 
from the outflow of a warm artesian well near Carson, Nevada. Gift. 

von Hoffman, Mrs. C, San Francisco : Four pamphlets. Gift. 

Waizman, Miss Olga: One botanical specimen. Gift. 

Weeks, Mr. Andrew Gray: Two volumes. Gift. 

Wetherill, Miss Martha, Chin Lee, Arizona : One botanical specimen. Gift. 

Wickham, Prof. H. F., Iowa City, Iowa: Three hundred and sixty-three 
specimens of Coleoptera. Gift. 

Willett, Mr. G., Los Angeles: One hundred and ninety-nine shells from 
Forrester Island, Alaska. Gift. 

Woodrum, Mr. J. H. : Vegetable ivory from Ecuador. Gift. 

Wooster, Mr. John, San Francisco: One Indian spearhead from Indian 
mound in Marin County, California. Gift. 



348 ■ CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th Ser. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER 

for the fiscal year ending March 31. 1919 
April 1. 1918. Balance with Crocker National Bank.. $ 1.199.92 

Receipts 

Dues $ 1,267.25 

Charles Crocker Scientific Fund Endowment Income 1,194.76 

James Lick Endowment Income 4J^.083.11 

General Income 15.000.00 

John W. Hendrie Income Account 675.00 

A, K. Macomber Donation 500.00 

W. G. Wright Fund 57.20 

Sundry Advances 9.08 

Insurance 3.87 

Museum 145.96 

Publication 310.72 

Post Card Sales 674.86 

67,921.81 

$69,121.73 



Vol. VIII 1 EVERM^NN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR 1918 349 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER— Conf/nued 
Receipts 

Brought forward, — total receipts $69,121.73 

Expenditures 

Expense $ 2,378.54 

General Salary Expense 13,050.00 

Bills Payable 14,000.00 

Insurance 579.40 

Interest 15,394.64 

Museum Department Appropriations 6,835.05 

Salaries 9,668.46 

Library 542.33 

Publication 4.441.07 

Museum Construction 422,00 

Office Furniture 263.04 

Tools and Equipment 37.93 

Post Cards Purchased 333.40 

Sundry Creditors 47.68 

Sundry Advances (Museum) 1.790.23 

White Pelican Group 161.44 

Contingent Fund 217.74 

70.162.95 

March 31, 1919, Balance due Crocker National Bank $ 1,041.22 

Rudolph J. Taussig, Treasurer. 

We have examined the foregoing Report of the Treasurer for the fiscal year ended 
March 31. 1919. with the bool:s and accounts of the California Academy of Sciences, 
and we have found the same to be correct. 

McLaren, Goode & Co.. Ccrtiijed Public Accomtlaitls. 
San Francisco, Cat. .Ai)ril 21, 1919. 

INCOME AND OPERATING EXPENSES 

for the period April 1, 1918, to March 31, 1919 

Income 

Charles Crocker Scientific Fund Endowment Income $ 1,194.76 

James Lick Endowment Income 48,083.11 

General Income 15.000 00 

Dues 1.267.25 

$65,545.12 

Expense 

Salaries 21.942.25 

Expense, General $970.33 

Fuel 604.46 

Electricity 218.73 

Telephone 279.45 

Postage 250.56 

Stationery and Printing 238.01 

2.561.54 

Insurance 575.53 

Interest 15.394.64 

40.473.96 

Surplus for year 1918-19 $25,071.16 



3,50 CALIFORMA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES [Proc. 4th StR. 

BALANCE SHEET 

March 31. 1919 

Assets 
Real Estate: 

Market Street Lot $600,000.00 

Jessie Street Lot 8,083.65 

'Commercial Building 516,818.66 

$1,124,902.31 

.Stocks : 

45 Shares Savings Union Bank & Trust Co. , 10,000.00 

.Museum Construction 191,210.92 

Museum ; 

General Collections 91,119.91 

Tools and Equipment 14,909.4S 

106,029.39 

Library : 

Books and Equipment 16.046.42 

Publication 17.aS0..76 

33.927.18 

Office Furniture 3,009.14 

Post Cards in Stock 179.72 

Sundry Advances 50.00 

$1,469,308.66 

l^iabilities 

Endowments : 

James Lick Endowment $SO4,902.31 

Charles Crocker Scientific Fund Endowment 20.000.00 
John W. Hendrie Endowment 10.000.00 

$ 834,902.31 

John W. Hendrie Endowment Income .^ccount. . 3.498.9S 

Alvord Bequest Botanical 5,000.00 

A. K. Macomber Donation 3,500.00 

William H. Crocker Donation 2,318.73 

W. B. Bourn Donation 2.659.31 

J. D. Grant Donation 2,610.42 

Herbert Fleischhacker Donation 3.500.00 

VV. G. Wright Fund 240.40 

Bills Payable 305.275.00 

Sundry Creditors 931.32 

Cash: 

Overdraft with Crocker National Bank 1,041.22 

Less Cash in Safe 72.1 1 

969.11 

Surplus 303.903.08 

$1,469,308.66 
W. W, Sargeant, 
Sccretiiry of the Board of Trustees. 



Vol. VIII] EVERMANN— DIRECTOR'S REPORT FOR IQIS 351 



AUDITOR S CERTIFICATE 

We have examined the foregoing Balance Sheet, together with the 
books and accounts of the California Academy of Sciences, and in our 
opinion it is properly drawn up so as to exhibit a true and correct view of 
the Academy's affairs, a-s shown by the books. 

McLaren, Goode & Co.. 
Certified Public Accountants. 
San Francisco, Calif., 
April 21, 1919. 



V 



INDEX TO VOLUME VIII, FOURTH SERIES 



New names in heavy-faced type 



Abronia latifolia, 290 
abronise, Lygus, 289 
absinthii, Macrosiphum, 38, 44 
Acer pictum, 83 
acetabulum, Doeinia, 153 
Acropora species, 148 
ActsBonella species, 153 
acuminata. Zelkova, 72 
JEgialites fuchsii, 33 
aestuum. Fucellia, 160, 161. 178 
affinis, Brochyraena. 276 

Harmostes, 278 
Agassizia clevei. 150 
agui folium, Osmanthus, 106 
aguilerae. Turrit ella, 154 
Aitken. Dr. R. G.. 313 
albescens, Hadronema, 297 
albocostata. Catonia, 307 
albocostatus, Orthotylus, 299 
Aldrich. J. M.. The Kelp-Flies of 
North America (Genus Fucellia. 
Family Anthomyidi©). 157-179 
323 
Alexander, Annie. 341 
Allen, Charles A.. 326, 341 
Alnus indica glauca. 88 
alticostata, Venericardia, 126 
altilira, Turritella. 149 
Alvord, William, 23, 310 
Ammussium mortoni. 153 

species, 153 
amoenus Pilophorus, 292, 293, 294. 295 
Amphissa species, 150 
Anderson, F. M.. 323, 341 
Angelica polymorpha. 66 
angustatus, Harmostes. 277, 278 
angustirostris, Thamnophis. 183, 184, 

185. 264 
anisatum, lUicium, 80 
Ancecia piri, 40, 108 
Anomia simplex, 153 
antennata, Fucellia, 160, 161, 173, 178 
Antigona glyptoconcha, 150 
antiguensis, Goniastrea, 148 
antillarum, Macropneustes, 150 
Antonio. Ferraro, 341 
Aphis avenge, 39, 43. 67 
brassicce, 38. 68 
eitricola, 40. 68 
gossypii, 39. 40, 41, 42, 68 
japonica, 38, 70 
medicaginis, 38, 39, 41, 43. 71 
pomi, 38, 73 



Aphis rumicis, 42, 73 

siphonella, 41, 73 
somei, 38. 40, 41. 42, 43, 75 
spinosula, 39. 77 
thalictrii, 42. 78 
species, 39. 42. 80 
arboreus, Lupinus, 318 
Area taeniata, 153 
species, 150 
Arch i tec tonica species, 150 
arenaria, Scatophaga, 162 
Aricia brunnea, 165 
ariciiformis, Fucellia, 160, 161, 176, 

178 
Artemisia vulgaris indica, 44 
Articerus fuchsii, 33 
Ashmead, Prof. Wm., 29 
Astarte species, 150 
Astragalus sinicus, 72 
Atomarchus multimaeulatus, 265 
Atomoscelis peregrinus, 303 
atrata, Eutaenia, 182 
atratus, Thamnophis ordinoides. 183, 
184, 185, 209, 210. 211, 212, 213. 
214. 223. 224, 233 
atricomis, Trichopepla, 272, 275 
auduboni. Sylvilagus, 138 
aurantii, Toxoptera. 39, 80 
aurora, Trichopepla. 273, 275 
avense, Aphis, 39, 43, 67 
aztecus. Pecten, 153 
Babcock, William, 310 
bachmani bachmani, Sylvilagus. 56 
cinerascens, Sylvilagus. 56 
mariposfB, Sylvilagus, 56 
Sylvilagus bachmani, 56 
ubericolor, Sylvilagus, 61 
Bad^. Dr. William F.. 312 
Balanus, eburneus, 154 
balfouriana, Pinus. 64 
ballista, Chione, 150 
Bancroft. George, 17 
barlowi, Penthestes rufescens, 60 
Barrows, Albert L., 327 
Bascanion vetustum. 235 
Beals, Edward A., 312 
Beaver, Frederick H., 310 
Behr, Dr. H. H., 29 
beldingi, Citellus, 65 
bendirei bendirei, Neosorex, 63 
Neosorex bendirei, 63 



354 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[pROC. 4th Se». 



Benzinger, R. (with Frank E. Blaia- 
dell, Sr. and Otto von Geldern), In 
Memoriam: Carl Fuchs, 21-34 

Berry, S. Stillman. 341 

Berwick, Edward, 313 

Bethel, Ellsworth, 341 

bicaad&ta, Siphocoryne, 42, 64, 67 

bi color, Adenocaulon, 59 
Lespedeza. 45, 59 

bicrnciata, Fucellia. 160. 161, 175 

biflora, Caltha. 63 

bigelovii, Scoliopus, 57 

biscutatuB, Thaninophis ordinoides, 
183, 184. 206. 209, 210, 211, 212, 
213. 224. 233. 245 

Blair, B. G., 322 

Blaisdell. Frank E., Sr. (with R. Ben- 
singer and Otto von Geldern^ , In 
Memoriam: Carl Fuchs, 21-34 

Blaisdell, Dr. Frank E., 29. 32. 33, 
323, 341 

Blanchard, Frederick, 31 

Bliss, Walter D., 342 

Boltonia indica, 52. 64 

Bonasa umbellus sabini. 60 

borealifi, Nuttallornis, 60 

bott», Charina, 59 

Bourn, William B.. 310 

Brachycepsis fuchsii, 33 

Brackett, Harvey G.. 342 

Bradley, Prof. J. C, 312, 333. 342 

Brandegee, Mrs. K.. 9 

Brassica campestris, 64 
chinensis, 68 

brassiere, Aphis. 38. 68 

Breeze. Wm. F.. 323 

brevicauda, Passerella iliaca, 63 

brevifolia, Tasus, 57 

breweri, Carex, 65 
Draba, 65 
Mitella, 62 
Potentilla, 62 

Brochymena affinis. 276 
sulcata, 376 

brunnea. Aricia, 165 

Eutronia elegans, 236, 245 

Bryant, Dr. H. C, 312, 329 

bryophora, Saxifraga, 62 

Budd, Charles G.. 342 

Buford, Mrs. J. S.. 342 

bumalda, Staphylea, 57 

Burbank, Luther. 342 

Burger. Albert, 342 

cfBsar, Lopidea, 296 

Calaphis magnolife, 46, 85 



California Botanical Club. 342 
callfornica, Trichopepla, 272, 275 
californicus, Croton, 296 
califomicus, Oncerometopus, 280 
caloosaense, Cerithium. 154 
Camp, Charles L., 327 
Campbell, Douglas H., 329 
Campbell, Mrs. Marian, 342 
Campbell. W. W.. 329 
campestris, Brassica, 64 
candidus, Pallacocoris, 288 
candidus, Parthenicus. 300, 302 
canescens, Krameria, 303 

Phytocoris. 285 
capltata, Myzocallis, 41, 89 
Cardium. 135, 150 
Cardium gatunense, 150 

lingua-leonis. 150 
Carlson, John I., 342 
Carpocoris, 274 
Carpocoris remotus, 275. 276 

Bulcatus, 275 
Casey. Colonel Thos. L., 32 
Castanea sativa, 93 
Castanopsis cuspidata, 98. 103, 112 
Catonia albocostata, 307 

belen2B, 306 

majusculus. 306 

necopina, 307 

nervata, 307 
cazonesensis, Scutella, 150 
Cebrian. J. C, 342 
cellulosa, Orbicella, 148 
celticolens. Chromaphis, 38, 95 
Celtis sinensis, 96 
Cercidium torreyanum, 231 
Cerithium caloosaense, 154 
ChaBnomeles japonica. 73 
Chaitophorus japonica, 38. 82 

salicicolus, 85 

salijaponicus, 42, 84 
Chastain. J. H., 342 
Chilopoma rufopunctatum, 265 
chinensis, Brassica. 68 
Chione ballista, 150 
Chromaphis celticolens. 38, 96 
chrysanthemi, Macrosiphum, 52 
Cidaris cf. loveni, 150 
cinnamopterus, Pilophorua. 292, 295 
citricola, Aphis, 40, 68 
Clark. Dr. Bruce L., 314. 323 
Clark. George A., 310 
clavatuB, Pilophorus. 291. 292, 295 
Clemens. Mrs. Joseph. 342 
Clementia dariena. 150 
Clerodendron triehotomum, 68 
clevei. Agassizia, 150 
Clokey. Ira D.. 342 



Vol. VI II] 



INDEX 



355 



Clypeaeter concavus, 149 

cubensis. 150 

cf. meridianus, 151 
Cnicus japonicus, 52, 54, 55 
Cockerell, Dr. T. D. A., 342 
Cohen, DoBald G., 323 
Coluber infernalis, 186 
concavus, Clypeaster, 149 
conchyliophora, Xenophora. 154 
concinnus, Thamnophis sirtalis, 183, 

184, 186, ISS, 189, 191, 193, 203 
condylomatuB, Pecten, 150 
consipcua, Magnolia, 62 
censors, Phytocoris, 287 
Conus interstinctus, 150 

planiceps, 151 

species, 150 
Coombs, Mrs. A. L., 310 
cooperi, Eutienia, 215 
Cordylura, 159 

costalis, Pucellia, 159, 160, IHl, 166 
couchii, Thamnophis ordinoides, 183, 
184, 185, 208, 209. 210, 211, 212, 
213. 233, 251 
Covillea mexicana, 300 
covilleae, Parthenicus, 300. 302 
crassipes, Pilophorus, 293, 295 
cratffigi, Prociphilus, 39. IW, 106 
Crataegus cuneatus, 104 
Creeley, Dr. E. J., 342 
crispus, Rumex, 73 
croceus, Harmostes. 278 
croceus, Psallus. 302 
Crocker, Charles. 310 
Crocker, Charles T., 327 
Crocker, "William H., 310 
Croton calif ornicus, 296 
cubensis, Clypeaster. 150 
Cucull^a macrodonta. 126 
Cucumis sativus, 69 
cummingianus, Solecurtus, 154 
cumminsi, Metalia, 150 
cuneatus. Crataegus, 104 
cuneotinctus, Sthenarus, 303 
cuspidata, Castanopsis, 98, 103, 112 
cuspidatfe, Nipponaphis, 38, 110 
Cutter, Olive E., 317, 318 
Cychrus fuchsiana, 33 
Cypraea species, 151 
Dahl, Adele, 342 
Dalea emoryi, 297, 298 

Bchottii, 303 
Dana, Richard H., 2 
D'Ancona, Dr. A. A., 313 
dariena, Clementia, 150 
Darwin, Charles. 2 
Davidson, W. M., 342 
Dean, Walter E., 342 



Debold, Marie, 28 

decolor, Plagiognathus, 305 

decora ta, Hadroneraa, 297 

densiflora, Pinus, 100 

dentata, Quercus, 92, 103 

Deutzia ecabra, 71 

Dickerson, Dr. Roy E., 114, 312. 325, 

342 
Dickie, G. W. (with Leverett Milln 
Loomis and Ransom Pratt). In 
Memoriam: Theodore Henry Hit- 
tell. 1-25 
310 
digueti. Tropidonotus. 256 
discretus, Pilophorus. 290. 294, 295 
distylii, Nipponaphis. 39. 109 
Doane. Prof. R. W.. 312, 329 
Doliuin cfr. galea, 154 
Doll, Jacob, 30 
Dosinia acetabulum, 153 

elegans, 153 
Dow, R. P., 30 
dubiosa, Tuponia, 304 
Dudley Herbarium, 343 
Dumble, E. T.. Geology of the North- 
ern End of the Tampico Embay- 
ment Area. 113-156 
dumblei, Lovenia, 149 
Dunne. Peter F.. 310 
Durden, H. S.. 343 
Eastwood. Alice. 321, 325, 343 
ebergenyii, Venus, 153 
eburneus. Balanus, 154 
Echinolampas species, 151 
Ehrhorn, Oscar, 343 
elegans brunnea, Eutsenia, 236, 245 
Dosinia. 153 
lineolata, Euta?nia, 236 
Thamnophis, 182, 206, 207 
Thamnophis ordinoides, 183, 
184, 206, 207, 209, 210, 211, 
212. 213, 214, 233, 235 
Eleodes fuchsii, 33 
emoryi, Dalea, 297, 298 
Encope tatetl^ensis, 153 

species, 153 
Englehardt, Geo. P., 30 
epphippium, Orbitoides, 148 
eques, Thamnophis, 183, 194, 304 
equina, Vicia faba, 71 
Erwin, Richard, 343 
Essig, E. O.. 329. 343 
Essig, E. O. and Kuwana, S. I., Some 

Japanese Aphididas, 33-112 
Euceraphis japonica, 38. 87 
Eupatagus. 149 
Europiella spaxsa, 305 

stigTOosa, 305 
Euscaphifi japonica, 57 



356 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



EutsBnia atrata, 1S2 
cooperi, 215 

elegans brunnea, 236. 245 
elegans lineolata, 236 
flavilabris, 263 
Henshawi, 245 
infernalis vidua, 224, 234 
insigniarum, 263 
leptocephala, 215 
macrostemma, 263 
nigrolateris, 261 
pickeringii, 186, 192 
sirtalis tetrataenia, 186, 192, 

199 
sirtalis trilineata, 186, 192 
Eutrichosipliuin, 97 
Eutrichosiphum pasanise, 38, 97 
Evermann, Barton Warren, Roport of 
the Director of the Museum for the 
Year 1918, 317-351 
329, 343 
evermanni, Fucellia, 159, 160, 161, 

164, 173, 175 
faba equina, Vicia, 71 
Fair, Paul, 313, 316, 317, 318, 321 
Fall, Prof. F. C, 323, 333 
Fall, Prof. H. C, 29, 32, 33 
Faulkner, Richard D., 17 
Fauntleroy, Sophie, 343 
Favites polygonallis, 148 
Felton, John B., 9 
Ferris, G. F., 343 
Ficopsus cowlitzensis, 163 
Ficus species, 151 
Field, Stephen J., 14 
filifera, Washingtonia, 307 
Fisher, Dr. W. K., 326 
flavilabris, Eutwnia, 263 
Fleishhacker, Herbert, 310, 315 
floridana, Panopsea, 154 
Folger, Anthony, 323 
Folger, A. S., 343 
Fox, Chas. L., 323, 343 
Franek, Geo., 30 
Franklin, E. C, 329 
fraterculus, Harmostes, 277, 278 
fraterculus, Phytocoris, 283, 2S5 
fraternus, Orthotylus, 299 
Frison, Theodore H., 343 
Fucellia, 157, 175 
Fucellia sestuum, 160, 161, 178 

antennata, 160, 161, 172. 178 
ariciiformis, 160, 161, 176, 178 
bicruciata, 160, 161, 175 
costalls, 159, 160, 161, 166 
evermanni, 159, 160, 161, 164, 

173, 175 
fucorum, 157, 159, 160, 161, 

164, 175, 178 
funifera, 171 



Fucellia griseola, 159 

hinei, 160, 161,, 178 

maritima, 158, 160, 161, 162, 

165. 175, 178 
pictipennis, 159, 160, 101, 

167 
rejecta, 160, 161. 171 
rufltibia, 160, 161, 168 
separata, 159, iCO, 161, 164, 

170 
signata, 159 
Fucellina, 159 
Fuchsiana, 33 
fuchsiana, Cychrus. 33 
fuchsii, JEgialites, 33 
Articerus, 33 
Brachycepsis, 33 
Eleodes, 33 
fucorum, Fucellia, 157. 159, 160, 161, 
164, 175, 178 
Scatomyza, 165 
funifera. Fucellia, 171 
Gallon, G., 343 

Garter-Snakes of "Western North 
America (The), by John Van Den- 
burgh and Joseph R. Slevin, 181- 
270 
galunense, Cardium, 150 
gatunensis. Pecten, 149, 150 
Geminger, Professor, 28 
geniculatus, Phytocoris, 286, 287 
Geology of the Northern End of the 
Tampico Embayment Area, by E. T. 
Dumble. 113-156 
Gester, Clark, 323, 338, 343 
gibbus, Solecurtus, 154 
GiflFard, Walter M., 323 
giffardi, Parthenicus, 302 
Gillon, Mrs. E. E., 343 
glauca, Alnus indica, 88 
Glycineris species, 150 
glyptoconcha, Antigona, 150 
Godfrey, F. L., 343 
Golden Gate Park, 343 
Goldsmith. Oliver, 343 
Goniastrea antiguensis, 148 
Goniopora species, 148 
Gordon, W.. 343 
gossypii. Aphis, 39, 40, 41, 42, 68 
granarium, Macrosiphum, 42. 44 
granditlorum. Platycodon, 52 
Grant, Joseph D., 310 
Green, Dr. Rufus L., 312 
Grinnell, Dr. Joseph, 312, 322 
griseola, Fucellia. 159 
grossa, Trichopepla. 274, 275 
Grunsky, C. E., Report of the Presi- 
dent of the Academy for the Year 
1918, 809-316 



Vol. VIII] 



INDEX 



357 



Hackett, Mrs. Sarah Vaslit, 310 
Hackmeier, William J., 310 
hamatus, Orthotylus, 298 
Hadronema albescens, 297 

decorata, 297 

infans, 296 

militaris, 297 

picta, 296 

robusta, 297 

Bplendida, 298 
Haggan, Rita, 9 
hagi, Macrosiphum. 40, 44 
hagicola, Macrosiphum, 45 
haitieusis, Ostrea, 150 
Halithea raaritima, 157 
Hall, Harvey M., 329 
bammondii, Thamnophis, 206. 207 

Thamnophis ordinoides, 183. 
184, 185, 209, 210. 211, 212, 
213, 256 
Hansen, Harold C, 323 
Harford, W. G. W., 29 
Harkness, Dr. H. W.. 23 
Harmostes affinis, 278 

angustatus, 277, 27S 

croceus, 278 

fraterculus, 277, 278 

reflexulus, 277, 278 
Harold, Professor. 28 
Harrison. Judge Ralph C, 310 
Heath, Dr. Harold, 312, 344 
hederacea, Iponoea, 62 
beidemanni, Phytocoris, 285 
helenae, Catonia, 306 
Hendrie, John W., 310 
Henshawi, Eutsenia, 245 
Herms, W. B., 329 
Herrin, Alice, 344 
Herrin, William F., 344 
Hibiscus syriacus, 72 
hinei, Fucellia. 160, 161, 178 
Mrtus, Phytocoris. 284, 2S5 
Holm, Adolph, 344 
Holmes, S. J., 329 
Holway, Prof. E. S., 313 
Holzinger, John M., 344 
Hopping, Ralph, 323, 333, 344 
Hordeum vulgare, 67 
Horn, Dr. Geo., 32, 33 
Horn, Dr. Walther, 32 
Hosmer, Mrs. Charlotte, 310 
Hosts of Japanese Aphididfe. 38 
Hudson, Capt. Chas. B., 316, 317 
Hunt, H. H., 344 
Hymenoclea salsola, 278. 301 
hyperborea, Scatomyza, 165 
ibota, LiguBtnim, 46 
ibotum, Macrosiphum, 40, 46 
Illicium anisatum, 80 



In Memoriam: Carl Fuchs, by Frank 
E. BlaisdcU, Sr., R. Benzinger, and 
Otto von Geldern, 27-34 
In Memoriam: Theodore Henry Hit- 
tell, by G. W. Dickie, Leverett 
Mills Loomis, and Ransom Pratt, 
1-25 
indica, Artemisia vulgaris, 44 
Boltonia, 52, 64 
glauca, Alnus, 88 
indicum, Rhopalosiphum, 39, 42, 55 
infans, Hadronema, 296 
infernalis. Coluber, 186 

Thamnophis sirtalis, 183, 184, 

188, 189, 191, 198, 251 
vidua, Eutsenia, 224, 234 
inops. Phytocoris, 282, 283, 285 
insigniarum, Eutfenia, 263 
interstinctus. Conus, 150 
Ipomoea hederacea. 62 
Iris sanguinea. 55 
Israelsky, Merle, 327, 344 
Japanese Aphididse. Hosts of, 38 
japonica, Aphia, 38, 70 
Chaenomeles, 73 
japonica, Chaitophorus, 38, 83 

Euscaphis. 57 
japonica, Euceraphis, 38, 87 
japonica, Siphocoryne, 38, 66 
japonicus. Cnicus. 52, 54, 55 
Petasites, 68 
Pterochlorus, 101 
javanica, Rhus, 76 
Jenks, Livingston, 310 
Jones, J. M., 344 

Kelp-Flies of North America (Genus 
Fucallia. Family Anthomyidre) 
(The), by J. M. Aldrich. 157-179 
Kew, Dr. W. S. W., 114, 323, 337 
King, James, 8 
King, Starr, 8 
kobus, Magnolia. 87 
Kofoid, Charles A., 327, 329 
Kraatz, G., 33 
Krameria canescens. 303 
KrotoBzyner, Dr. Martin, 310 
kuricola, Myzocallis, 38, 41, 92 

Nippocallis, 92 
Kusche, J. August, 326, 333, 344 
Kuwana, S. I. and Essig, E. O., Some 

Japanese Aphididje, 35-112 
kuwanai, Trichosiphum, 41, 97 
Lachnus pinldenslflorae, 41. 99 
species, 40, 42, 100, 101 
lactucaa, Rhopalosiphum, 40, 42, 57 
laetus, Pilophorus, 294, 295 
Laevicardium serratum, 153 

sublineatum. 153 
languidus, Orthotylus, 298 



358 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th Ser. 



Larix leptolepis, 101 
latifolia, Abronia, 290 
Lazansky, Bernhard, 344 
Leng, Charles, 28, 30, 32 
leptocephala, Eutaenia, 215 

ThamnophiB, 182, 206 
leptocephalus olympia, Thamnophis. 

215 
leptolepis, Laris, 101 
Lespedeza bicolor, 45, 59 
lespedezae, Rhopalosiphum, 40, 61 
Letcher, Beverly, 29 
levicostatus, Pecten, 150 
Levin, Mrs. A. L., 344 
Lewis. W. C 344 
Lick, James, 18, 20. 21. 310 
Liebes, I., 344 
Ligustrum ibota, 46 
Lilienthal, Jesse W., 329 
lineolata, Eutsenia elegans, 236 
lingua-leonis, Cardium, 150 
Linsley, Prof. Earle G., 312 
Lispa ulignosa, 168 
Littlejohn, Chase, 323 
litterata, Oliva, 154 
Livermore, Norman B., 327 
Lockefeer, C. J., 344 
Loel, Wayne P., 327 
Loomis, Leverett Mills (with G. \V. 
Dickie and Ransom Pratt), In 
Memoriam: Theodore Henry Hit- 
tell. 1-25 
232 
Lopidea csesar, 296 

media, 296 

occid entails, 296 

reuteri, 296 
Lovenia dumblei, 149 
lucida. Tuponia, 303, 304 
Lucina pectinata, 153 

quadrisulcata, 153 
Lupinus arboreus, 318 
Lygus abroDlS. 289 

plagiatus, 289 

pratensis, 290 

rubicundus, 289 
Maag, Fred, 344 
Macoma species, 150 
Macomber, A. Kingsley, 310, 315, 318 
macrodonta, Cucullaea, 126 
macrophylla maki, Podocarpus. 97 
Macropneustes antillarum, 150 

mexicanum, 149 
Macrosiphum absinthii, 38, 44 

chrysanthemi, 52 

granariura, 42, 44 

liagl. 40, 44 

hagicola, 45 

ibotum. 40, 46 

nipponicum, 48 



Macrosiphum nishig all arse, 39. 50 

rosEB, 42, 51 

rosfeformis, 51 

rudbeckiro, 3S, 39, 41, 62 

solidaginis, 52 

yomogicola, 44 

species. 39, 52. 64 
macrostemma. Eutienia, 263 
macrotuberculata, Myzocallis, 41, ©0 
Maeandrina species, 148 
Magnolia conspicua, 62 

kobus. 87 
magnolifp. Calaphis, 40, 86 
magnoliEe, Rhopalosiphum, 39, 40, 41, 

42. 69 
Mailliard, John W., 314 
Mailliard. Joseph, 314, 321, 323, 329 
majusculus, Catonia. 306 
maki. Podocarpus macrophylla, 97 
Malea ringens, 151 

species, 151 
Manson, Dr. Marsden. 313, 314 
marcianus, Thamnophis, 183, 184, 209, 

261 
marina, Scatophaga, 162 
maritima, Fucellia, 158, 160, 161, 163, 
165. 175. 178 

Halithea. 157 
Markley, Mrs., 344 
Martin. J. O., 344 
Matsumura, Prof. S., 35 
McAllister, Mrs. Leonore M., 344 
McBean. AthoU, 327 
McFarland, Dr. F. M., 313, 329 
media, Lopidea. 296 
medicaginis, Aphis. 38, 39, 41, 43, 71 
megalops, Thamnophis, 183, 184. 363 
Meier. Mrs. Ernest, 344 
Melongena species, 151 
melongena, Solanum. 69 
Menzies. Robert, 344 
Meretrix species, 150 
Merriam, Dr. C. Hart, 344 
Merrill, E. D.. 344 
Merritt, Dr. George W., 345 
Metalia cumminsi, 150 
mexicana, Covillea. 300 
mexicanum, Macropneustes, 149 
mexicanus. Neurocolpus. 281 
militaris. Hadronema, 297 
Miller. Mrs. C. E., 345 
Miller, Irving, 345 
minus. Thalictrum, 80 
Miridius. 289 

monile, Teleonemia. 279, 2S0 
Morrison, Alexander F., 310 
mortoni, Ammussium, 153 
multiflora, Rosa, 51 
multimaculatus. Atomarchus,, 265 



Vol. VIII] 



INDEX 



359 



multinervis, Salix, 85 
multiplicatus, Sigaretus, 154 
mume, PmnuB, 63 
musceeformia, Scatomyza, 165 
Mya species, 150 
Myzocallis capitata, 41, 89 

kuricola, 38, 41, 92 

macrotubeiculata, 41, 90 

species, 40, 41, 94 
Myzus species, 39, 52, 54 
Natica species, 151 
necopina, Catonia, 807 
Nelumbo nucifera, 62 
Nerinea species. 153 
nervata. Catonia, 307 
Neurocolpus mexicanus, 281 

Dubilus, 281 

simplex, 381 
New Species of Hemiptera chiefly from 
California, by Edward P. Van Duzee, 
271-308 
New York Botanical Garden, 345 
Nidiver, Captain H. B., 322 
Nielson, Fred, 345 
nigriclavus, Oneerometopus, 280 
nigrina, Teleonemia, 278, .279, 280 
nigrolateris, EutEenia, 261 
Nippocallis kuricola, 92 
Nippolachnus piri, 108 
Nipponaphis cuspidatse, 38, 110 

distylii, 39, 109 
nlpponlcum, Macrosiphum, 48 
Nipposiphum salicicola, 65 
nisbigaharae, Macrosiphum. 39, 50 
Nomland, J. O., 323. 345 
Noyes, Russell, 345 
nubilus, Neurocolpus, 281 
nucifera, Nelumbo, 62 
Nunenmacber, F. W., 29 
Nummulites, 135 
Nummulites radiata, 148 
Nuttall Sparrow (Group), 318 
nymphaeae, Rbopalosiphum, 40, 41, 42, 

63 
occidentalis, Lopidea, 396 
officinale. Poterium, 72 
Oldroyd, Mrs. Ida S., 323, 326, 345 
Oliva litterata, 154 
olympia, Thamnopbis leptocephalus, 

215 
Oneerometopus callfornicus, 280 

nigriclavus, 280 
Orbicella cellulosa, 148 

species, 148 
Orbitoides eppbippium, 148 

ortbofragmina, 139 

papyraceae, 147 



ordinoides atratus, Thamnopbis, 183, 
184, 185, 209, 210, 211, 212, 
213, 214, 223, 234, 233 
biscutatus, Tbamnophis, 183, 

184, 206, 209, 210. 211, 
212, 21,3, 224, 233, 245 

c.ouchii, Thamnopbis, 183, 184, 

185, 208, 209, 210, 211, 
212, 213, 233, 261 

elegans, Tbamnophis, 183, 184, 
206, 207, 209, 210, 211, 

' 212, 213, 214, 233. 235 

hammondii. Tbamnophis, 183, 
184, 185, 209, 210, 211, 
212, 213, 256 

ordinoides, Tbamnophis, 183, 
184, 185, 207, 209, 210, 
211, 212, 213, 214, 215 

Tbamnophis ordinoides, 183, 

184, 185, 207, 209, 210, 
211, 212, 213, 214, 215 

vagrans, Thamnopbis, 183, 184, 
208, 209, 210. 224, 240 
ortbofragmina. Orbitoides, 139 
Ortbotylus albocostatus, 399 

fraternus, 299 

hamatus, 398 

languidus, 298 

uniformis, 299 
O'Shaughnessy, M. M., 313 
osmantbae, Prociphilus, 40, 105 
Osmanthus aguifolium, 106 
Ostrea, 149, 150, 153 
Ostrea haitiensis, 150 

pulaskensis, 126 

sculpturata, 153 

trigonalis, 150 

virginica, 152, 153 
Otis, Ira C, 345 
oxygonum-optimum, Pecten, 149 
Pack, Herbert J., 345 
Packard, Dr. Earl L., 323, 345 
Page, Mrs. George T., 345 
Palache, T. H., 345 
Pallacocoris candidus, 288 

suavis. 289 
Palmer, Andrew H., 345 
Panopaea floridana, 154 
Panope species. 150 
Paphia species. 150 
papyracete, Orbitoides, 147 
papyratia, Pyrula, 154 
parietalis pickeringii, Thamnopbis, 186 

Tbamnophis sirtalis, 183, 184, 

185, 186, 188, 189, 190, 203 
Partbenicus, 301 

Parthenicus candidus, 300, 302 
coviUeae, 300, 302 
giffardi, 302 



360 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc. 4th See. 



Parthenicus picicoUis, 300, 302 

psalloides, 302 

ruber, 302 

soror. 302 

vaccini. 300. 301 
pasanifB, Eutrichosiphum, 38. 97 

Trichosiphum, 97 
Pecten aztecus. 153 

condylomatus, 150 

gatunensis. 149, 150 

levicostatus, 150 

oxygonxim-optimum, 149 

santarosanus, 153 

species, 150, 151 
pectinata, Lucina, 153 
peregrinus, Atomoscelis, 303 
Perkins, 0r. Anne E., 345 
perlamellosa, Semele, 154 
persicae, Rhopalosiphum, 38, 64 
Petasites gaponicus, 68 
Peters, Peter. 345 
Phormia terrfe-novie, 168 
Phorodon species, 39, 65 
Phyllaphis species, 41, 96 
Phytocoris canescens, 285 

consors, 287 

fraterculus, 283. 285 

geniculatus, 286. 287 

heidemanni, 285 

hirtus, 284, 285 

inops, 283. 283, 285 

plenus, 282, 283, 284, 285 

ventralis, 287 
picicollis. Parthenicus, 300. 302 
pickeringii. Eutsenia. 186, 192 

Thamnophis parietalis, 186 
picta, Hadroneraa, 296 
pictipennis, Fucellia, 159, 160. 161, 

167 
pictum. Acer, 83 

Pilophorus amoenus, 292, 293, 294, 
295 

cinnamopterus, 292. 295 

olavatus. 291. 292, 295 

crassipes, 293, 295 

discretus, 290, 294, 295 

laetuB, 294, 295 

schwarzi. 295 

tibialis, 292, 293, 295 

tomentosus, 291, 295 

walshi, 290, 295 
pinidensiflorae, Lachnus, 41, 99 
Pinna serrata. 153 
Pinus densiflora, 100 
pipiens. Rana. 244, 264 
piri, Ancpcia. 40, 108 

Nippolachnus, 108 
piricola. Toxoptera, 41, 80 
plagiatus, Lygus, 289 



Plagiognathus decolor, 305 
pictipes, 305 

planiceps, Conus, 151 

planicosta, Venericardia, 126 

Platycodon grandiflorum, 52 

plenus, Phytocoris, 282, 283, 284, 285 

Ploud, Wm., 345 

Podocarpus macrophylla maki, 97 

polygonallis, Favites, 148 

polymorpha, Angelica, 66 

pomi. Aphis, 38, 73 

Poncirus trifoHata, 62 

populiconduplifolius. Prociphilus, 42, 
106 

Poterium officinale, 72 

pratensis, Lygus, 290 

Pratt, Ransom (with G. W. Dickie and 
Leverett Mills Loomis), In Mem- 
oriam: Theodore Henry Hittell, 1- 
26 

Price. William W., 323 

Prociphilus cratsegi, 39. 104, 106 
osmantbae, 40. 105 
populiconduplifolius. 42, 106 
pyri, 41, 106 

Prunus mume. 62 

psalloides, Parthenicus, 302 

Psallus, 287 

Psallus croceus, 802 
eeriatus, 302 

Pterochlorus japonicus, 101 
tropicalis, 38, 41, 101 

pugilis, Strombus, 154 

pulaskensis, Ostrea. 126 

pyri, Prociphilus, 41. 106 

Pyrula papyratia, 154 

quadrisulcata, Lucina, 153 

Quercus dentata, 92. 103 

serrata, 90, 93. 97. 103 

radiata, Nummulites, 148 

Rana pipiens, 244, 264 

Rannunculus ternatus, 106 

Reed, Arthur L., 317, 318 

Reed, C. E., 345 

Reed, William G., 328 

Reeve, Enid, 345 

reflexulus, Harmostes. 277. 278 

rejecta. Fucellia, 160, 161, 171 

remotus, Carpocoris, 275, 276 

Report of the Director of the Museum 
for the Year 1918. by Barton War- 
ren Evermann, 317-351 

Report of the Librarian for 1918, by 
Edward P. Van Duzee, Asst. Libra- 
rian, 339 

Report of the President of the Acad- 
emy for the Year 1918, by C. E. 
Grunsky, 309-316 



Vol. VIII] 



INDEX 



361 



Report of the Treasurer, by Rudolph 

J. Taussig. 348 
reuteri, Lopidea, 296 
Reynolds, Lawrence R., 323, 328 
Reynolds, Mrs. L. R., 345 
Rhodes, Captain H. W., 322 
Rhopalosiphum indicum, 39, 42, 55 

lactucffi, 40, 42, 57 

lespedezae, 40, 57 

magnoliae, SO, 40. 41. 42, 59 

nymphje£e. 40, 41, 42. 63 

persicse, 38, 64 

species, 38, 64 
Rhus javanica, 76 
Richards, Esther. 323 
ringens, Malea, 151 
Ritter, Wm. E.. 329 
Rivers, Professor J. J.. 33 
Rixford, G. P., 311. 313. 345 
Robinson's Bird Store. 345 
robusta, Hadronema, 297 
Rosa raultiflora, 51 
rosae, Macrosiphum, 42, 51 
rosfeformis. Macrosiphum, 51 
Rothschild. Hon. Walter. 345 
ruber. Parthenicus, 302 
rubicundus, Lygus. 289 
rubistriata, Thamnophis, 215 
rudbeckiffi, Macrosiphum, 38. 39, 41, 

62 
Rudistes species, 153 
rufitibia. Fucellia, 160, 161. 168 
rufopunctatum. Chiloporaa, 265 
Rumex crispus, 73 
rumicis. Aphis, 42, 73 
Ryder, Worth, 311 
sagittfefolia, Sagittaria, 62 
Sagittaria sagittajfolia, 62 
salicicola, Nipposiphum, 65 
salicioolus, Chaitophoms, 85 
salijaponicus, Chaitophorus, 42, 84 
Salix multinervis, 85 
salsola, Hymenoclea, 278. 301 
Sandford, O. N., 345 
sanguinea, Iris, 55 
santarosanus. Pec ten, 153 
Sargeant, W. W., 321 
sativa, Castanea, 93 
sativus, Cucumis, 69 
scabra, Deutzia, 71 
Scatomyza fucorum, 165 

hyperborea, 165 

muscseformis, 165 
Scatophaga, 159 
Scatophaga arenaria, 162 

marina, 162 
Schaeffer, Chas,, 30 
Schaupp, Professor, 28 
scherzeri, Schizaster, 149 



Schizaster scherzeri, 149 
schottii, Dalea. 303 
schwarzi, Pilophorus, 295 

Teleonemia, 280 
Scofield. N. B., 322. 329 
Scudder, Samuel, 31 
sculplurata, Ostrea, 153 
Scupham. John R., 345 
Scutella cazonesensis, 150 
See, Dr. T. J. J., 313. 328 
Semele perlamellosa, 154 
semivittata, Trichopepla. 271, 272, 

273, 275 
separata, Fuoellia, 159, 160, 161, 164, 

170 
seriatus, Psallus, 302 
serrata. Pinna, 153 

Quercus, 90. 93. 97. 103 
serratura, Laevicardium, 153 
Setchell, Wm. A., 329 
Sharp-Shinned Hawk (Group), 318 
sieboldi, Tsuga, 101 
Sigaretus multiplicatus, 154 
signata, Fucellia, 159 
Silliraan. O. P.. 323 
Silviera, Captain J. F., 346 
simplex, Anomia. 153 
simplex, Neurocolpus, 281 
sinensis, Celtis, 96 
sinicus, Astragalus, 72 
Sinum species, 151 
Siphocoryne bicaudata, 42, 64, 67 

japonica, 38, 66 
siphonella, Aphis, 41, 73 
sirtalis concinnus, Thamnophis, 133, 
184, 186, 188. 189, 191, 193, 
203 

infernalis. Thamnophis, 183. 
184, 188, 189, 191., 198, 251 

parietalis, Thamnophis. 183, 
184. 185, 186, 188, 189, 190, 
203 

sirtalis, Thamnophis, 185 

tetratwnia, Eutainia, 186, 192, 
199 

Thamnophis sirtalis, 185 

trilineata, Eut^nia, 186. 192 
Slevin, Joseph R., (with John Van 
Denburgh), The Garter-Snakes of 
Western North America, 181-370 
328, 346 
Slevin, L. S., 346 
Slonaker, Dr. J. Rollin, 312, 329 
Smilax walteri, 70 
Smith. Dr. J. Perrin, 131 
Smith, L. E.. 346 

Snyder. Prof. John O.. 311. 329. 346 
Solanum melongena. 69 



362 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 



[Proc; 4th Seh. 



Solecurtus cummingianus, 154 

gibbus, 154 
Bolidaginis, Macrosiphum, 52 
Some Japanese Aphididae, by E. O. 

Essig and S. I. Kuwana, 35-11% 
Eomei, Aphis, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 16 
soror, Parthenicus. 302 
Southern Pacific Company, 346 
sparsa, Europiella, 305 
spinosula. Aphis, 39, 17 
Eplendida, Hadronema, 298 
Stanford University, 346 
Staphylea bumalda, 57 
Starks, Prof. E. C, 311 
Steinhart, Ignatz, 130 
Stewart, Colleena, 346 
Sthenarus cuneotinctus, 303 
stigroosa, Europiella. 305 
Stillman, Stanley, 328 
Storer, Tracy I., 328 
Strombus pugilis, 154 

species, 151 
suavis, Pallacocoris, 289 
sublineatum, Laevicardium, 153 
sulcata, Brochymena, 276 
sulcatus, Carpocoris, 275 
SuUivant Moss Society, 346 
Sumner, Dr. F. B., 313 
Sutliffe, Mrs. E. C, 346 
Sutter, John A., 2 
Swan. Dr. Benjamin R,, 310 
Swarth. Harry S., 313, 323 
Sylvilagus auduboni, 318 
syracus. Hibiscus. 72 
taeniata, Area, 153 
tatetlffinsis, Encope, 153 
Taussig, Rudolph J., Report of the 

Treasurer, 348 
Teleonemia, 280 
Teleonemia monile, 279, 280 

nigrina. 278, 279, 280 

schwarzi. 280 

vidua, 278, 280 
Tellina species, 150 
ternatus, Rannunculus, 106 
terrae-nova?, Phormia. 168 
tetratienia, Eutsnia sirtalis, 186, 192, 

199 
Tevis, Lansing K., 328 
thalictrii. Aphis, 42, 78 
Thalictrum minus, 80 
Thamnophis angustirostris, 183, 184, 
1S5, 264 

elegans, 182, 206, 207 

eques, 183, 184, 2M 

hammondii, 206. 207 

leptocephala, 182, 206 

leptocephalus olympia, 215 

marcianus, 183, 184, 209, 261 



Thamnophis megalops, 183, 184, 268 

ordinoides atratus, 183, 184, 

185, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 

214, 223, 224, 233 
ordinoides biscutatus, 183, 184, 

206, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 

224, 233, 245 
ordinoides couchii, 183, 184, 

185, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 

213, 2.33, 251 
ordinoides elegans, 183, 184, 

206, 207, 209, 210, 211, 212, 

213. 214. 233. 2S5 
ordinoides hammondii, 183, 184, 

185, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 

266 
ordinoides ordinoides, 183, 184, 

185, 207, 209, 210, 211, 212, 
213, 214, 215 

ordinoides vagrans, 183, 184, 

208, 209, 210, 224, 240 
parietalis pickeringii, 186 
rubristriata, 215 
sirtalis concinnus, 183, 184, 

186, 188, 189, 191, 192, 203 
sirtalis infernalis, 183, 184, 

188, 189, 191, 198, 251 

sirtalis parietalis, 183. 184, 185, 
186, 188, 189, 190, 203 

sirtalis sirtalis, 185 

vagrans, 206 
Thayer, Capt. Ignatius E.. 310 
Thompson, David G., 346 
Thompson. Hugh. 346 
Thompson. Joseph C. 328 
Thompson, Mrs. Lillian Dyer, 346 
Thorn. S. Field, 314 
Thrasher, Dr. Marion. 346 
tibialis, Pilophorus. 292, 293, 295 
Tobin. Joseph S.. 310 
tomentosum. Viburnum, 76 
tomentosus, Pilophorus, 291, 295 
torreyanum, Cercidium, 281 
Toxoptera aurantii, 39, 80 

piricola. 41. 80 
Trask. Parker. 323 
Trichopepla. 274 
Trichopepla atricornis. 272. 275 

aurora, 273, 275 

caiifornica, 272, 275 

grossa, 274, 275 

semivittata. 271. 272. 273, 275 

vandykei, 271, 272. 275 
Trichosiphum kuwanai, 41. 97 

pasanite. 97 
trichotomum. Clerodendron. 68 
trifoliata. Poncirus. 62 
trigonalis, Ostrea, 150 
Trigonotylus. 288 



Vol. VIII] 



INDEX 



363 



trilineata, Eut»nia sirtalis, 186, 192 
Irivittatus, Tropidonotus, 236 
tropicalis, Pterochlorus. -18, 41, 101 
Tropidonotus digueti, 256 

trivittatus, 236 
Tsuga sieboldi, 101 
Tucker, J. F.. 346 
Tuponia dubiosa, 304 

lucida. 303, 304 
Turner. Mrs. G. M.. 346 
Turrill, Charles B., 312. 313, 346 
Turritella, 135. 151 
Turritella aguilerae, 154 

altilira, 149 
Uhler, Philip, 31 
ulignosa, Lispa, 163 
Ulke, Henry, 31 
uniformis, Orthotylus, 299 
United States Custom House, 346 
United States National Herbarium, 346 
Urosalpinx species, 151 
vaccini, Parthenicus, 300, 301 
vagrans, Thamnophis, 206 

Thamnophis ordinoidea, 183, 
184. 208, 209, 210, 224, 340 
Van Denburgh, John, The Garter- 
Snakes of Western North America 
(Joseph R. Slevin, collaborator), 
181-270 
323, 346 
Van Duzee, Edward P., New Species 
of Hemiptera, chiefly from 
California, 371-308 
Report of the Librarian for 
1918. 339 
323. 347 
Van Duzee, Mrs. Helen, 347 
Van Dyke, Dr. Edwin C, 29, 312, 323. 

333 
vandykei, Trichopepla, 271, 272. 275 
Van Winkle, Katheryn, 323 
Varrelman, Ferdinand A., 347 
Venericardia alticostata, 126 
planicosta, 126 



ventralis, Phytocoris, 287 

Venus ebergenyii, 153 

Verrill, Prof, A. E., 347 

vetustum, Bascanion, 235 

Viburnum tomentosum, 76 

Vicia faba equina, 71 

Vickery. F., 328 

vidua, Eutfenia infernalis. 224, 234 

Vidua, Teleonemia. 278, 2S0 

virginica, Ostrea, 152. 153 

von Geldern. Charles E., 328 

von Geldern. Otto (with Frank E. 
Blaisdell, Sr. and R. Benzinger), In 
Memoriam: Carl Fuchs, 27-24 

von Hoffman, Mrs. C., 347 

von Hyden, Doctor, 28 

vulgare. Hordeum, 67 

vulgaris indica, Artemisia, 44 

Waizraan, Olga, 347 

Walker. William. 19 

walshi, Pilophorus, 290, 295 

walteri, Smilax, 70 

Waring, Clarence A., 310 

Washingtonia filifera, 307 

Weaver, Prof. Charles W., 323 

Weeks. Andrew Gray, 347 

Westerfeld, Carl. 321 

Wetherill, Martha, 347 

Weymouth. Dr. F. W., 312 

Wheeler. Roswell, 323 

White Pelican (Group), 317 

Wickham, Prof. H. F.. 347 

Wiehe. Else Christine, 8 

Wildman, Prof. M. S., 313 

Willett. G., 347 

Woodrum, J. H., 347 

Woodruff. Professor, 323 

Wooster, John, 347 

Xenophora conchy liophora, 154 
species, 151 

yomogicola, Macrosiphura, 44 

Zelkova acuminata, 72 



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